Dascylium

Dascylium, Dascyleium, or Daskyleion (Ancient Greek: Δασκύλιον, Δασκυλεῖον), also known as Dascylus,[1] was a town in Anatolia some 30 kilometres (19 mi) inland from the coast of the Propontis, at modern Ergili, Turkey. Its site was rediscovered in 1952 and has since been excavated.[2]

Hellespontine Phrygia
The location of Hellespontine Phrygia, and the provincial capital of Dascylium, in the Achaemenid Empire, c. 500 BC.

History

Excavations have shown that the site was inhabited in the Bronze Age. Phrygians settled there before 750 BC. It came under the control of Lydia. It was then said to be named after Dascylus, the father of Gyges.[2]

After the Conquests of Cyrus the Great in 547 BC, Dascylium was chosen as the seat of the Persian satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia,[3] comprising lands of the Troad, Mysia and Bithynia.[4]

Pharnabazus was satrap of Darius III there, until Alexander the Great appointed Calas, who was replaced by Arrhidaeus in the Treaty of Triparadisus. According to Strabo, Hellespontine Phrygia and Phrygia Epictetus comprised Lesser Phrygia (Mysia). Others geographers arranged it differently.[5]

When Alexander of Macedon invaded Asia in 334 BC, the first of the major battles by which he overthrew the Achaemenid Empire was fought at the Granicus river on his way to Dascylium from Abydos on the coast.

Bishopric

Dascylium appears as a Christian bishopric in the mid-7th-century Notitia Episcopatuum of Pseudo-Epiphanius. It was a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Nicomedia, capital of the Roman province of Bithynia.

The first bishop of Dascylium whose name appears in an extant document is Ioannes, who took part in the Third Council of Constantinople in 680 and in the Trullan Council of 692. The priest Basilius acted as representative of an unnamed bishop of the see at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. Georgius was at the Council of Constantinople (869) and Germanus at the Photian Council of Constantinople (879).[6][7]

References

  1. ^ Pomponius Mela. De situ orbis. 1.19.
  2. ^ a b Dascylium (Ergili)
  3. ^ Donald Fyfe Easton, "Anatolia in the Achaemenian and Hellenistic periods" in Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. ^ Sparta and Persia: Lectures Delivered at the University of Cincinnati (Cincinnati Classical Studies) (Hardcover) by D. M. Lewis Page 51 ISBN 90-04-05427-8 (1977)
  5. ^ Philip Yorke, 2nd Earl of Hardwicke et al., Athenian Letters, or the epistolary correspondence of an agent of the king of Persia, residing at Athens during the Peloponnesian war, Geographical Index Asia Minor
  6. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 629-630
  7. ^ Raymond Janin, v. Dascylion, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XIV, Paris 1960, coll. 91-92

External links

Coordinates: 40°07′44″N 28°04′18″E / 40.12889°N 28.07167°E

Ariassus

Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Ariobarzanes of Phrygia

For the satrap of Persis and opponent of Alexander the Great, see Ariobarzanes (satrap of Persis).

Ariobarzanes (in Greek Ἀριoβαρζάνης), (Old Persian: Ariyabrdhna, Ariyaubrdhna) Ariobarzan or spelled as Ario Barzan or Aryo Barzan, perhaps signifying "exalting the Aryans" (death: crucified in c. 362 BCE), sometimes known as Ariobarzanes I of Cius, was a Persian Satrap of Phrygia and military commander, leader of an independence revolt, and the first known of the line of rulers of the Greek town of Cius from which were eventually to stem the kings of Pontus in the 3rd century BCE.

Ariobarzanes was apparently a cadet member of the Achaemenid dynasty, possibly son of Pharnabazus II, and part of the Pharnacid dynasty which had settled to hold Dascylium of Hellespont in the 470s BCE. Cius is located near Dascylium, and Cius seemingly was a share of family holdings for the branch of Ariobarzanes.

Ariobarzanes' one predecessor was a (kinsman) named Mithradates (possibly Mithradates, Satrap of Cappadocia). The archaeologist Walther Judeich claims that Ariobarzanes was that Mithradates' son, but Brian C. McGing refutes that specific filiation. Seemingly, no classical source itself calls them son and father, the filiation being a later reconstruction on basis of successorship.

Artynia

Artynia or Aphnitis was the name of a swamp or lake of Asia Minor mentioned by ancient geographers.

Its exact identity is uncertain. The identification of Artynia with Aphnitis is due to Stephanus of Byzantium. Pliny places Artynia near Miletupolis, having the Rhyndacus river flow through it, so that Pliny's Artynia can be said to correspond to Aboulliond. Strabo mentions three lakes of Cyzicene, naming them after nearby cities: Lake Dascylitis near Dascylium, Miletopolitis near Miletupolis, and Apolloniatis near Apollonia. Lake Dascylitis is also given the name of Aphnitis.

Battle of the Granicus

The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. Fought in northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, it was here that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes.

The battle took place on the road from Abydos to Dascylium (near modern-day Ergili, Turkey), at the crossing of the Granicus River (modern-day Biga Çayı).

Caloe

Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.

Cotenna

Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

Dascylium (Aeolis)

Dascylium or Daskylion (Ancient Greek: Δασκύλιον) or Daskyleion (Δασκυλεῖον) was a town in the border region of ancient Aeolis and ancient Phrygia, mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium.Its site is unlocated.

Dascylium (Bithynia)

Dascylium or Daskylion (Ancient Greek: Δασκύλιον) or Daskyleion (Δασκυλεῖον) was a town of ancient Bithynia, mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium.Its site is located near Eşkel, Asiatic Turkey.

Dascylium (Caria)

Dascylium or Daskylion (Ancient Greek: Δασκύλιον) or Daskyleion (Δασκυλεῖον) was a town in ancient Caria, mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium. It was located near the frontiers of Ephesus. It is said to have been named after the mythical Dascylus, son of Periaudes, thus corresponding to Δασκύλου κώμη ('village of Dascylus') cited by Pausanias.Its site is unlocated.

Dascylium (Ionia)

Dascylium or Daskylion (Ancient Greek: Δασκύλιον) or Daskyleion (Δασκυλεῖον) was a town of ancient Ionia, mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium. Stephanus calls it τὸ μέγα (the large) to distinguish it from the other towns of this name he cites.Its site is unlocated.

Dascylium (disambiguation)

Dascylium was a city in ancient Mysia or Bithynia, capital of Hellespontine Phrygia.

Dascylium or Daskylion (Ancient Greek: Δασκύλιον) or Daskyleion (Δασκυλεῖον) may also refer to:

Dascylium (Aeolis), a town of ancient Aeolis

Dascylium (Bithynia), a town of ancient Bithynia on the Sea of Marmara, Anatolia

Dascylium (Caria), a town of ancient Caria near Ephesus, Anatolia

Dascylium (southern Caria), a town of ancient Caria further south than the prior, Anatolia

Dascylium (Ionia), a town of ancient Ionia, Anatolia

Dascylium (southern Caria)

Dascylium or Daskylion (Ancient Greek: Δασκύλιον) or Daskyleion (Δασκυλεῖον) was a town in ancient Caria, mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium. Stephanus relates that it was founded after the Trojan War.Its site is unlocated.

Dascylus

In Greek mythology, Dascylus or Daskylos (Ancient Greek: Δάσκυλος) is a name that may refer to:

Dascylus, a king who ruled over Mysia or Mariandyne. He is presumably the eponym of the coastal city of Dascylaeum or Dascylium (but see below). The wife of Dascylus was Anthemoeisia, daughter of the river god Lycus, and he was the father of sons named Lycus, Priolas, and Otreus. Dascylus' own father was the infamous Tantalus. Priolas and Otreus were both killed by Amycus, king of Bebrycia (Bithynia); Otreus was killed while travelling to Troy to sue for the hand of King Laomedon's daughter Hesione in marriage. Both sons have names connected with local settlements: Priola, near Heraclea, and Otrea, on the Ascanian Lake.

Dascylus, a son of Lycus, and grandson of the above Dascylus. He acted as a guide to the Argonauts.

Dascylus of Lydia (fl. late 8th to early 7th century BC), named by Herodotus as the father of Gyges.

Dascylus, father of Nacolus. His son was the eponym of the city of Nacoleia in Phrygia.

Dascylus, son of Periaudes, eponym of Dascylium, a town in Caria.

Hellespontine Phrygia

Hellespontine Phrygia (Ancient Greek: Ἑλλησποντιακὴ Φρυγία, romanized: Hellēspontiakē Phrygia) or Lesser Phrygia (Ancient Greek: μικρᾶ Φρυγία, romanized: mikra Phrygia) was a Persian satrapy (province) in northwestern Anatolia, directly southeast of the Hellespont. Its capital was Dascylium, and for most of its existence it was ruled by the hereditary Persian Pharnacid dynasty. Together with Greater Phrygia, it made up the administrative provinces of the wider Phrygia region.

Lyrbe

Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Megabates

Megabates (Greek: Μεγαβάτης; dates unknown) was a Persian military leader in the late 6th and early 5th centuries BC. According to Herodotus he was a cousin of Darius the Great and his brother Artaphernes, satrap of Lydia.

Based on the writings of Herodotus, Megabates is most notable for his joint participation in the failed 499 BC siege of Naxos. With Aristagoras and 200 ships, he was sent by Darius the Great to annex the small Aegean island to the Persian Empire.Herodotus is of the view that this venture failed after a siege of four months because of the mutual dislike between Aristagoras and Megabates. As a result, Herodotus states that it was Megabates who forewarned the Naxians of the ensuing Persian siege, as he and Aristagoras argued after Megabates punished a captain for not setting up a watch. As a result, the people of Naxos gathered supplies and fortified their city to withstand a four-month-long siege. It is believed that Megabates sought to shame Aristagoras at the Persian court because of their dispute during the voyage to Naxos.Megabates followed in his older brother's footsteps and was appointed satrap of Phrygia, with his residence at Dascylium.

One of his sons was Megabazus.

Megabazus

Megabazus (Ancient Greek: Μεγαβάζος), son of Megabates, was a highly regarded Persian general under Darius, of whom he was a first-degree cousin. Most information about him comes from The Histories by Herodotus.

Nilüfer River

The Nilufer or Niloufer River (Turkish: Nilüfer Çayı) is a river in Turkey. From its source near the Uludağ (the classical Mysian Olympus) and flowing past Bursa, the river tends to the northwest along its course of 203 kilometres (126 mi).

The Nilufer was the classical Odrysses (Latin: Horisius). Its plain was known as Mygdonia and formed the Persian satrapy of Dascylium. It formerly flowed into the Rhyndacus but now joins the Simav (ancient Macestos) north of Karacabey.

In Turkish, nilüfer means "water lily." The river may have been renamed for the flowers or for Nilüfer Hatun, a wife of the Ottoman sultan Orhan I. The district of Nilüfer in Bursa Province is named after the river.

Today, the Doğancı-1 Dam crosses it.

Pharnacid dynasty

The Pharnacid dynasty was a Persian dynasty that ruled the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia under the Achaemenid Dynasty from the 5th until the 4th century BCE. It was founded by Artabazus, son of satrap Pharnaces I (younger brother of Hystaspes, who was born shortly before 565 BCE), son of Arsames (died ca. 520 BCE). They were directly related to the Achaemenid dynasty itself. The last member of the dynasty was Pharnabazus III.

Before the Pharnacids, Mitrobates (ca. 525–522 BCE) had ruled Hellespontine Phrygia for Cyrus the Great and Cambises, before being killed and his territory absorbed by the satrap of Lydia Oroetes. Following the reorganization of Darius I, Mitrobates was succeeded by Oebares II (c.493), son of Megabazus, before Artabazus became satrap circa 479 BCE and started the Pharnacid dynasty, which would rule Hellespontine Phrygia until the conquests of Alexander the Great (338 BCE).The residence of the Pharnacid Dynasty was at Dascylium (near modern-day Ergili, Turkey).

After the conquests of Alexander the Great, several women of the Pharnacid family, all daughters of Artabazos II, married Alexandrine nobility: Artonis married Eumenes, Artakama married Ptolemy I, while Barsine may have married Alexander the Great and given him a son, Heracles of Macedon.

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