Das Schwarze Korps

Das Schwarze Korps (German for The Black Corps) was the official newspaper of the Schutzstaffel (SS). This newspaper was published on Wednesdays and distributed free of charge. Each SS member was encouraged to read it. The chief editor was SS leader Gunter d'Alquen;[1] the publisher was Max Amann of the Franz-Eher-Verlag publishing company. The paper was hostile to many groups, with frequent articles condemning the Catholic Church, Jews, Communism, Freemasonry, and others.[2]

The newspaper was published in close co-operation with the Sicherheitsdienst (SD; Security Service), which had substantial editorial control. The first edition appeared on 6 March 1935.[3] In November of the same year, publication reached 200,000 and by 1944 had increased to 750,000.[3] The newspaper saw some distribution outside Germany.[a]

Das Schwarze Korps
DasSchwarzeKorps1937
1937 edition
TypeWeekly Newspaper
Founded6 March 1935
Political alignmentNazism
LanguageGerman
Ceased publication1945
Circulation750,000 (as of 1944)
OCLC number10953830

History and its articles

Formed in 1935, Das Schwarze Korps, was the official newspaper of the Schutzstaffel (SS).[1] The newspaper was created to be a defender of Nazism, to disseminate and promote the ideological messages of their organization and its leader, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler.[5] The paper was used to reinforce Himmler's beliefs, to identify and attack elements within German society that he found unacceptable, to boost morale among members of the SS, to combat anything considered to be pernicious enemies within the Nazi state, and to encourage the racial doctrine that "pure-blooded Nordics must be bred"—which included promoting the idea that it was partially the responsibility of members of the "elite" SS corps to correspondingly produce "beautiful" illegitimate children.[6] Illegitimate births aside, marriage was depicted as an obligation to the state, part of the mechanism to establish a racially productive community in which individual happiness was of no importance.[7]

On other occasions the paper served to inform its readers on the pseudo-scientific research Himmler commissioned to support his beliefs in the mystical powers of the ancient Germanic predecessors. In one edition, Das Schwarze Korps reported on the archaeological whereabouts (previously unknown) of Henry I's remains, claiming that, "scientific evidence has established that the remains discovered during excavations in the crypt of Quedlinburg cathedral are in fact those of Henry I."[8]

Besides the esoteric pursuits of Himmler, the SS newspaper strongly criticized party leaders whose worldview differed from SS doctrine.[9] Carefully crafted articles gave SS men and the other readers an elitist image of the organization. This by means of information about the SS, its activities and successes, which were constantly scattered throughout the paper.[10] Das Schwarze Korps routinely contained foreign news reports, analyses of threats, and theoretical essays on Nazi policies.[11] Praise for motherly women and families was contrasted with discrediting the women's movement of "Amazons" and women that the Nazis considered too manly.[12] It had a strong pro-natalist slant, though at one point, it declared some tactics were excessive: an employee being publicly admonished by a superior to have children, to divorce or adopt.[13] Anti-clerical articles appeared in the paper, many of which attacked senior members of the clergy, each article part of an effort to "demolish the moral authority of the Catholic Church."[14] Christian concepts like original sin were described as "intolerable" ideas that were "incompatible" with Nordic man and the otherwise "heroic ideology" about Germanic blood.[15]

The paper also covered foreign press attacks with instructions on how to refute them.[16] In accordance with doctrines of Blood and Soil, it spoke of the need to break up the aristocratic estates, although this was not implemented.[17] Historian Amy Carney described Das Schwarze Korps as "a conduit through which the SS was able to reveal its ambitions to the German people."[18][b] Das Schwarze Korps provided members of the SS with articles reminding them of their need to "be mindful of their family's biological heritage when marrying" and for general readers, the paper demonstrated "how dedicated its men were to their Führer and to the Reich and what an example they were setting for the entire Volk by adhering to the principles of eugenics."[18]

Prior to the passing of the 1935 Nuremberg Laws, it called for a law to ban Rassenschande or intercourse between Jews and Germans, as preferable to the extra-legal violence that the SA Stormtroopers indulged in;[19] after that edition, articles on the "Jewish Question" did not increase in number, but did grow more harsh in tone.[20]. Judicial leniency was either criticized or ridiculed and a 1937 issue explained the obligation of lawyers to protect the "national community."[21]

In the late 1930s, the magazine featured an article written by physicist and Nobel Prize winner Johannes Stark, who argued that the racial, physical triumph of the Aryan over 'the Jew' would only be a "partial victory" unless Jewish ideas and sentiments were not also fully destroyed. Stark added that, "we also have to eradicate the Jewish spirit, whose blood can flow just as undisturbed today as before if its carriers hold beautiful Aryan passes."[22] In October 1938, an editorial argued that German Jews as "are also responsible for whatever world Jewry undertakes against Germany" and that they were also "liable for the damages which world Jewry inflicts and will inflict upon us."[23][24]

A subsequent edition of Das Schwarze Korps communicated the harsh and foreboding message that if any single Jew harmed a German, they would all be held responsible, while another explicitly stated: "The day a murder weapon that is Jewish or bought by Jews rises against one of the leading men of Germany, there will be no more Jews in Germany!"[25] Immediately in the wake of the carnage of Kristallnacht, Nazi threats were becoming reality and the SS-sponsored paper cited among the reasons for their violence: anti-Semitism was prevalent in all racially healthy peoples for thousands of years, the Nazis were the only ones willing and "tough enough" to take effective and practical actions, and the international community was full of hypocrites who failed to help the Jews out—namely when they refused to offer them "safe refuge."[26] Additional propagandistic usage of the SS journal included the promotion of the cult of personality surrounding Adolf Hitler, as his portraits abounded within the text. A telling example of the adulation dedicated to the Nazi leader shows in the following extract from Das Schwarze Korps:

The Führer is the highest gift to the nation. He is the German fulfilment. An artist who wants to render the Führer must be more than an artist. The entire German people and German eternity will stand silently in front of this work, filled with emotions to gain strength from it today and for all time. Holy is the art and the call to serve the people. Only the best may dare to render the Führer.[27]

Such deification of Hitler accompanied by anti-Semitic propaganda made the editorial staff of the SS newspaper a responsible entity in the institutional framework of the Holocaust. The newspaper itself is an indictment against the National Socialists collectively since it revealed even before the war that the SS was prepared to take radical action against the Jews.[26] Besides praising Hitler, the paper made specious claims against any perceived enemy; for example, Jews were portrayed as having an inclination towards Bolshevism (a widely-known enemy of the Nazi state) in Das Schwarze Korps, indicated in the following excerpt from the 24 November 1938 edition:

Least of all we do not want to see hundreds of thousands of impoverished Jews as a breeding-ground for Bolshevism and a recruiting base for the political and sub-humanity that, as a result of the selection process, is disintegrating on the margins of our own nationhood...In the event of such a development, we would face the harsh necessity of wiping out the Jewish underworld just as we are used to wiping out criminals in our orderly state: with fire and sword. The result would be the actual and definitive end of Jewry in Germany, its total extermination.[28][c]

Hate-speech from the editors of the SS newspaper portended the Jews' later fate. Despite the sweeping statements made in the official SS-journal, SD chief Reinhard Heydrich—among the leading perpetrators of the Holocaust—rarely appears within its pages, as he thought it was "ill-organized and poorly written."[30] This did not stop Heydrich from using the paper to reinforce his message that any and all dissenters to the Anschluss with Austria were to be arrested, whether or not they wore a Nazi uniform.[31]

Malleable to the political needs of the Nazi state, Das Schwarze Korps along with the Völkischer Beobachter were both used as propaganda mechanisms to promote the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between the Soviet Union and Germany in August 1939.[32] Commenting accordingly, the SS-newspaper optimistically asserted that the former tsarist empire "had originally been a Germanic state" that saved Prussia twice in the past, and the two countries "had always flourished when they were friends."[33][d]

During the war, whenever the Waffen-SS would join the army in maneuvers, particularly at Hitler's behest, the instances were proudly reported in Das Schwarze Korps.[35] Deliberate propaganda efforts to bolster morale formed a notable portion of the content of the newspaper, especially in encouraging members of the SS and the public at large to remain prepared to report anyone who might oppose the war effort. For example, a 1943 article told the story of a soldier on leave from Stalingrad who overheard an old woman thought to be mentally impaired complaining about the war; the paper encouraged extreme action against people like this, calling them "cowardly traitors" and claiming in no uncertain terms that such persons deserve the same "harshness that we show toward the enemy, regardless of how stupid and innocuous we find them. This a war for our very survival. He who does not want our victory wants our defeat. He who wants our defeat wants our death."[36]

References

Informational notes

  1. ^ During the 1930s, it was available in the United States in at least one bookshop associated with the German American Bund.[4]
  2. ^ Two months after the paper started publication, head of the SS Main Office, SS-Gruppenführer August Heißmeyer, asserted, "in no other press product is the spirit of the SS presented in so clear a manner as in Das Schwarze Korps." From: SS-Zeitung Das schwarze Korps, 27 May 1935, BA NS31/354, 47.
  3. ^ The particular Schwarze Korps article from which this statement is derived, was entitled "Jew, what now?"[29]
  4. ^ While the pact secretly identified spheres of interest between both powers—additionally confirmed by the supplementary protocol of the German–Soviet Frontier Treaty amended after the joint invasion of Poland—its real purpose was the prevention of a two-front war; the pact ended when Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa on 22 June 1941.[34]

Citations

  1. ^ a b Manvell & Fraenkel 1987, p. 50.
  2. ^ Zeck 2002, pp. 161–180, 201–207.
  3. ^ a b Zentner & Bedürftig 1991, p. 852.
  4. ^ Jenkins 1997, p. 143.
  5. ^ Snyder 1976, p. 315.
  6. ^ Snyder 1976, p. 316.
  7. ^ Zeck 2002, p. 333.
  8. ^ Longerich 2012, pp. 272–273.
  9. ^ Zeck 2002, p. 266.
  10. ^ Zeck 2002, p. 283.
  11. ^ Koonz 2003, p. 240.
  12. ^ Koonz 2003, p. 242.
  13. ^ Grunberger 1971, pp. 236–237.
  14. ^ Burleigh 2000, p. 189.
  15. ^ Burleigh 2000, p. 259.
  16. ^ Koonz 2003, pp. 241–242.
  17. ^ Grunberger 1971, p. 151.
  18. ^ a b Carney 2014, p. 327.
  19. ^ Koonz 2003, p. 181.
  20. ^ Koonz 2003, p. 243.
  21. ^ Burleigh 2000, p. 169.
  22. ^ Stone 2016, p. 452.
  23. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 467–468.
  24. ^ Overy 2004, p. 585.
  25. ^ Rees 2017, p. 142.
  26. ^ a b Rees 2017, p. 143.
  27. ^ Adams 1992, p. 171.
  28. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 123.
  29. ^ Wistrich 2001, pp. 65–66.
  30. ^ Graber 1978, p. 71.
  31. ^ Gerwarth 2012, p. 123.
  32. ^ Moorhouse 2014, p. 125.
  33. ^ Moorhouse 2014, pp. 125–126.
  34. ^ Fischer 1995, pp. 437, 468–473.
  35. ^ Graber 1978, p. 90.
  36. ^ Bytwerk 2004, p. 150.

Bibliography

  • Adams, Peter (1992). Art of the Third Reich. London: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 978-0810919129.
  • Burleigh, Michael (2000). The Third Reich: A New History. New York: Hill and Wang. ISBN 978-0-80909-325-0.
  • Bytwerk, Randall L. (2004). Bending Spines: The Propagandas of Nazi Germany and the German Democratic Republic. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press. ISBN 978-0870137105.
  • Carney, Amy (2014). "Das Schwarze Korps and the Validation of the SS Sippengemeinschaft". In Wolfgang Bialas; Lothar Fritze, eds (eds.). Nazi Ideology and Ethics. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars. ISBN 978-1-44385-422-1.CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link)
  • Fischer, Klaus (1995). Nazi Germany: A New History. New York: Continuum. ISBN 978-0-82640-797-9.
  • Gerwarth, Robert (2012). Hitler's Hangman: The Life of Heydrich. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-30018-772-4.
  • Graber, G. S. (1978). The History of the SS. New York: D. McKay. ISBN 978-0-679-50754-3.
  • Grunberger, Richard (1971). The 12-Year Reich: A Social History of Nazi Germany, 1933–1945. New York: Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 978-0-03-076435-6.
  • Jenkins, Philip (1997). Hoods and Shirts: The Extreme Right in Pennsylvania, 1925–1950. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-2316-3.
  • Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-39306-757-6.
  • Koonz, Claudia (2003). The Nazi Conscience. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01172-4.
  • Longerich, Peter (2010). Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280436-5.
  • Longerich, Peter (2012). Heinrich Himmler. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199592326.
  • Manvell, Roger; Fraenkel, Heinrich (1987). Heinrich Himmler. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85367-740-3.
  • Moorhouse, Roger (2014). The Devil's Alliance: Hitler's Pact with Stalin, 1939–1941. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-46503-075-0.
  • Overy, Richard (2004). The Dictators: Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia. London and New York: W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-02030-4.
  • Rees, Laurence (2017). The Holocaust: A New History. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-61039-844-2.
  • Snyder, Louis L (1976). Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. London: Robert Hale. ISBN 978-1-56924-917-8.
  • Stone, Dan (2016). "Nazi race ideologues". Patterns of Prejudice. 50 (4–5): 445–457. doi:10.1080/0031322x.2016.1243352.
  • Wistrich, Robert (2001). Hitler and the Holocaust. New York: Modern Library Chronicles. ISBN 978-0-679-64222-0.
  • Zeck, Mario (2002). Das Schwarze Korps: Geschichte und Gestalt des Organs der Reichsfuhrung SS (in German). Tübingen: Niemeyer Verlag. ISBN 978-3-484-34051-0.
  • Zentner, Christian; Bedürftig, Friedemann (1991). The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. (2 vols.) New York: Macmillan Publishing. ISBN 978-0-02-897500-9.

Further reading

  • Combs, William L. Voice of the SS: A History of the SS Journal Das Schwarze Korps (Illustrated), New York: Peter Lang, 1986. ISBN 0-8204-0083-1.
  • Kositza, Christian: Das Schwarze Korps. Die Zeitung der Schutzstaffeln der NSDAP. Organ der Reichsführung SS' über den Judeozid, Norderstedt 2013, ISBN 978-3-8482-2882-9.
  • Stone, Dan. "Nazi Race Ideologues." Patterns of Prejudice 50.4-5 (2016)

External links

Adolf Hitler Schools

Adolf Hitler Schools (AHS) were 12 elite boarding schools run by the SS in Nazi Germany from 1937 to 1945. Their aim was to indoctrinate young people into the ideologies of the Nazi Party. They were for young people aged 14 to 18 years old and were single sex, with three schools for girls and the rest for boys. Selection for admission to the schools was rigorous; pupils were chosen for their political dedication and physical fitness, as opposed to their academic prowess. Activities focused on political indoctrination rather than academic studies. The SS often selected future officers from the schools.The AHS should not be confused with a large number of schools renamed "Adolf Hitler School" after Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany in 1933, such as the former Martin Luther School in Marburg, the Werner Heisenberg High School in Heide, the Nordstadt School in Pforzheim, the Paul Werner High School in Cottbus, or the Goethe School in Flensburg.

There was also a similar network of boarding schools called the National Political Institutes of Education ("Napolas").

Barbara Goette

Barbara Goette (26 July 1908 – 23 October 1997) was an academic who lived in Germany and then Australia. She was the private secretary of Ludwig Roselius from 1935 to 1943 who created the Böttcherstraße, Café HAG and financed Focke-Wulf.

Franz Oppenhoff

Franz Oppenhoff (18 August 1902 – 25 March 1945) was a German lawyer who was appointed Mayor of the city of Aachen by Allied forces and subsequently murdered on the order of Heinrich Himmler.

German comics

German comics are comics written in the German language or by German-speaking creators, for the major comic markets in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, with spill-overs into the neighboring, but lesser, comic markets of Liechtenstein, Luxembourg and German-Belgium.

The German language comic market is not as large or strong in sales as in most other European countries: comics account for only approximately 3% of printed matter in Germany. The main publishers of original material are Schwarzer Turm, Weissblech Comics, Gringo Comics, and Zwerchfell Verlag.

There continues to be a large presence of translated material in the German language market. Panini Comics holds licensing agreements to publish translated Marvel and DC Comics, among other things. Other comic publishers of licensed versions of foreign language material, particularly those from Franco-Belgian origin (which started to become a major force on the German comics scene from the late-1960s onward, presently eclipsing native productions), include Egmont Ehapa, Carlsen Comics, Splitter (Verlag) and others.

Gunter d'Alquen

Gunter d'Alquen (24 October 1910 – 15 May 1998) was chief editor of the SS weekly Das Schwarze Korps ("The Black Corps"), the official newspaper of the Schutzstaffel (SS), and commander of the SS-Standarte Kurt Eggers.

Heinrich Anacker

Heinrich Anacker (born 29 January 1901 in Buchs, Aargau — died 14 January 1971 in Wasserburg am Bodensee) was a Swiss-German author.

Anacker entered National Socialist circles in Vienna in 1922, joined the SA, and after 1933 lived in Berlin as a freelance writer. He wrote a spate of SA and Hitler Youth songs and was considered the "lyricist of the Brown Front"; he won the 1934 Dietrich Eckart Prize and the 1936 NSDAP Prize for Art. Nonetheless, after the war he was classified as only minimally incriminated. His poetry collections include Die Trommel (The Drum; 1931), Der Aufbau (Uplift; 1936), and Glück auf, es geht gen Morgen (Hurrah, It Will Soon Be Morning; 1943).

Brothers, what will remain from our time?

Runes will forever glow!

Our bodies will disappear

As dust in the winds they will blow.It was we who built the streets,

That our grandchildren first saw complete;

Along them, cars will boldly whiz,

For a hundred and a thousand years.

What we wrote in inflexible deeds

Unshaken will ever remain,

Forever, beginning and amen,

The most vivid rune: The Führer's name!— "Brothers, What Will Remain?" in Das Schwarze Korps, 14 August 1935.

Johannes Stark

Johannes Stark (German pronunciation: [joˈhanəs ʃtaʁk], 15 April 1874 – 21 June 1957) was a German physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1919 "for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields". This phenomenon is known as the Stark effect.

Stark received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Munich in 1897 under the supervision of Eugen von Lommel, and served as Lommel's assistant until his appointment as a lecturer at the University of Göttingen in 1900. He was an extraordinary professor at the University of Hannover from 1906 until he became a professor at RWTH Aachen University in 1909. In 1917, he became professor at the University of Greifswald, and he also worked at the University of Würzburg from 1920 to 1922.

A supporter of Adolf Hitler from 1924, Stark was one of the main figures, along with fellow Nobel laureate Philipp Lenard, in the anti-Semitic Deutsche Physik movement, which sought to remove Jewish scientists from German physics. He was appointed head of the German Research Foundation in 1933 and was president of the Reich Physical-Technical Institute from 1933 to 1939. In 1947, he was found guilty as a "Major Offender" by a denazification court.

Jürgen Thorwald

Jürgen Thorwald (born as Heinz Bongartz October 28, 1915 – April 4, 2006) was a German writer, journalist and historian known for his works describing the history of forensic medicine and of World War II.

Thorwald was a native of Solingen, Rhenish Prussia, and attended the University of Cologne. He started his career in 1933 in Nazi Germany, writing for publications such as Die Braune Post ("The Brown Mail"), the SS journal Das Schwarze Korps ("The Black Corps") and the NSDAP paper National-Zeitung. During the war he worked as a propaganda writer focusing on the Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine and the general German war effort.

After the war he used the pseudonym Jürgen Thorwald in order to be able to work under allied occupation. In 1947, he legally adopted the new name.Thorwalds book The Century of the Detective was nominated for the Edgar Allan Poe Award in 1966 in Best Fact Crime category, but he lost to Truman Capote's In Cold Blood. In 1984 he was awarded the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. Thorwald died in Lugano.

Kurt Eggers

Kurt Eggers (10 November 1905 in Berlin – 12 August 1943 near Belgorod) was a German writer, poet, songwriter, and playwright with close links to the Nazi party. He served as both a member of a propaganda company (Propagandakompanie) and a Waffen-SS man in World War II, and died in a tank regiment on the Eastern Front.

List of defunct newspapers of Germany

This is a list of defunct newspapers of Germany.

Allgemeine Zeitung

Das Andere Deutschland

Das Reich

Das Schwarze Korps

Der Angriff

Der Morgen

Der Pionier

Der Stürmer

Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung

Deutsche Volkszeitung

Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden

Deutsche Zeitung in Norwegen

Die Einigkeit

Die Rote Fahne

Die Fanfare

Financial Times Deutschland

Frankfurter Zeitung

Freie Presse (Alsace), not to be confused with today's Freie Presse (Saxony)

Iskra

Israelitisches Familienblatt

Kreuzzeitung

Münchener Beobachter

Münchener Post

Neue Montagzeitung

Neue Rheinische Zeitung

Norsk-Tysk Tidsskrift

NS Månedshefte

Panzerbär

Prizyv

Regensburger Echo

Rheinische Zeitung

Völkischer Beobachter

Vossische Zeitung

Max Amann

Max Amann (24 November 1891 – 30 March 1957) was a German politician, businessman and a member of the Nazi Party. He was the first business manager of the Nazi Party and later became the head of Eher Verlag, the official Nazi Party publishing house. After the war ended, Amann was arrested by Allied troops. Amann was deemed a Hauptschuldiger (Prominent Guilty Party) and sentenced to ten years in a labour camp. He was released in 1953. Amann died in poverty on 30 March 1957, in Munich.

Paul Leo

Paul Leo (9 January 1893 in Göttingen – 10 February 1958 in Dubuque, Iowa) was a German Lutheran pastor and theologian. Of Jewish heritage, he advocated for endangered Jews during the Nazi era. After a brief imprisonment in Buchenwald concentration camp during November and December 1938, he emigrated to the United States in 1939. At the time of his death, he was a professor of Greek and New Testament at Wartburg Theological Seminary in Dubuque, Iowa.

Paula Modersohn-Becker Museum

The Paula Modersohn-Becker Museum in Bremen, Germany, is the first museum in the world devoted to a female artist. Modersohn-Becker (1876–1907) was one of the most important early Expressionists, and the museum features key works from each of her creative periods.

Religious aspects of Nazism

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SS-Junker Schools

SS-Junker Schools (German SS-Junkerschulen) were leadership training facilities for SS-Junkers, officer candidates of the Schutzstaffel (SS). The term Junkerschulen was introduced by Nazi Germany in 1937, although the first facilities were established at Bad Tölz and Braunschweig in 1934 and 1935. Additional schools were founded at Klagenfurt and Posen-Treskau in 1943, and Prague in 1944. Unlike the Wehrmacht's "war schools", admission to the SS-Junker Schools did not require a secondary diploma. Training at these schools provided the groundwork for employment with the Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo; security police), the Sicherheitsdienst (SD; security service), and later for the Waffen-SS. Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler intended for these schools to mold cadets for future service in the officer ranks of the SS.

SS-Standarte Kurt Eggers

The SS-Standarte Kurt Eggers was an SS propaganda formation (SS-Standarte) of Nazi Germany during World War II. It publicised the actions of Waffen-SS combat units. The "Berichter" (literally: reporters) of the Standarte were expected to fight actively, if the situation demanded it, and were fully trained and equipped for combat.

SS Education Office

The SS Education Office (SS-Schulungsamt) was one of the Nazi organizations responsible for the ideological indoctrination of members of the SS. The office operated initially under the jurisdiction of the Reich Race and Settlement Office (RuSHA) but was later subordinated to the SS Main Office (SS-Hauptamt).

Thule Society

The Thule Society (; German: Thule-Gesellschaft), originally the Studiengruppe für germanisches Altertum ("Study Group for Germanic Antiquity"), was a German occultist and völkisch group founded in Munich right after World War I, named after a mythical northern country in Greek legend. The society is notable chiefly as the organization that sponsored the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (DAP; German Workers' Party), which was later reorganized by Adolf Hitler into the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP or Nazi Party). According to Hitler biographer Ian Kershaw, the organization's "membership list ... reads like a Who's Who of early Nazi sympathizers and leading figures in Munich", including Rudolf Hess, Alfred Rosenberg, Hans Frank, Julius Lehmann, Gottfried Feder, Dietrich Eckart, and Karl Harrer.Author Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke contends that Hans Frank and Rudolf Hess had been Thule members, but other leading Nazis had only been invited to speak at Thule meetings or they were entirely unconnected with it. According to Johannes Hering, "There is no evidence that Hitler ever attended the Thule Society."

Völkischer Beobachter

The Völkischer Beobachter (pronounced [ˈfœlkɪʃɐ bəˈʔoːbaχtɐ]; "Völkisch Observer") was the newspaper of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP or Nazi Party) from 25 December 1920. It first appeared weekly, then daily from 8 February 1923. For twenty-four years it formed part of the official public face of the Nazi Party until its last edition at the end of April 1945. The paper was banned and ceased publication between November 1923, after Adolf Hitler's arrest for leading the unsuccessful Beer Hall Putsch in Munich, and February 1925, the approximate time of the rally which relaunched the NSDAP.

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Police and security services
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