Darmstadt

Darmstadt (/ˈdɑːrmstæt/, also UK: /-ʃtæt/, US: /-stɑːt, -ʃtɑːt/,[3][4][5] German: [ˈdaɐ̯mʃtat] (listen)) is a city in the state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area (Frankfurt Metropolitan Region). Darmstadt had a population of around 157,437 at the end of 2016.[2] The Darmstadt Larger Urban Zone has 430,993 inhabitants.[6]

Darmstadt holds the official title "City of Science" (German: Wissenschaftsstadt) as it is a major centre of scientific institutions, universities, and high-technology companies. The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) are located in Darmstadt, as well as GSI Centre for Heavy Ion Research, where several chemical elements such as bohrium (1981), meitnerium (1982), hassium (1984), darmstadtium (1994), roentgenium (1994), and copernicium (1996) were discovered.[7] The existence of the following elements were also confirmed at GSI Centre for Heavy Ion Research: nihonium (2012), flerovium (2009), moscovium (2012), livermorium (2010), and tennessine (2012).[8] The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is an international accelerator facility under construction. Darmstadt is also the seat of the world's oldest pharmaceutical company, Merck, which is the city's largest employer.

P2250381 Darmstadt in Frankfurt-Rhein-Main
View across Darmstadt towards Frankfurt skyline

Darmstadt was formerly the capital of a sovereign country, the Grand Duchy of Hesse and its successor, the People's State of Hesse, a federal state of Germany. As the capital of an increasingly prosperous duchy, the city gained some international prominence and remains one of the wealthiest cities in Europe.[9] In the 20th century, industry (especially chemicals), as well as large science and electronics (later information technology) sectors became increasingly important, and are still a major part of the city's economy. It is also home to the football club SV Darmstadt 98.

Darmstadt
Central Darmstadt
Central Darmstadt
Flag of Darmstadt

Flag
Coat of arms of Darmstadt

Coat of arms
Location of Darmstadt within Hessen
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Darmstadt is located in Germany
Darmstadt
Darmstadt
Darmstadt is located in Hesse
Darmstadt
Darmstadt
Coordinates: 49°52′20″N 8°39′10″E / 49.87222°N 8.65278°ECoordinates: 49°52′20″N 8°39′10″E / 49.87222°N 8.65278°E
CountryGermany
StateHesse
Admin. regionDarmstadt
DistrictUrban district
Subdivisions9 boroughs
Government
 • Lord MayorJochen Partsch (Alliance '90/The Greens)
Area
 • Total122.23 km2 (47.19 sq mi)
Elevation
144 m (472 ft)
Population
 (2017-12-31)[1]
 • Total158,254
 • Density1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
64283–64297
Dialling codes06151, 06150
Vehicle registrationDA
Websitewww.darmstadt.de
Hochzeitsturm-Dach-Uhr
Landmark of Darmstadt: "Hochzeitsturm" ("Wedding Tower"), built 1908 in Jugendstil architecture.
Bundesdatenschau (MRMCD17) Panorama
360° Panorama of Darmstadt 360° Panorama

History

Darmstadt in 1626 Thesaurus Philopoliticus
Darmstadt in 1626.
Darmstadt um 1900
The 'Schlossplatz', a market square in front of the Ducal Palace around 1900: One of the few areas to survive in similar style after World War II

Origins

The name Darmstadt first appears towards the end of the 11th century, then as Darmundestat. Its origins are unknown.[10] 'Dar-mund' in Middle Low German is translated as "Boggy Headlands", but it could be a misspelling in local dialect of another name. It is sometimes stated that the name derives from the 'Darmbach' (a small stream formerly running through the city). In fact, the stream received its current name much later, after the city, not vice versa.[10]

Darmstadt was chartered as a city by the Holy Roman Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian in 1330, at which time it belonged to the counts of Katzenelnbogen.[11] The city, then called Darmstait, became a secondary residence for the counts, with a small castle established at the site of the current, much larger edifice.[12]

When the house of Katzenelnbogen became extinct in 1479, the city was passed to the Landgraviate of Hesse, and was seat of the ruling landgraves (1567–1806) and thereafter (to 1918) of the grand dukes of Hesse.[13]

Industrial age

Luisenplatz Darmstadt 1909
Darmstadt in 1909

The city grew in population during the 19th century from little over 10,000 to 72,000 inhabitants.[14] A polytechnical school, which later became a Technical University now known as TU Darmstadt, was established in 1877.[15]

In the beginning of the 20th century, Darmstadt was an important centre for the art movement of Jugendstil, the German variant of Art Nouveau. Annual architectural competitions led to the building of many architectural treasures of this period. Also during this period, in 1912 the chemist Anton Kollisch, working for the pharmaceutical company Merck, first synthesised the chemical MDMA (ecstasy) in Darmstadt. Darmstadt's municipal area was extended in 1937 to include the neighbouring localities of Arheilgen and Eberstadt, and in 1938 the city was separated administratively from the surrounding district (Kreis).

Nazi Germany

Darmstadt was the first city in Germany to force Jewish shops to close in early 1933, shortly after the Nazis took power in Germany. The shops were only closed for one day, for "endangering communal order and tranquility".[16] In 1942, over 3,000 Jews from Darmstadt were first forced into a collection camp located in the Liebigschule, and later deported to concentration camps[17] where most eventually died.

Several prominent members of the German resistance movement against the Nazis were citizens of Darmstadt, including Wilhelm Leuschner and Theodor Haubach, both executed for their opposition to Hitler's regime.

Allied bombing destroyed 70% of the built up area of Darmstadt during World War II. Darmstadt was first bombed on 30 July 1940, and 34 other air raids would follow before the war's end. The old city centre was largely destroyed in a British bombing raid on 11 September 1944. This attack was an example of the firestorm technique, which was subsequently used against the historic city of Dresden in February 1945. To create a firestorm, a number of incendiary bombs are dropped around the city before the explosive blast bombs are dropped, thus beginning a self-sustaining combustion process in which winds generated by the fire ensure it continues to burn until everything possible has been consumed. Darmstadt was selected as the secondary target for the raid, but was promoted to the primary target after clouds were observed over the primary which would have hindered any reconnaissance of the after-effects. During this fire attack an estimated 11,000 to 12,500 of the inhabitants burned to death, and 66,000 to 70,000 were left homeless.[17] Over three-quarters of Darmstadt's inner city was destroyed.[18] Post-war rebuilding was done in a relatively plain architectural style, although a number of the historic buildings were rebuilt to their original appearance following the city's capture on 20 March 1945 by the American 4th Armored Division.

Post–World War II

Largest groups of foreign residents[19]
Nationality Population (31.12.2016)
Turkey 4,454
Italy 2,222
Poland 1,939
China 1,313
Morocco 1,042
Spain 1,006
Croatia 887
Romania 850
India 841
Greece 778

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, Darmstadt became home to many technology companies and research institutes, and has been promoting itself as a "city of science" since 1997. It is well known as a high-tech centre in the vicinity of Frankfurt Airport, with important activities in spacecraft operations (the European Space Operations Centre, European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites), chemistry, pharmacy, information technology, biotechnology, telecommunications (substantial Deutsche Telekom presence) and mechatronics. In 2000, its region also scored Rank 3 amongst 97 German regions in the WirtschaftsWoche test ranking Germany's high-tech regions.[11]

The roots of Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences goes back to 1876[20] along with Technische Universität Darmstadt(the first electrical engineering chair and inventions fame), when both these Universities were an integrated entities, a need for a separate industry based research educational institution was felt in the early 1930s, finally University of Applied sciences emerged as a separate industry based research educational institution in 1971 and is the largest University of Applied Sciences in Hesse (German: Hessen) with about 11,000 students.

The TU Darmstadt is one of the important technical institutes in Germany and is well known for its research and teaching in the Electrical, Mechanical and Civil Engineering disciplines. Together with other tertiary institutions, the TU is responsible for the large student population of the city, which stood at 33,547 in 2004.[11]

Boroughs

Karolinen-Platz-Darmstadt
Karolinenplatz
Hauptbahnhof Darmstadt 260-62-ftmh
Hauptbahnhof Railway Station
Darmstadt bei Nacht (Westen)
Darmstadt at night
Darmstadt Blick auf Rheinstraße
Rheinstrasse in central Darmstadt

Darmstadt has nine official 'Stadtteile' (boroughs). These are:[21]

  • Darmstadt-Ost ("East")
  • Darmstadt-West
  • Darmstadt-Wixhausen

Population development

Year Population
1871 33,800
1890 55,883
1900 72,381
1925 89,465
1933 93,222
1945 69,539
1956 123,306
1975 137,018
1990 138,920
2000 138,242
2010 144,402[22]
2015 155,353

Lord mayors since 1945

Term of office Name Party
1945–1950 Ludwig Metzger (1902–1993) SPD
1951–1971 Ludwig Engel (1906–1975) SPD
1971–1981 Heinz Winfried Sabais (1922–1981) SPD
1981–1993 Günther Metzger (1933–2013) SPD
1993–2005 Peter Benz (born 1942) SPD
2005–2011 Walter Hoffmann (born 1952) SPD
2011–present Jochen Partsch (born 1962) Greens

Transport

HEAG 0777 am Schloss 101 2987
A tram near Schloss station.

Darmstadt is highly connected to all means of transportation, including the Autobahn Network, the Intercity-Express Network and a major international airport.

Roads

Darmstadt is connected to a number of major roads, including two Autobahnen (Bundesautobahn 5 and Bundesautobahn 67). The main road passing west-east is the Bundesstraße 26, the Bundesstraße 3 runs north-south. The rural areas east of the city in the Odenwald are accessed by several secondary roads.

Public transport in Darmstadt

The extensive public transport system of Darmstadt is integrated in the RMV (the transportation authority of the Frankfurt Metropolitan Area). The backbone of public transport in Darmstadt is its modern tram system with 9 lines and a local bus service serving all parts of the city. Darmstadt is furthermore connected to the Frankfurt S-Bahn system and being served by regional bus lines. Furthermore, regional rail lines (R64, R65, R66) connect six secondary railway stations within the city.

TU Darmstadt HaltepunktTULichtwieseMitRB65
Regional train at Darmstadt Lichtwiese station.

Regional rail links

Darmstadt is connected to the Frankfurt rapid transit network by S-Bahn line S3. Besides that, a number of regional trains connect secondary railway stations within Darmstadt and the region with Darmstadt Hauptbahnhof (main station), offering a net of inner city and regional train links.

National rail links

Darmstadt Hbf (5946442195)
Darmstadt Hauptbahnhof – Train hub for southern Hesse

By its main railway station "Darmstadt Hauptbahnhof", which is located in the western part of the central city, Darmstadt is connected to the rest of Germany and Europe by the Intercity-Express network and other long-distance trains. Darmstadt Hauptbahnhof is a busy station with 12 platforms which serves as a transportation hub for the southern Hesse/Odenwald region.

Airports

Darmstadt can be easily accessed from around the world via Frankfurt Airport (Flughafen Frankfurt am Main) which is located 20 km (12 mi) from central Darmstadt and connected to it via Autobahn 5, S-Bahn, several bus lines and a direct express bus-link ("Airliner"). The airport ranks among the world's busiest airports by passenger traffic and is the second-busiest airport by cargo traffic in Europe. The airport also serves as the main hub for German flag carrier Lufthansa.

Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport (Flugplatz Frankfurt-Egelsbach) is a busy general aviation airport located 5 km north of Darmstadt, near the town of Egelsbach.

Despite the name, Frankfurt Hahn Airport (Flughafen Frankfurt-Hahn) is located far outside the Frankfurt Metro Area, approximately 120 km (75 mi) away in Lautzenhausen (Rhineland-Palatinate). Hahn Airport is a major base for low-cost carrier Ryanair. This airport can only be reached by car or bus.

National Coach Services

Darmstadt is being served by several national and European bus links which connect Darmstadt with other German and European cities.

Parks, architecture and attractions

La Mathildenhöhe, colline jugendstil (Darmstadt) (7882270018)
The Mathildenhöhe

Castles and historical buildings

Residenzschloss Darmstadt 539-Gdh
Ducal Palace and Market Square

Darmstadt was the capital of an independent country (the Grand Duchy of Hesse) until 1871 and the capital of the German state of Hesse until 1945. It is due to its past as a capital city that it has many architectural testimonies of this period. Many of its major architectural landmarks were created by Georg Moller who was appointed the court master builder of the Grand Duchy of Hesse. Due to the fact that the last ruling Grand Duke of Hesse, Ernst Ludwig was a grandson of Queen Victoria and brother to Empress Alexandra of Russia, the architecture of Darmstadt has been influenced by British and Russian imperial architecture with many examples still existing, such as the Luisenplatz with its grand-ducal column, the old Hessian State Theatre (at Karolinenplatz) and the Russian Chapel by Leon Benois. The Russian church, St. Mary Magdalene Chapel, is named in honor of the patron saint of Tsar Nicholas' mother and was built of Russian stone on Russian soil brought to Darmstadt by train. It was used by the Russian imperial family and court during regular visits to the Tsarina's brother and family in Darmstadt.[23] The grand-ducal palace of Darmstadt is located in the city centre. It was the residence of the counts of Hesse-Darmstadt, later as Grand Dukes of Hesse by the grace of Napoleon. The rulers of Hesse also owned a hunting lodge in Kranichstein which is a nowadays used as a five star hotel. The most famous castle in the Darmstadt region is Frankenstein Castle due to claims that the real castle may have had an influence on Mary Shelley's decision to choose the name Frankenstein for her monster-creating scientist. This castle dates back to the 13th century, but it was acquired by the counts of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1662.

Modern architecture

Darmstadt-Waldspirale-Hundertwasser3
The Waldspirale

Darmstadt has a rich tradition in modern architecture. After 1945 several "Meisterbauten" (Masterful Architectonic Creations) were built that set standards for modern architecture. These buildings still exist and are used for various public and private purposes. In the late 1990s the Waldspirale ('Forest Spiral') was built, a residential complex by Austrian Friedensreich Hundertwasser. As an almost surreal building, it is internationally famous for its almost absolute rejection of rectangular forms, down to every window having a different shape, the style being a trademark of Hundertwasser's work. Hundertwasser died before the Waldspirale was finished.

Art Nouveau

Darmstadt was a centre of the Art Nouveau movement. Surviving examples of the Jugendstil period include the Rosenhöhe, a landscaped English-style rose garden from the 19th century, recently renovated and replanted,[24] the Mathildenhöhe,[25] with the Hochzeitsturm ('Wedding tower', also commonly known as the 'Five-Finger-Tower') by Joseph Maria Olbrich, the Russian Chapel in Darmstadt and large exhibition halls as well as many private villas built by Jugendstil architects who had settled in Darmstadt. German Art Nouveau is commonly known by its German name, Jugendstil. The name is taken from the artistic journal, Die Jugend, which was published in Munich and which espoused the new artistic movement. It was founded in 1896 by Georg Hirth (Hirth remained editor until his death in 1916, and the magazine continued to be published until 1940). The magazine was instrumental in promoting the style in Germany. As a result, its name was adopted as the most common German-language term for the style: Jugendstil ("young style"). Although, during the early 20th century, the word was applied to only two-dimensional examples of the graphic arts, especially the forms of organic typography and graphic design found in and influenced by German magazines like Jugend, Pan, and Simplicissimus, it is now applied to more general manifestations of Art Nouveau visual arts in Germany, the Netherlands, the Baltic states, and Nordic countries. The two main centres for Jugendstil art in Germany were Munich and Darmstadt.

Squares

The Luisenplatz, the central square of the city, forms the centre of the city and is the main public transport hub. In 1844 the Ludwigsäule (called Langer Lui, meaning Long Ludwig), a 33-metre (108 ft) column commemorating Ludwig I, first Grand Duke of Hesse, was placed in the middle of the square. While the column still stands, the square is today surrounded by mostly modern buildings. Other important squares are the Marktplatz (see image) near the old city hall and the Sabaisplatz at the Mathildenhöhe.

Parks

Darmstadt Eingang Rosenhöhe
Park Rosenhöhe

The city has a high density of parks. Among the most important parks are the English style Herrngarten in central Darmstadt. In former times it was part of the Royal Gardens used exclusively by the dukes of Darmstadt. Today it is a public park, heavily used in every season of the year. Other important parks are the French style parks Prinz-Georgs-Garten and Orangerie, the modern style Bürgerpark ("People's Park") in northern Darmstadt and the mystical Park Rosenhöhe, ("Rose Heights") which also serves as the cemetery for the dukes, with two impressive mausoleum buildings in its remote parts. The Botanischer Garten in eastern Darmstadt is a botanical garden maintained by the Darmstadt University of Technology with a fine collection of rare plants and trees.

Churches

Russian Chapel in Darmstadt, Germany
Russian Chapel Darmstadt

The Protestant Stadtkirche church,[26] built in 1369, is in the pedestrian zone of the downtown city center, next to the historic Hotel Bockshaut.[27] The church has gothic elements along with renaissance and baroque, it houses the royal crypt. Hotel Bockshaut was built in 1580 for a church presbytery. The most important Catholic Church is St. Ludwig in central Darmstadt. The Russian Chapel in Darmstadt is a Russian orthodox church which is still in use. It was built and used as a private chapel by the last Tsar of Russia, Nicholas II, whose wife Alexandra was born in Darmstadt. Although Russian orthodox churches also exist in other cities outside Russia, the Russian Chapel in Darmstadt was the only official Russian church used by the Tsar outside the Russian Empire. It is said that the chapel was built on Russian soil that was brought to Darmstadt exclusively for the purpose of building the Tsar's private chapel on it.

Festivals

Every year on the first weekend of july the Heinerfest festival is held in the streets surrounding the old ducal palace. It is a traditional German festival with music acts, beer halls, amusement rides and booths selling trinkets and food. The similar 'Schloßgrabenfest', which is more live music-oriented, is held in the same location every year in May. These two festivals attract 700,000[28] and 400,000[29] visitors respectively.

Culture

Darmstadt Staatstheater Zuschauerraum vom Rang
State Theater Darmstadt – Grand Hall

Darmstadt has a rich cultural heritage. The Staatstheater Darmstadt (State Theatre Darmstadt) dates back to the year 1711. The present building has been in use since 1972 and has three halls which can be used independently. The "Grand Hall" (Großes Haus) provides seats for 956 people and serves as Darmstadt's opera house. The "Small Hall" (Kleines Haus) is mostly used for plays and dance and has 482 seats. A separate small hall (Kammerspiele) with 120 seats is used for chamber plays.

Among the museums in Darmstadt the most important are the Hessisches Landesmuseum (Hessian State Museum), the Porcelain Museum (exhibition of the ducal porcelain), the Schlossmuseum (exhibition of the ducal residence and possessions), the Kunsthalle Darmstadt (exhibitions of modern art), the exhibition centre Mathildenhöhe and the Museum Künstlerkolonie (Art Nouveau museum).

The Jazz-Institut Darmstadt is Germany's largest publicly accessible jazz archive.[30]

The Internationales Musikinstitut Darmstadt, harboring one of the world's largest collections of post-war sheet music,[31] also hosts the biennial Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik, a summer school in contemporary classical music founded by Wolfgang Steinecke. A large number of avant-garde composers have attended and given lectures there, including Olivier Messiaen, Luciano Berio, Milton Babbitt, Pierre Boulez, Luigi Nono, John Cage, György Ligeti, Iannis Xenakis, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Mauricio Kagel, and Helmut Lachenmann.

The Deutsche Akademie für Sprache und Dichtung provides writers and scholars with a place to research the German language.[32] The Academy's annual Georg Büchner Prize, named in memory of Georg Büchner, is considered the most prestigious literary award for writers of German language.

Geography

Bergstrasse westblick bei heppenheim ds wv 11 2007
Vineyards south of Darmstadt – View towards the Rhine Plain

Darmstadt is located in the Upper Rhine Plain (German: Oberrheinische Tiefebene), a major rift, about 350 km (217 mi) long and on average 50 km (31 mi) wde, between the cities of Frankfurt in the north and Basel in the south. Darmstadt's southeastern boroughs are located in the spurs of the Odenwald, a low mountain range in Southern Hesse between the Main and Neckar rivers.

Climate

Southern Hesse is well known for its mild climate which allows winegrowing on a large scale in the region south of Darmstadt. The weather is often volatile with the summers being warm and humid with frequent thunderstorms, the winters mostly relatively mild with frequent periods of high fog. Snowfall is most likely in January and February, but mild winters without considerable snowfall can occur.

Education

Schools

The City of Darmstadt offers students a broad variety of public primary, secondary and tertiary schools. Besides them private schools exist, e.g. the catholic secondary school Edith-Stein-Schule, the Adventists' Schulzentrum Marienhöhe, an anthroposophic Waldorf School, a Comenius School and other faith based private schools.

Universities

H-da-Hochhaus nach Renovierung2011
Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences – Main Building
  • Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences (German: Hochschule Darmstadt) has the highest number of industrial linkage programs, compared to the rest of the universities of applied sciences. The roots of University of Applied Sciences Darmstadt dates back to 1876. However, it has not emerged as a separate institution before 1971. Today (2017) it is the largest University of Applied Sciences in the State of Hesse with about 16,000 students offering courses in architecture, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computer science, design, economics, electrical engineering and information technology, mathematics and science, mechanical engineering, media (including information science and engineering), plastics engineering, social and cultural studies, and several social sciences.
Karo5 Eingangsgebaeude Verwaltungsgebaeude TU Darmstadt
Technical University – Main Entrance
  • Technical University of Darmstadt (German: Technische Universität Darmstadt), commonly referred to as TU Darmstadt, is a prestigious research university in Germany. It was founded in 1877 and received the right to award doctorates in 1899. In 1882 it was the first university in the world to set up a chair in electrical engineering, in 1883 the first faculty for electrical engineering was founded there. The University is organized in 13 departments and 5 fields of study, which all together offer about 100 courses of studies. The fields of study offer interdisciplinary degree courses in which students take lectures in multiple departments. The University, as its title suggests, offers degree courses in the fields of electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, architecture, computer science, mathematics and the natural sciences. It also offers courses in economics, law, history, politics, sociology, psychology, sport science and linguistics. It also offers degree courses for teaching positions at German vocational schools and Gymnasiums.
  • The Protestant University of Applied Sciences Darmstadt (EHD) is an officially recognised and Church-sponsored University. The sponsors are the Protestant Church in Hesse and Nassau, the Protestant Church of Kurhesse-Waldeck and the social welfare organisation of both Hessian Protestant Churches, the Diakonie Hesse. The EHD has approximately 1,700 students, 40 professors and 10 scientific employees and about 100 visiting lecturers every semester.

Institutions

Technology

Views in the Main Control Room (12052189474)
The ESOC European Space Operations Command in Darmstadt.

Darmstadt is home to many research institutions such as the Fraunhofer Society (Fraunhofer IGD, Fraunhofer LBF, Fraunhofer SIT) and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI, "Society for heavy ion Research"), which operates a particle accelerator in northern Darmstadt. The GSI, amongst other elements, discovered the chemical element darmstadtium (atomic number: 110), named after the city in 2003. This makes Darmstadt one of only eight settlements with elements named after them (the others being Ytterby in Sweden (four elements); Stockholm in Sweden (holmium); Strontian in Scotland; Copenhagen in Denmark (whose Latin name gives hafnium); Paris (whose Latin name gives lutetium); Berkeley, California; and Dubna in Russia). Various other elements, including meitnerium (atomic number: 109) (1982), hassium (atomic number: 108) (1984), roentgenium (atomic number: 111) (1994) and copernicium (atomic number: 112) (1996) were also synthesized in the Darmstadt facility.

The European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency is located in Darmstadt. From here, various deep-space exploration spacecraft and Earth-orbiting satellites are operated for the purposes of scientific research, and technology development and demonstration.

EUMETSAT, the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, operates the principal European meteorological satellites from its headquarters, including the first and second generations of Meteosat geostationary satellites, and the polar-orbiting Metop series.

Darmstadt is a centre for the pharmaceutical and chemical industry, with Merck, Röhm and Schenck RoTec (part of The Dürr Group) having their main plants and centres here.

United States military presence

U.S. forces entered the city of Darmstadt on 25 March 1945. At the end of World War II, Darmstadt was among the 112 communities where U.S. forces were stationed. Early units stationed here included elements of the U.S. Constabulary, Air Force units and a Quartermaster School.

Over the years, the U.S. military community Darmstadt – under a variety of designations – served as home for thousands of American soldiers and their families. It included six principal installations in Darmstadt and nearby Babenhausen, Griesheim and Münster, plus several housing areas, an airfield and a large number of smaller facilities as far away as Bensheim and Aschaffenburg. The military newspaper European Stars and Stripes also had its headquarters there. As of 1993, the Darmstadt military community also assumed responsibility for the remaining U.S. Army facilities in the Frankfurt area.

As part of the U.S. Army's ongoing transformation in Germany, the Darmstadt military community, by then designated U.S. Army Garrison Darmstadt, inactivated on 30 September 2008. Even after the garrison inactivation, however, there is still one unit active in Darmstadt: The 66th Military Intelligence Group at the Dagger Complex on Eberstädter Weg,.[34] It draws its support from the nearby U.S. Army Garrison Wiesbaden. The website of the 66th Military Intelligence Brigade claims they moved out in 2008, but Google Maps and Bing satellite imagery still show a respectively full and quarter-full parking lot, and the U.S. Army Garrison Wiesbaden's website mentions the unit still being active in Darmstadt, and a Marine Corps company being stationed there as well. With the exception of Dagger Complex, all remaining US installations are now empty and closed to the public, pending property disposal by the German authorities.

Tourist sights in Darmstadt

Chapel and Wedding Tower
Wedding Tower and the Russian Tsar's Chapel at Mathildenhöhe

City

Region

Notable persons

Justus von Liebig NIH
Justus von Liebig around 1866
Friedrich von Flotow 1866
Friedrich von Flotow 1866
Heinrich von Angeli - Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz
Friedrich August Kekulé in 1890

International relations

Twin towns / Sister cities

Darmstadt Strassenbahn
Darmstadt train showcasing the Sister City partnership with San Antonio

Darmstadt is twinned with:[35]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Bevölkerung der hessischen Gemeinden". Hessisches Statistisches Landesamt (in German). September 2018.
  2. ^ a b Hessian Statistical Office. "Area, population and population change" (in German). Archived from the original on 18 November 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  3. ^ "Darmstadt". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  4. ^ "Darmstadt" (US) and "Darmstadt". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  5. ^ "Darmstadt". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  6. ^ European Union, City Audits: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "Wanted: Suitable name for unstable, heavyweight element". The Guardian. 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  8. ^ "Discovery of new elements". GSI Darmstadt. 2016. Archived from the original on 29 January 2016.
  9. ^ City of London richest area in Europe, The Guardian, 30 January 2002
  10. ^ a b "Wo kommt er her, wo will er hin?" – Darmstädter Echo, 2007-12-03, in German. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  11. ^ a b c "Essential Facts (brochure from the official city website)" (PDF). 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2009.
  12. ^ Nebenresidenz Darmstadt (darmstait) (from the 'Graf v. Katzenelnbogen' website, in German. Retrieved 5 January 2008.)
  13. ^ Die Geschichte des Grafenhauses (from the 'Graf v. Katzenelnbogen' website, in German. Retrieved 5 January 2008.)
  14. ^ "Population growth in Darmstadt". (from the official city website).
  15. ^ "Establishment of TU Darmstadt (in German)". TU Damrstadt.
  16. ^ Beginning of the End Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine – Musman, Moshe; from Borne Aloft on the Wings of a Dove (in-depth feature on Dei'ah veDibur website)
  17. ^ a b Darmstädter Stadtgeschichte 20. Jahrhundert Archived 10 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine (from the official city website, in German, less detailed also in English)
  18. ^ Darmstadt history (from the website of the Technical University of Darmstadt)
  19. ^ "Ausländerstruktur 2016" (PDF). Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  20. ^ http://www2.h-da.de/mse/msc_brochure.pdf
  21. ^ Statistischer Ueberblick ('Statistical overview', from the official city website, in German)
  22. ^ statistik-hessen.de Archived 23 May 2012 at Archive.today
  23. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ Rosenhöhe – planted with roses (from the official city website)
  25. ^ Mathildenhöhe (Artists' Colony) (from the official city website)
  26. ^ German wikipedia Protestant Stadtkirche church
  27. ^ Historic hotel Bockshaut
  28. ^ Information about the Heinerfest (in German)
  29. ^ Schloßgrabenfest 2006 (in German)
  30. ^ Jazz-Institut Darmstadt Archived 27 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine (official institute website)
  31. ^ Internationales Musikinstitut Darmstadt (official institute website, in German)
  32. ^ Deutsche Akademie für Sprache und Dichtung (official academy website, in German)
  33. ^ "Mittelwerte 30-jähriger Perioden, Tabelle A, 1981 – 2010". Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). Retrieved 3 July 2015.
  34. ^ 49°50′38″N 8°35′03″E / 49.843786°N 8.584211°E
  35. ^ "Town Twinnings and international relations". Büro für Städtepartnerschaften und internationale Beziehungen (in German). Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  36. ^ "Kardeş Şehirler". Bursa Büyükşehir Belediyesi Basın Koordinasyon Merkez. Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  37. ^ "Chesterfield Twinning Links". Chesterfield Borough Council. Archived from the original on 29 July 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
  38. ^ "Twin Towns – Graz Online – English Version". www.graz.at. Archived from the original on 8 November 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
  39. ^ Trondheims offisielle nettsted – Vennskapsbyer Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine

External links

Alexandra Feodorovna (Alix of Hesse)

Alexandra Feodorovna (6 June 1872 – 17 July 1918) was Empress of Russia as the spouse of Nicholas II—the last ruler of the Russian Empire—from their marriage on 26 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917. Originally Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine at birth, she was given the name and patronymic Alexandra Feodorovna upon being received into the Russian Orthodox Church and—having been killed along with her immediate family while in Bolshevik captivity in 1918—was canonized in 2000 as Saint Alexandra the Passion Bearer.

A granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, Alexandra was, like her grandmother, one of the most famous royal carriers of the haemophilia disease. Her reputation for encouraging her husband's resistance to the surrender of autocratic authority and her known faith in the Russian mystic Grigori Rasputin severely damaged her popularity and that of the Romanov monarchy in its final years.

Bruno Labbadia

Bruno Labbadia (pronounced [labbaˈdiːa]; born 8 February 1966) is a German retired footballer of Italian heritage. He currently manages VfL Wolfsburg.

Darmstadt (region)

Darmstadt is one of the three Regierungsbezirke of Hesse, Germany, located in the south of the state.

Darmstadt School

Darmstadt School refers to a group of composers who attended the Darmstadt International Summer Courses for New Music from the early 1950s to the early 1960s in Darmstadt, Germany.

Initiated in 1946 by Wolfgang Steinecke, the Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik, Darmstadt, held annually until 1970 and subsequently every two years, encompass the teaching of both composition and interpretation and also include premières of new works. After Steinecke's death in 1961, the courses were run by Ernst Thomas (1962–81), Friedrich Ferdinand Hommel (1981–94), Solf Schaefer (1995–2009), and Thomas Schäfer (2009– ). Thanks to these courses, Darmstadt is now a major centre of modern music, particularly for German composers.

Frederica Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt

Frederica Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt (Friederike Luise; 16 October 1751 – 25 February 1805) was Queen consort of Prussia as the second spouse of King Frederick William II.

Grand Duchy of Hesse

The Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine (German: Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein) was a grand duchy in western Germany that existed from 1806 (the period of German mediatization) to the end of the German Empire in 1918. The grand duchy originally formed on the basis of the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1806 as the Grand Duchy of Hesse (German: Großherzogtum Hessen). After the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, it changed its name in 1816 to distinguish itself from the Electorate of Hesse, which had formed from neighboring Hesse-Kassel. Colloquially, the grand duchy continued to be known by its former name of Hesse-Darmstadt. It joined the German Empire in 1871 and became a republic after German defeat in World War I in 1918.

Hesse

Hesse () or Hessia (German: Hessen [ˈhɛsn̩], Hessian dialect: Hesse [ˈhɛzə]), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen), is a federal state (Land) of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants. The state capital is Wiesbaden; the largest city is Frankfurt am Main.

As a cultural region, Hesse also includes the area known as Rhenish Hesse (Rheinhessen) in the neighbouring state of Rhineland-Palatinate.

Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt

The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt (German: Landgrafschaft Hessen-Darmstadt) was a State of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by a younger branch of the House of Hesse. It was formed in 1567 following the division of the Landgraviate of Hesse between the four sons of Landgrave Philip I.

The residence of the landgraves was in Darmstadt, hence the name. As a result of the Napoleonic Wars, the landgraviate was elevated to the Grand Duchy of Hesse following the Empire's dissolution in 1806.

Louis II, Grand Duke of Hesse

Louis II (26 December 1777 – 16 June 1848) was Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine from 6 April 1830 until 5 March 1848, resigning during the German Revolution of 1848. He was the son of Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse, and Princess Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt.

Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse

Louis IV (German: Ludwig IV; 12 September 1837 – 13 March 1892) was the Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine, reigning from 13 June 1877 until his death. Through his own and his children's marriages he was connected to the British Royal Family, to the Imperial House of Russia and to other reigning dynasties of Europe.

Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt

Louis IX of Hesse-Darmstadt (German: Ludwig) (15 December 1719 – 6 April 1790) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1768 - 1790. He was a son of Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Müntzenberg.

He was born in Darmstadt on 15 December 1719. On 12 August 1741, Louis married Caroline of Zweibrücken, daughter of Christian III, Duke of Zweibrücken. They had three sons and five daughters, including:

Princess Caroline of Hesse-Darmstadt (1746–1821), married Frederick V, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg

Princess Frederica Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt (1751–1805), married King Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia and became Queen of Prussia

Prince Louis X (1753–1830), later Grand Duke Louis I

Princess Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt (1754–1832), married Karl Ludwig, Hereditary Prince of Baden

Princess Wilhelmina Louisa of Hessen-Darmstadt (1755–1776), married Grand Duke Pavel Petrovich of Russia, later emperor

Princess Luise Auguste of Hesse-Darmstadt (1757–1830), married Karl August, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

Prince Frederick (1759–1802)

Prince Christian of Hesse-Darmstadt (1763–1830)

A stillborn son on May 3, 1742In 1775, Louis married Marie Adelaide of Cheirouze, countess of Lemberg. On 6 April 1790 Louis died in Pirmasens.

Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt

Louis VIII (German: Ludwig) (5 April 1691 – 17 October 1768) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1739 to 1768. He was the son of Ernest Louis, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and Margravine Dorothea Charlotte of Brandenburg-Ansbach.

Merck Group

The Merck Group, branded and commonly known as Merck, is a German multinational pharmaceutical, chemical and life sciences company headquartered in Darmstadt, with around 50,000 employees in around 70 countries. Merck was founded in 1668 and is the world's oldest operating chemical and pharmaceutical company, as well as one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world.Merck operates in Europe, Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas. It has major research and development centres in Darmstadt, Boston, Tokyo and Beijing. Merck pioneered the commercial manufacture of morphine in the 19th century and for a time held a virtual monopoly on cocaine.

Merck was privately owned until going public on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange in 1995, and is listed on the DAX index of Germany's top companies. The Merck family still controls a majority 70.3% of the company's shares. The Merck Group includes around 250 companies in 180 countries; the current main parent company of the group, since 1995, is named Merck KGaA, and is itself mainly owned by the former main parent company, E. Merck oHG, which now operates as a holding company.

The American pharmaceutical company Merck & Co. was established as a subsidiary of Merck in 1891, but was nationalized by the United States in 1917, before being privatized again when George W. Merck purchased back the stock in 1919. It is known as MSD (Merck Sharp and Dohme) outside of North America. The original Merck of Darmstadt holds the rights to the name Merck in all countries except the U.S. and Canada, where it is known as EMD (Emanuel Merck, Darmstadt). In 2015 Merck adopted a new uniform brand identity for all its subsidiaries, and the company has stressed its intention to protect the brand of "the real Merck" globally and initiated litigation against its former subsidiary over use of the name.In 2018, the company celebrated their 350th anniversary.

Prince George William of Hesse-Darmstadt

Prince George William of Hesse-Darmstadt (11 July 1722 – 21 June 1782) was a Prince of Hesse-Darmstadt. He was born in Darmstadt.

He was the second son of Landgrave Louis VIII and Charlotte Christine Magdalene Johanna of Hanau-Lichtenberg. From 1738 till his death he commanded an army-regiment of his land. In the 1740s, he also commanded a Prussian regiment. He reached the rank of general of the cavalry. He was the official military adviser to his father, but had a strong rival in his older brother Louis IX, who followed his friend's example, the soldier-king Frederick II of Prussia and expanded Pirmasens as a garrison town.

In 1748, he married Countess Maria Louise Albertine of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg. Through this marriage, he acquired the estates of Broich, Oberstein, Aspermont, Burgel and Reipolzkirchen. He and Maria had nine children.

In 1764, George William received Old Palace in Darmstadt and the associated pleasure garden as a gift from his father, who had always favoured him above his brother Louis. George William had the palace with the White Tower expanded. He represented the reigning family in Darmstadt, as his brother stayed mostly in Pirmasens.

Princess Alice of the United Kingdom

Princess Alice of the United Kingdom (Alice Maud Mary; 25 April 1843 – 14 December 1878) was the Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine from 1877 to 1878. She was the third child and second daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Alice was the first of Queen Victoria's nine children to die, and one of three to be outlived by their mother, who died in 1901.

Alice spent her early childhood in the company of her parents and siblings, travelling between the British royal residences. Her education was devised by Albert's close friend and adviser, Baron Stockmar, and included practical activities like needlework and woodwork and languages like French and German. When her father, Prince Albert, became fatally ill in December 1861, Alice nursed him until his death. Following his death, Queen Victoria entered a period of intense mourning and Alice spent the next six months acting as her mother's unofficial secretary. On 1 July 1862, while the court was still at the height of mourning, Alice married the minor German Prince Louis of Hesse, heir to the Grand Duchy of Hesse. The ceremony—conducted privately and with unrelieved gloom at Osborne House—was described by the Queen as "more of a funeral than a wedding". The Princess's life in Darmstadt was unhappy as a result of impoverishment, family tragedy and worsening relations with her husband and mother.

Alice was a prolific patron of women's causes and showed an interest in nursing, especially the work of Florence Nightingale. When Hesse became involved in the Austro-Prussian War, Darmstadt filled with the injured; the heavily pregnant Alice devoted a lot of her time to the management of field hospitals. One of her organisations, the Princess Alice Women's Guild, took over much of the day-to-day running of the state's military hospitals. As a result of this activity, Queen Victoria became concerned about Alice's directness about medical and, in particular, gynaecological, matters. In 1871, she wrote to Alice's younger sister, Princess Louise, who had recently married: "Don't let Alice pump you. Be very silent and cautious about your 'interior'". In 1877, Alice became Grand Duchess upon the accession of her husband, her increased duties putting further strains on her health. In late 1878, diphtheria infected the Hessian court. Alice nursed her family for over a month before falling ill herself, dying late that year.

Princess Alice was the mother of Tsaritsa Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia (wife of Tsar Nicholas II), maternal grandmother of Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (the last Viceroy of India), and maternal great-grandmother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (consort of Queen Elizabeth II). Another daughter, Elisabeth, who married Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia, was, like the tsaritsa and her family, killed by the Bolsheviks in 1918.

Princess Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt

Princess Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt (20 June 1754 – 21 June 1832) was a Hereditary Princess of Baden by marriage to Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden. She was the daughter of Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and Henriette Karoline of Palatine-Zweibrücken.

Princess Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt

Princess Friederike Caroline Luise of Hesse-Darmstadt (20 August 1752 – 22 May 1782) was a member of the House of Hesse and by marriage a Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

She is a direct matrilineal ancestor (through women only) of Queen Margarethe II of Denmark, King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands, King Albert II of Belgium, King Harald V of Norway, and Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg.

SV Darmstadt 98

SV Darmstadt 98 is a German football club based in Darmstadt, Hesse. The club was founded on 22 May 1898 as FC Olympia Darmstadt. Early in 1919, the association was briefly known as Rasen-Sportverein Olympia before merging with Darmstädter Sport Club 1905 on 11 November that year to become Sportverein Darmstadt 98. Merger partner SC was the product of a 1905 union between Viktoria 1900 Darmstadt and Germania 1903 Darmstadt. The footballers are today part of a sports club which also offers its approximately 5,500 members athletics, basketball, cheerleading, hiking, judo, and table tennis.

The football department competed in the Bundesliga for the 2015–16 and 2016–17 seasons after a 33-year run in lower leagues.

Technische Universität Darmstadt

The Technische Universität Darmstadt (unofficially Technical University of Darmstadt or Darmstadt University of Technology), commonly referred to as TU Darmstadt, is a research university in the city of Darmstadt, Germany. It was founded in 1877 and received the right to award doctorates in 1899. In 1882 it was the first university in the world to set up a chair in electrical engineering, and founded the first faculty for it in 1883. Nobel laureate Albert Einstein once recommended this university.[1] TU Darmstadt's alumni include 2 Nobel laureates and 2 Leibniz Prize winners.[2]

TU Darmstadt is a member of TU9, a network of the most notable German Technische Universitäten (universities of technology).

Climate data for Darmstadt
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15
(59)
17
(63)
24
(75)
29
(84)
31
(88)
35
(95)
35
(95)
38
(100)
30
(86)
26
(79)
18
(64)
15
(59)
38
(100)
Average high °C (°F) 5
(41)
7
(45)
11
(52)
15
(59)
20
(68)
23
(73)
25
(77)
25
(77)
20
(68)
14
(57)
8
(46)
5
(41)
15
(59)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
2.1
(35.8)
5.9
(42.6)
9.7
(49.5)
14.3
(57.7)
17.3
(63.1)
19.3
(66.7)
18.7
(65.7)
14.5
(58.1)
10
(50)
5.3
(41.5)
2.2
(36.0)
10.1
(50.2)
Average low °C (°F) −1
(30)
1
(34)
3
(37)
6
(43)
11
(52)
13
(55)
15
(59)
15
(59)
11
(52)
7
(45)
4
(39)
1
(34)
7
(45)
Record low °C (°F) −14
(7)
−12
(10)
−10
(14)
−4
(25)
1
(34)
3
(37)
6
(43)
7
(45)
2
(36)
−4
(25)
−8
(18)
−11
(12)
−14
(7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 55
(2.2)
53
(2.1)
66
(2.6)
49
(1.9)
76
(3.0)
67
(2.6)
75
(3.0)
66
(2.6)
63
(2.5)
66
(2.6)
63
(2.5)
66
(2.6)
765
(30.1)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 47 80 120 176 208 214 232 218 158 103 50 37 1,643
Source: Daily mean / Avg. precipitation / Mean sunshine hours (1981–2010), DWD[33]
Cities in Germany by population
1,000,000+
500,000+
200,000+
100,000+
Flag of Hesse Urban and rural districts in the state of Hesse in Germany Flag of Germany
Urban districts
Rural districts

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