Dantès Bellegarde

Dantès Bellegarde (18 May 1877 – 16 June 1966) [1] was a Haitian historian and diplomat. He is best known for his works Histoire du Peuple Haïtien (1953), La Résistance Haïtienne (1937), Haïti et ses Problèmes (1943), and Pour une Haïti Heureuse (1928–1929).

Dantès Bellegarde
Dantès Bellegarde

Early years

Bellegarde was born in Port-au-Prince to a poor mulatto family. His impoverished but small bourgeoisie background descended from several historical figures in Haiti's history. His maternal great-grandfather Jacques Ignace-Fresnal was an officer in the army and Haiti's first Minister of Justice, and founder of Haitian Freemasonry. His paternal grandfather, General Jean-Louis Bellegarde, was a former Governor of Port-au-Prince.[2]


Bellegarde served as Minister Plenipotentiary to Paris in 1921 and to Washington, D.C., in 1930.


He was bestowed by France as commander of the Legion of Honour and was holder of the Office of Public Instruction.[3]


  1. ^ Association de Genealogie d'Haiti
  2. ^ "Bellegarde, Dantès (1877-1966)". Black Past. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  3. ^ Rogers, J.A. (1996). "World's Great Men of Color, Volume 2". Macmillan Publishing Company. p. 555. ISBN 9780684815824. Retrieved 14 March 2015.

External links

  • Biography of Dantès Bellegarde
  • Schutt-Ainé, Patricia (1994). Haiti: A Basic Reference Book. Miami, Florida: Librairie Au Service de la Culture. p. 100. ISBN 0-9638599-0-0.
Alfred Auguste Nemours

Alfred Auguste Nemours (13 July 1883 – 17 October 1955) was a Haitian General, diplomat and military historian.

Argentine Bellegarde-Foureau

Argentine Bellegarde-Foureau (1842-1901) was a Haitian educator. She was the head of the national network of the girl schools of Haiti, the Pensionnat national des demoiselles, from 1880, and are regarded to have played an important part in the education of girls in Haiti. She was also known as a vocal critic of all abuse from both the liberal and national party, and spoke for solidarity and equal education for sexes as a principle to reform society.

Bellegarde (surname)

Bellegarde is a French surname derived from a toponym meaning "beautiful watch-tower or look-out" and may refer to the following:

Dantès Bellegarde (1877–1966), Haitian historian and diplomat

Perry Bellegarde (born 1962), national chief of the Canadian Assembly of First Nations

Roger de Saint-Lary de Bellegarde (died 1579)

Roger de Saint-Lary de Termes (1562–1646), duc de Bellegarde

Sophie Lalive de Bellegarde, French writer

Count Heinrich von Bellegarde (1756–1845), Austrian General of the French Revolutionary Wars

Cincinnatus Leconte

Jean-Jacques Dessalines Michel Cincinnatus Leconte was President of Haiti from 15 August 1911 until his death on 8 August 1912. He was the great-grandson of Jean-Jacques Dessalines—a leader of the Haitian Revolution and the first ruler of an independent Haiti—and was an uncle of Joseph Laroche, the only black passenger to perish on the RMS Titanic.

Collège Mixte Philadelphie – Dantès Bellegarde

Collège Mixte Philadelphie – Dantès Bellegarde is a private school located north of the neighborhood of Turgeau, in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The school was founded in 1958.

The school follows the Haitian Education System and offers lower to senior levels:

elementary (1– 6 grades)

middle (7–9 grades)

high school ( 10 –12 grades)

Constitution of Haiti

The Constitution of Haiti (French: Constitution d'Haïti) was modeled after the constitutions of the United States and France. The document was approved by Parliament in March 2011 and came into effect on June 20, 2012.

Deaths in June 1966

This is a list of deaths in June 1966:

June 1

Herbert Bowmer, English cricketer (b. 1891)

Cécile Butticaz, Swiss engineer (b. 1884)

Dick Cox, American baseball player (b. 1897)

Peter George, British author (b. 1924)

Don Herold, American illustrator (b. 1889)

Papa Jack Laine, American jazz musician (b. 1873)

June 2

François Ayoub, Syrian Archbishop of Aleppo and Cyprus (b. 1899)

Arthur P. Bedou, American photographer (b. 1882)

Joe Casey, American baseball player (b. 1887)

Évariste Kimba, Congolese politician, Prime Minister of Congo (later Zaire), executed (b. 1926)

Stephen King-Hall, Baron King-Hall, British politician, writer, and nobleman, MP (b. 1893)

June 3

Connie Brown, Canadian hockey player (b. 1917)

Alice Calhoun, American actress (b. 1900)

Dario Canas, Portuguese sports shooter, Olympic competitor at 1920 Summer Olympics and 1924 Summer Olympics (b. 1884)

Reuben Swinburne Clymer, American occultist (b. 1878)

Stuart Levy, British film producer (b. 1907)

Fionán Lynch, British and Irish politician, MP, TD, Irish Minister for Education and for Fisheries (b. 1889)

June 4

Chang Myon, South Korean statesman, Vice President, Prime Minister (b. 1899)

Arthur C. Cope, American organic chemist (b. 1909)

Teddy Davis, American boxer (b. 1923)

Blanche Knopf, American publisher (b. 1894)

Frances Gertrude Kumm, Australian philanthropist (b. 1886)

June 5

Edward Arthur Carr, British colonial administrator of Nigeria (b. 1903)

Oakley G. Kelly, American aviator (b. 1891)

Lee Choon Seng, Chinese-born Singaporean businessman (b. 1888)

Alexander Brown Mackie, American academic (b. 1894)

June 6

Sir Elias Wynne Cemlyn-Jones, Welsh politician (b. 1888)

Ethel Clayton, American actress (b. 1882)

Bernie Henderson, American baseball player (b. 1899)

Edward Iwi, English lawyer (b. 1904)

Wilhelm Jannasch, German clergyman and academic (b. 1888)

Heinz Liepmann, German writer (b. 1905)

June 7

Jean Arp, Alsatian sculptor, painter, and poet (b. 1887)

Norman Baillie-Stewart, British army officer known as "The Officer in the Tower" when he was imprisoned in the Tower of London for collaboration with Nazi Germany in World War II (b. 1909)

John Adam Day, British politician (b. 1901)

James Hickey, Irish politician, TD

Otto Hoogesteyn, German-born Dutch swimmer, competed in the 1924 Summer Olympics (b. 1903)

Otto Karhi, Finnish politician, MP (b. 1876)

June 8

Jim Dixon, American football player (b. 1904)

Karl Hasselmann, German cinematographer (b. 1883)

Anton Melik, Slovenian geographer (b. 1890)

June 9

Max Friz, German design engineer (b. 1883)

Sherry Edmundson Fry, American sculptor (b. 1879)

Tage von Gerber, Swedish genealogist (b. 1885)

Per Helmer, Norwegian businessman (b. 1897)

St Barbe Holland, English clergyman, Anglican Bishop of Wellington New Zealand (b. 1882)

June 10

Joseph Biondo, Italian-born American organized crime figure (b. 1897)

Felice Carena, Italian painter (b. 1879)

Gunnar Ekstrand, Swedish diver, competed in the 1912 and 1920 Summer Olympics (b. 1892)

Wally Fraser, Australian rules footballer (b. 1897)

June 11

Alfred Berger, Austrian pair skater, Olympic gold medalist in 1924 (b. 1894)

Thomas Hardie Chalmers, American opera singer and actor (b. 1884)

Rube Currie, American baseball player (b. 1898)

Timothy Curtis, English cricketer (b. 1882)

Jimmy Davies, American race car driver (b. 1929)

Wallace Ford, English-born American actor (b. 1898)

Stewart Judah, American illusionist (b. 1893)

Kumazawa Hiromichi, Japanese pretender to the imperial throne (b. 1889)

Jud Larson, American racecar driver (b. 1923)

June 12

William Ernest Hocking, American philosopher (b. 1873)

Hermann Scherchen, Austrian conductor (b. 1891)

June 13

Pierre Chaumié, French politician, member of the French Senate (b. 1880)

John K. Hodnette, American engineer (b. 1902)

Henry Hogbin, British politician, MP (b. 1880)

June 14

Walther Bacmeister, German jurist and ornithologist (b. 1873)

Cub Buck, American football player and coach and college athletics administrator (b. 1892)

Parnaoz Chikviladze, Soviet judoka, bronze medalist at the 1964 Summer Olympics (b. 1941)

Henny Dons, Norwegian educator and missionary (b. 1874)

June 15

Robert G. Fowler, American aviation pioneer (b. 1884)

Israel Kleiner, American biochemist (b. 1885)

June 16

Dantès Bellegarde, Haitian diplomat (b. 1877)

Lew Brice, American dancer and comedian (b. 1893)

Gen. Georg Keppler, German SS officer during World War II (b. 1894)

June 17

Betty Baxter Anderson, American author (b. 1908)

Hans Christern, German officer during World War II (b. 1900)

Luby DiMeolo, American football player and coach (b. 1903)

Fern Majeau, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1916)

June 18

German Galynin, Soviet composer (b. 1922)

Konrad Heiden, German-born American journalist and historian (b. 1901)

June 19

Sydney Allard, British racing motorist and founder of the Allard car company (b. 1910)

Chalmers Clifton, American conductor and composer (b. 1889)

Marjan Kozina, Slovene composer (b. 1907)

Ed Wynn, American actor (b. 1886)

June 20

Capt. Sir Malcolm Bullock, 1st Baronet, British soldier, politician, and nobleman, MP (b. 1890)

Wilhelm Busch, German pastor and anti-Nazi (b. 1897)

Cheng Bugao, Chinese film director (b. 1898)

Robert Hense, German footballer (b. 1885)

John Hubbard, 3rd Baron Addington, British aristocrat (b. 1883)

Paul Kuhn, German-born American opera singer (b. 1874)

Louis-Joseph Lebret, French priest and ethicist (b. 1897)

Georges Lemaître, Belgian priest and astrophysicist (b. 1894)

June 21

Reginald Calvert, British pirate radio station operator (b. 1928)

Ferdinando Innocenti, Italian businessman (b. 1891)

June 22

Roger Blunt, English-born New Zealand cricketer (b. 1900)

E. Yale Dawson, American botanist (b. 1918)

Warren S. Eaton, American aviation pioneer (b. 1891)

Victor Koumorico, Congolese politician, President of the Senate

June 23

Paul Cain, American author (b. 1902)

Ted Corday, Canadian-born American television executive (b. 1908)

Louis C. Cramton, American politician, United States Representative from Michigan (b. 1875)

Frank L. Hagaman, American politician, Governor of Kansas (b. 1894)

Weli Hohenthal, Russian modern pentathlete, competed at the 1912 Summer Olympics (b. 1880)

Clara Jacobo, Italian opera singer (b. c. 1898)

June 24

Edward Allworth, American officer in the United States Army during World War I (Medal of Honor) (b. 1895)

Eric Crankshaw, English cricketer and later Secretary, Government Hospitality Fund (b. 1885)

Mick Dunn, Australian rules footballer (b. 1898)

Otto-Wilhelm Förster, German general during World War II (b. 1885)

J.K. Kennedy, American basketball coach (b. 1907)

Mathilde Ludendorff, German psychiatrist and conspiracy theorist (b. 1877)

June 25

Ughetto Bertucci, Italian actor (b. 1907)

F. Henri Klickmann, American composer (b. 1885)

Hans Ferdinand Geisler, German Luftwaffe general during World War II (b. 1891)

Busher Jackson, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1911)

F. Henri Klickmann, American composer (b. 1885)

Wilf Loughlin, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1896)

Muriel Lowe, English cricketer (b. 1914)

Edmund Sebree, American army general (b. 1898)

June 26

François Dupré, French hotelier, art collector, racehorse owner/breeder (b. 1888)

George King, English film director (b. 1899)

June 27

John Davenport, English book reviewer and critic (b. 1908)

Marty Krug, German-born American baseball player (b. 1888)

June 28

Kenneth Miller Adams, American artist (b. 1897)

Gleason Archer, Sr., founder and first president of Suffolk University and Suffolk Law School in Boston, Massachusetts (b. 1880)

Frances Maule Bjorkman, American suffragist (b. 1879)

Mehmet Fuat Köprülü, Turkish politician, Minister of Foreign Affairs (b. 1890)

June 29

Lewis Bedford, English footballer (b. 1899)

Gustav Kampendonk, German screenwriter (b. 1909)

Damodar Dharmananda Kosambi, Indian mathematician and historian (b. 1907)

June 30

Margery Allingham, English writer of detective fiction (b. 1904)

Loretta Bayliss, New Zealand cricketer (b. 1939)

Mordaunt Doll, English cricketer (b. 1888)

Giuseppe Farina, Italian race car driver (b. 1906)

Ernest Fawcus, English cricketer (b. 1895)

E. B. C. Jones, British writer (b. 1893)

Jake Josvanger, Canadian politician, member of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta (b. 1908)

Donald Russell Long, American soldier, awarded the Medal of Honor (b. 1939)

Haitian literature

Haitian literature has been closely intertwined with the political life of Haiti. Haitian intellectuals turned successively or simultaneously to France, the UK, the United States, and African traditions. At the same time, Haitian history has always been a rich source of inspiration for literature, with its heroes, its upheavals, its cruelties and its rites.

Jean-Jacques Dessalines

Jean-Jacques Dessalines (Haitian Creole: Jan-Jak Desalin; French pronunciation: ​[ʒɑ̃ ʒak dɛsalin]; 20 September 1758 – 17 October 1806) was a leader of the Haitian Revolution and the first ruler of an independent Haiti under the 1805 constitution. Under Dessalines, Haiti became the first country in the Americas to permanently abolish slavery. Initially regarded as governor-general, Dessalines was later named Emperor Jacques I of Haiti (1804–1806) by the Generals of the Haitian Revolution Army. He is regarded as one of the founding fathers of Haiti.Dessalines served as an officer in the French army, when the colony was fending off Spanish and British incursions. Later he rose to become a commander in the revolt against France. As Toussaint Louverture's principal lieutenant, he led many successful engagements, including the Battle of Crête-à-Pierrot.

After the betrayal and capture of Toussaint Louverture in 1802, Dessalines became the leader of the revolution. He defeated a French army at the Battle of Vertières in 1803. Declaring Haiti an independent nation in 1804, Dessalines was chosen by a council of generals to assume the office of governor-general. He ordered the 1804 Haiti massacre of French settlers in Haiti, resulting in the deaths of between 3,000 and 5,000 people, but declared that all other whites such as the Polish Haitians could remain in the new country. In September 1804, he was proclaimed emperor by the Generals of the Haitian Revolution Army and ruled in that capacity until being assassinated in 1806.

Joseph Saint-Rémy

Joseph Saint-Rémy (1818 - 1856) was a Haitian historian. He is best known for his biography La Vie de Toussaint Louverture about the Haitian Revolution leader Toussaint L'Ouverture, and for his work Pétion et Haïti, about another Revolutionary figure, Alexandre Pétion. Born in Guadeloupe, Saint-Rémy emigrated to Haiti as a young child and grew up in Les Cayes before leaving for school in France.

Lamour Desrances

Lamour Desrances (also spelled L'Amour Desrances, Lamour Derance, and Lamour Dérance) was a Haitian revolutionary leader. A former maroon, he was born in Africa and brought to Saint-Domingue as a slave. During the revolution, when local figures often gained power in control of small armed forces, Desrances became a local military leader in the mountains surrounding Port-au-Prince and Saint-Marc.At the time of the War of Knives, Desrances was loyal to André Rigaud in his battle with Toussaint Louverture, and was one of the few black officers in the predominantly mulatto northern Rigaud-loyal army. After Rigaud's defeat by Louverture, Desrances is referred to as a rebel in Louverture's autobiography. Céligny Ardouin argues that Louverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines saw Desrances as a growing rival due to his power in the region, and determined to defeat him. Louverture marched on Desrances' forces in November 1802, and they scattered into the local forest.Two months later, the French forces arrived under Charles Leclerc and during L'Ouverture's open conflict with the French, Desrances notably changed his loyalty to the French under General Pampile de Lacroix to fight against Dessalines' forces. An enemy of L'Ouverture in both instances, L'Ouverture wrote of him: "L’Amour Desrances, who had caused all the inhabitants of the Plain of Cul-de-Sac to be assassinated; who urged the laborers to revolt; who pillaged all this part of the island." The combined force of French and Desrances' and others' local militias defeated Dessalines army at Port-au-Prince and forced their retreat.

List of Haitians

This is a list of Haitians, born in Haiti or possessing Haitian citizenship, notable in Haiti and abroad. Due to Haitian nationality laws, dual citizenship is now permitted by the Constitution of Haiti, therefore people of Haitian ancestry born outside of the country are not included in this list, unless they have renounced their foreign citizenship or have resided extensively in Haiti and made significant contributions to Haitian government or society. The list includes both native-born and naturalized Haitians, as well as permanent foreign residents who have been recognized internationally for artistic, cultural, economic, historical, criminal, or political reasons, among others. If not indicated here, their birth in Haiti and notability are mentioned in their main article. This list does not include fictional characters or Haitian associations and organizations.

List of ambassadors of Haiti to the United States

The Haitian ambassador in Washington, D. C. is the official representative of the Government in Port-au-Prince to the Government of the United States.

List of colleges in Haiti

This is a list of colleges in Haiti.

Max Hudicourt

Max Lélio Hudicourt (June 25, 1907 – May 4, 1947) was a Haitian lawyer, journalist and leading socialist politician.

Hudicourt was born in Port-au-Prince to an elite light-skinned family, but spent his childhood in Jérémie, his mother's hometown. He moved to Port-au-Prince to pursue a higher education and attend Law School. He was strongly influenced during those years by his uncle and mentor Pierre Hudicourt, with whom he lived, and who was a lawyer and Senator. He became politically active during the 1920s, becoming known as a gifted orator and contributor to leftist publications. When he graduated from law school, he worked in his uncle's law firm.

In 1933 occupying US Marines sought to rid Haiti of Marxist influence, launching a campaign for "The Suppression of Bolshevist Activities". Hudicourt was arrested, tried, and sentenced to three months in prison for purportedly being a communist along with Jacques Roumain. After his trial, Hudicourt made clear that while he identified the ideology's principles he was not personally a communist. A hunger strike and international attention won him and Roumain early releases from prison.

He continued to be an outspoken dissident against President Sténio Vincent, who he felt betrayed Haiti's nationalist movement by allying with the United States after the Marines withdrew. When Vincent declared his regime a dictatorship in 1938, Hudicourt helped organize a large demonstrations to which the authorities responded with severe repression. As protest leaders were rounded up and jailed, Hudicourt narrowly escaped arrest by fleeing to New York.

When he returned two years later after Élie Lescot succeeded Vincent in the presidency, he was immediately put under police surveillance. In 1941 he criticized a police chief while campaigning for a congressional seat. The police attacked him, beating him up, and Hudicourt was again exiled to the Dominican Republic and then New York.

He returned in 1942 after negotiations and was allowed to print a daily socialist newspaper called La Nation. He financed the paper from his own funds, raised from a small Pétion-Ville moviehouse he co-owned. It became the longest running Marxist daily in Haitian history and was widely circulated among literate urban workers.

Hudicourt accepted a minor diplomatic post in the Haitian government but subsequently refused to fulfill it in protest of President Lescot's dictates. Lescot barred him from the country. La Nation was shut down for "sowing hate and fomenting troubles".

As Haitian police and the FBI kept close watch on the faltering Haitian leftist movement, Hudicourt continued his political activity from exile in Harlem, New York. He attacked the Lescot government and US policy in the Caribbean and networked with other progressive intellectuals. His works from exile include "Haiti Faces Tomorrow's Peace" (1945) and "The Triumph of Fascism: Or the Haitian-American Mutual Responsibilities in Haitian Affairs" (1945).After Lescot was exiled amidst a popular revolution, Hudicourt returned to lead Parti Socialiste Populaire (Haiti) (PSP)". In 1946 he was elected as the PSP's candidate to Haiti's Chamber of Deputies, becoming the only sitting socialist politician. He was part of a 1947 failed high-level delegation to the United States to secure the forgiveness of occupation-era loans and debts.

In May of that year, Hudicourt was found slumped at his desk with a gunshot wound to his chest and revolver in hand. His apparent suicide was a total surprise to his allies in the PSP. Theories abounded that he was assassinated by political opponents or US agents, but his close friends said his death was the coda to a severe month-long depression. A draft article for La Nation naming corrupt civil and military officials lay on his desk.

Some months later the newspaper was raided and sacked by the Haitian police. His brother and other socialists assumed leadership of the PSP, which continued to spearhead leftist opposition to the Haitian government.

He married twice, to Marie Bellegarde (daughter of his next door neighbor, Dantès Bellegarde) and Julie Bartoli but left no children from either wife.

Patrick Bellegarde-Smith

Patrick Bellegarde-Smith is a professor of Africology at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. Smith is an associate editor of the Journal of Haitian Studies.

Philippe Hannibal Price

Philippe Hannibal Price was a Haitian diplomat and author.

After the fall of President Michel Domingue, Price became a Counselor to the Provisional Government of 1875 and was a serious advocate of Florvil Hyppolite.

From 1890 to 1893 he served as Minister Plenipotentiary to Washington, D.C.. It was during this time that he wrote his most famous book, De la Réhabilitation de la Race Noire par la République d'Haïti (English: On the Rehabilitation of the Black Race by the Republic of Haiti), published in 1893. Price died in Baltimore, Maryland of typhoid fever at the age of fifty-one.

United States occupation of Haiti

The United States occupation of Haiti began on July 28, 1915, when 330 US Marines landed at Port-au-Prince, Haiti, on the authority of US President Woodrow Wilson. The first invasion forces had already disembarked from USS Montana on January 27, 1914. The July intervention took place following the murder of dictator President Vilbrun Guillaume Sam by insurgents angered by his political executions of elite opposition.

The occupation ended on August 1, 1934, after President Franklin D. Roosevelt reaffirmed an August 1933 disengagement agreement. The last contingent of US Marines departed on August 15, 1934, after a formal transfer of authority to the Garde d'Haïti.

Émile Nau

Émile Nau (26 February 1812 - 27 February 1860) was a Haitian historian and politician. Born in Port-au-Prince, Nau's most famous work is Histoire des Caciques d'Haïti, a history of the "Caciques", or native inhabitants, of Haiti. Nau was the co-editor of two important magazines, Le Républicain and L'Union, which were published by his brother Ignace Nau. Emile and the Ardouin brothers, Beaubrun, Céligny, and Coriolan, were members of the literary society "The School of 1836" founded by his brother Ignace. Emile Nau also served as Delegate of Port-au-Prince during the Presidency of Jean-Pierre Boyer.

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