Daniel Nathans (October 30, 1928 – November 16, 1999) was an American microbiologist. He shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application in restriction mapping.
|Born||October 30, 1928|
|Died||November 16, 1999 (aged 71)|
|Education||University of Delaware (BS)|
Washington University in St. Louis (MD)
|Known for||Restriction enzymes|
|Awards||NAS Award in Molecular Biology (1976)|
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1978)
National Medal of Science (1993)
|Institutions||Johns Hopkins University|
Nathans was born in Wilmington, Delaware, the last of nine children born to Russian Jewish immigrant parents, Sarah (Levitan) and Samuel Nathans. During the Great Depression his father lost his small business and was unemployed for a long time.
Nathans attended public schools and then to the University of Delaware, where he received his BS degree in chemistry in 1950. He received his MD degree from Washington University in St. Louis in 1954. He then went to the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center for a one-year medical internship with Robert Loeb.
Wanting a break before his medical residency, Nathans became a clinical associate at the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. There he split his time between caring for patients receiving experimental cancer chemotherapy and research on recently discovered plasma-cell tumors in mice, similar to human multiple myeloma. Struck by how little was known about cancer biology, he became interested in protein synthesis in myeloma tumors, and published his first papers on this research.
Nathans returned to Columbia Presbyterian for a two-year residency in 1957, again on Robert Loeb's service. He continued working on the problem of protein synthesis as time allowed. In 1959, he decided to work on the research full time and became a research associate at Fritz Lipmann's lab at the Rockefeller Institute in New York.
In 1962, Nathans came to Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine as an assistant professor of microbiology. He was promoted to associate professor in 1965 and to professor in 1967. He became the director of the microbiology department in 1972 and served in that position until 1982. In 1981, the department of microbiology was renamed the department of molecular biology and genetics.
In 1982 Johns Hopkins University made Nathans a University Professor, a position in which he served until his death in 1999. He also became a senior investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute unit at the School of Medicine in 1982.
From 1995 to 1996, Nathans served as the interim president of Johns Hopkins University.
In January 1999, Johns Hopkins University established the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, a multidisciplinary clinical and research center named for Nathans and pioneering medical geneticist Victor McKusick.
Nathans was also given six honorary doctorates over the span of his career.
The year 1978 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.Carol W. Greider
Carolyn Widney "Carol" Greider (born April 15, 1961) is an American molecular biologist and Nobel laureate. She is a Bloomberg Distinguished Professor, Daniel Nathans Professor, and Director of Molecular Biology and Genetics at Johns Hopkins University. She discovered the enzyme telomerase in 1984, while she was a graduate student of Elizabeth Blackburn at the University of California, Berkeley. Greider pioneered research on the structure of telomeres, the ends of the chromosomes. She was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, along with Blackburn and Jack W. Szostak, for their discovery that telomeres are protected from progressive shortening by the enzyme telomerase.Hamilton O. Smith
Hamilton Othanel Smith (born August 23, 1931) is an American microbiologist and Nobel laureate.Smith was born on August 23, 1931, and graduated from University Laboratory High School of Urbana, Illinois. He attended the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, but in 1950 transferred to the University of California, Berkeley, where he earned his B.A. in Mathematics in 1952 . He received his medical degree from Johns Hopkins University in 1956. In 1975, he was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship he spent at the University of Zurich.
In 1970, Smith and Kent W. Wilcox discovered the first type II restriction enzyme, that is now called as HindII. Smith went on to discover DNA methylases that constitute the other half of the bacterial host restriction and modification systems, as hypothesized by Werner Arber of Switzerland.He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1978 for discovering type II restriction enzymes with Werner Arber and Daniel Nathans as co-recipients.
He later became a leading figure in the nascent field of genomics, when in 1995 he and a team at The Institute for Genomic Research sequenced the first bacterial genome, that of Haemophilus influenzae. H. influenza was the same organism in which Smith had discovered restriction enzymes in the late 1960s. He subsequently played a key role in the sequencing of many of the early genomes at The Institute for Genomic Research, and in the assembly of the human genome at Celera Genomics, which he joined when it was founded in 1998.
More recently, he has directed a team at the J. Craig Venter Institute that works towards creating a partially synthetic bacterium, Mycoplasma laboratorium. In 2003 the same group synthetically assembled the genome of a virus, Phi X 174 bacteriophage. Currently, Smith is scientific director of privately held Synthetic Genomics, which was founded in 2005 by Craig Venter to continue this work. Currently, Synthetic Genomics is working to produce biofuels on an industrial-scale using recombinant algae and other microorganisms.John O'Keefe (neuroscientist)
John O'Keefe, (born November 18, 1939) is an American-British neuroscientist and a professor at the Sainsbury Wellcome Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour and the Research Department of Cell and Developmental Biology at University College London. He discovered place cells in the hippocampus, and that they show a specific kind of temporal coding in the form of theta phase precession. In 2014, he received the Kavli Prize in Neuroscience "for the discovery of specialized brain networks for memory and cognition", together with Brenda Milner and Marcus Raichle. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2014 together with May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser.Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM), located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States (founded in 1893) is the academic medical teaching and research arm of the Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876. The School of Medicine shares a campus with the Johns Hopkins Hospital, established in 1889. Johns Hopkins has consistently ranked among the top medical schools in the United States, in the number of research grants awarded by the National Institutes of Health. Its main teaching hospital, the Johns Hopkins Hospital, was ranked the number one hospital in the United States for 22 years by U.S. News & World Report.List of Jewish American biologists and physicians
This is a list of famous Jewish American biologists and physicians. For other famous Jewish Americans, see List of Jewish Americans.
A. L. Mestel, pediatric surgeon, separation of conjoined twins (1968)
Abraham Low, neuropsychiatrist, Recovery International founder
Albert Sabin, oral polio vaccine
Albert Schatz, streptomycin
Albert Kligman, dermatologist
Alexander S. Wiener, hematologist and co-discoverer of the Rh factor
Alfred G. Gilman, biochemist, Nobel Prize (1994)
Arthur Kornberg, DNA replication, Nobel Prize (1959)
Baruch Blumberg, hepatitis B vaccine, Nobel Prize (1976)
Baruj Benacerraf, immunologist, Nobel Prize (1980)
Béla Schick, diphtheria test
Brian David Dynlacht, biochemist, TFIID (1991) and CP110 (2002)
Carl Djerassi, contraceptive pill
Casimir Funk, vitamins
Charles Kelman, cataract surgery
Charles Weissmann, interferon cloning
Charles Yanofsky, geneticist
Daniel Nathans, microbiologist, Nobel Prize (1978)
David Baltimore, reverse transcriptase, Nobel Prize (1975)
Edmond H. Fischer, biochemist, Nobel Prize (1992) (Jewish father)
Eric R. Kandel, neuroscientist, Nobel Prize (2000)
Eric Lander, Human Genome Project
Esther Lederberg, geneticist
Fritz Lipmann, coenzyme A, Nobel Prize (1953)
George Wald, retina pigmentation, Nobel Prize (1967).
Gerald Edelman, biologist, Nobel Prize (1972)
Gertrude Elion, drug development, Nobel Prize (1988)
Gerty Cori, biochemist, Nobel Prize (1947)
Gregory Pincus, contraceptive pill
H. Robert Horvitz, biologist, Nobel Prize (2002)
Harold Varmus, virologist, Nobel Prize (1989)
Hermann Muller, geneticist, Nobel Prize (1946) (Jewish mother)
Horace Hodes, pediatrician
Howard Temin, reverse transcriptase, Nobel Prize (1975)
Hugh Iltis, botanist
Jared Diamond, evolutionary biologist and biogeographer
Jerome Horowitz, AZT
Jonas Salk, polio vaccine
Joseph Erlanger, physiologist, Nobel Prize (1945)
Joseph L. Goldstein, molecular geneticist, Nobel Prize (1985)
Joshua Lederberg, molecular biologist, Nobel Prize (1958)
Judah Folkman, cancer angiogenesis
Julius Axelrod, neurotransmitters, Nobel Prize (1970)
Karl Pribram, neurologist
Konrad Bloch, cholesterol, Nobel Prize (1959)
Leo Sternbach, valium
Lynn Margulis, Gaia theory
Marshall Nirenberg, genetic code, Nobel Prize (1968)
Martin Rodbell, biochemist, Nobel Prize (1994)
Matthew Meselson, DNA replication
Max Tishler, synthetic vitamins
Michael S. Brown, molecular geneticist, Nobel Prize (1985)
Michael Heidelberger, immunochemist
Michael S. Levine, developmental biologist, discoverer of homeobox
Ora Mendelsohn Rosen, insulin receptor
Otto Loewi, pharmacologist and psychobiologist, Noble Prize (1936)
Otto Meyerhof, glycolysis, Nobel Prize (1922)
Otto Saly Binswanger, toxicologist
Paul Berg, recombinant DNA, Nobel Prize (1980)
Paul Greengard, neuroscientist, Nobel Prize (2000)
Rachel Haurwitz, biochemist and structural biologist
Richard Axel, olfactory system, Nobel Prize (2004)
Richard Bing, cardiologist
Arthur J. Moss, cardiologist
Richard Lewontin, evolutionary biologist
Rita Levi-Montalcini, neurologist, Nobel Prize (1986)
Robert F. Furchgott, pharmacologist, Nobel Prize (1998)
Roger Kornberg, RNA transcription, Nobel Prize (2006) (son of Arthur Kornberg)
Rosalyn Yalow, medical physicist, Nobel Prize (1977)
Rosalind Franklin, X-ray crystallographer
Rudolf Schoenheimer, radioactive tracers
Salvador Luria, bacterial evolution, Nobel Prize (1969)
Selman Waksman, streptomycin, Nobel Prize (1952)
Stanley Cohen, neurologist, Nobel Prize (1986)
Stanley N. Cohen, genetic engineering
Stanley Miller, Miller-Urey experiment
Stanley Prusiner, neurologist, Nobel Prize (1997)
Stephen Jay Gould, evolutionary biologist and writer
Victor Dzau, President of the United States National Academy of Medicine
Werner Spitz, forensic pathologistList of Nobel laureates affiliated with Johns Hopkins University
The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. Another prize, the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributors to the field of economics. Each prize is awarded by a separate committee: the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, and Economics, the Karolinska Institute awards the Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Prize in Peace. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a cash prize that has varied throughout the years. In 1901, the winners of the first Nobel Prizes were given 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. In 2008, the winners were awarded a prize amount of 10,000,000 SEK. The awards are presented in Stockholm in an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.As of 2011, there have been 36 Nobel laureates affiliated with Johns Hopkins University. Johns Hopkins considers laureates who attended the university as undergraduate students, graduate students or were members of the faculty as affiliated laureates. Woodrow Wilson, who received his Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins in 1886, was the first Johns Hopkins-affiliated laureate, winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919. Four Nobel Prizes were shared by Johns Hopkins laureates: George Minot and George Whipple won the 1934 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser won the 1944 Nobel Prize in Physiology in Medicine, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith won the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Eighteen Johns Hopkins laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, more than any other category. Twenty-four laureates were members of the Johns Hopkins faculty, five laureates received their Ph.D. at Johns Hopkins, eight laureates received their M.D. at Johns Hopkins, and two laureates, Francis Peyton Rous and Martin Rodbell, received their undergraduate degrees at Johns Hopkins.List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Washington University in St. Louis
The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. Another prize, the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributors to the field of economics. Each prize is awarded by a separate committee; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, and Economics, the Karolinska Institute awards the Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Prize in Peace. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a cash prize that has varied throughout the years. In 1901, the winners of the first Nobel Prizes were given 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. In 2008, the winners were awarded a prize amount of 10,000,000 SEK. The awards are presented in Stockholm in an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.As of 2014, there have been 23 laureates affiliated with Washington University in St. Louis. Washington University considers laureates who attended the university as undergraduate students, graduate students or were members of the faculty as affiliated laureates. Arthur Compton, the chancellor of the university from 1945 to 1953, was the first laureate affiliated with the university, winning the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927. Four Nobel Prizes were shared by Washington University laureates; Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser won the 1944 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Carl Ferdinand Cori and wife Gerty Cori won the 1947 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Arthur Kornberg and Severo Ochoa won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and Daniel Nathans and George Davis Snell won the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Seventeen Washington University laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, more than any other category. With the exception of Daniel Nathans, who received his M.D. from Washington University and William E. Moerner who received his undergraduate degrees from the university, all Washington University laureates have been members of the university faculty.List of Washington University alumni
The following persons are well-known alumni, living and deceased, of Washington University in St. Louis.List of discoveries
This article presents a list of discoveries and includes famous observations. Discovery observations form acts of detecting and learning something. Discovery observations are acts in which something is found and given a productive insight. The observation assimilates the knowledge of a phenomenon or the recording of data using instruments.Marilyn Kozak
Marilyn S. Kozak Ph.D. is a Professor of Biochemistry at the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. She was previously at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey before the school was merged. She was awarded a Ph.D in microbiology by Johns Hopkins University studying the synthesis of the Bacteriophage MS2, advised by Daniel Nathans. In her original faculty job proposal, she sought to study the mechanism of eukaryotic translation initiation, a problem long thought to have already been solved by Joan Steitz.
While in the Department of Biological Sciences at University of Pittsburgh, she published a series of studies that established the scanning model of translation initiation and the Kozak consensus sequence. Her current research interests are unknown as her last publication was in 2008.Mildred Trotter
Mildred Trotter (February 3, 1899 – August 23, 1991) was an American pioneer as a forensic historian and forensic anthropologist.Trotter was born in Monaca, Pennsylvania. She received her B.A. in zoology and physiology from Mount Holyoke College in 1920. She was hired by the Washington University in St. Louis as a researcher in the School of Medicine and Department of Anatomy. Her work contributed to her degree. She received a Master's in 1921, and a Ph.D. in anatomy in 1924, whereupon she became an instructor of anatomy. She accepted a National Research Council Fellowship in Physical Anthropology for the 1925-26 academic year, and studied at Oxford University in England, with Arthur Thomson. As a result of this work, she published her first research paper on bone, "The Moveable Segments of the Vertebral Column in Old Egyptians".She returned to Washington University School of Medicine the following year and was promoted to assistant professor by Robert J. Terry, the head of the Department of Anatomy. Four years later she received tenure and became an associate professor. In 1946, after complaining to the head of the Anatomy Department, E.V. Cowdry, and being evaluated by a committee, Trotter was finally promoted to full professor of Gross Anatomy, becoming the first woman to hold that rank at Washington University.In 1948, Trotter was granted a 14-month leave of absence from Washington University, to work with the U.S. Army's Graves Registration Service, at the Central Identification Laboratory at Schofield Barracks in Hawaii. Her job was to help identify the remains of U.S. servicemen and servicewomen. Her laboratory identified 94 percent of the remains analyzed.Trotter's work with Goldine C. Gleser in 1952 created statistical regression formulae for the calculation of stature estimates from human long bones, based on a population of American casualties of the Korean War and the Terry collection of human remains. These formulae are still widely applied in the field.In 1958, Trotter became Professor of Anatomy, holding that position until 1967, when she became subject to mandatory retirement at the age of 68. As professor emeritus, she continued to be active in research, lecturing, and writing until 1984. Between 1926 and 1967 she taught nearly 4,000 students, including Nobel laureates Dr. Earl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr. and Dr. Daniel Nathans.She was a founding member of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and their first woman president (1955-1957). She was president of the Missouri State Anatomical Board from 1957 to 1967, and president of the St. Louis Anatomical Board from 1941-1948 and from 1949-1967.At age 86, Dr. Trotter suffered a disabling stroke. At her wish, her body was donated after her death on August 23, 1991 to the Washington University School of Medicine.NAS Award in Molecular Biology
The NAS Award in Molecular Biology is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "for recent notable discovery in molecular biology by a young scientist who is a citizen of the United States." It has been awarded annually since its inception in 1962.Nathans
Nathans may refer to:
Nathan's Famous, a restaurant chain
Daniel Nathans, an American microbiologistRestriction enzyme
A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites. Restrictions enzymes are one class of the broader endonuclease group of enzymes. Restriction enzymes are commonly classified into five types, which differ in their structure and whether they cut their DNA substrate at their recognition site, or if the recognition and cleavage sites are separate from one another. To cut DNA, all restriction enzymes make two incisions, once through each sugar-phosphate backbone (i.e. each strand) of the DNA double helix.
These enzymes are found in bacteria and archaea and provide a defence mechanism against invading viruses. Inside a prokaryote, the restriction enzymes selectively cut up foreign DNA in a process called restriction digestion; meanwhile, host DNA is protected by a modification enzyme (a methyltransferase) that modifies the prokaryotic DNA and blocks cleavage. Together, these two processes form the restriction modification system.Over 3000 restriction enzymes have been studied in detail, and more than 600 of these are available commercially. These enzymes are routinely used for DNA modification in laboratories, and they are a vital tool in molecular cloning.Restriction modification system
The restriction modification system (RM system) is found in bacteria and other prokaryotic organisms, and provides a defense against foreign DNA, such as that borne by bacteriophages.
Bacteria have restriction enzymes, also called restriction endonucleases, which cleave double stranded DNA at specific points into fragments, which are then degraded further by other endonucleases. This prevents infection by effectively destroying the foreign DNA introduced by an infectious agent (such as a bacteriophage). Approximately one-quarter of known bacteria possess RM systems and of those about one-half have more than one type of system.
As the sequences recognized by the restriction enzymes are very short, the bacterium itself will almost certainly contain some within its genome. In order to prevent destruction of its own DNA by the restriction enzymes, methyl groups are added. These modifications must not interfere with the DNA base-pairing, and therefore, usually only a few specific bases are modified on each strand.
Endonucleases cleave internal/non-terminal phosphodiester bonds. Restriction endonucleases cleave internal phosphodiester bonds only after recognising specific sequences in DNA which are usually 4-6 base pairs long, and often palindromic.Victor A. McKusick
Victor Almon McKusick (October 21, 1921 – July 22, 2008) was an American internist and medical geneticist, and Professor of Medicine at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore. He was a proponent of the mapping of the human genome due to its use for studying congenital diseases. He is well known for his studies of the Amish and, what he called, "little people". He was the original author and, until his death, remained chief editor of Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) and its online counterpart Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). He is widely known as the "father of medical genetics".Washington University School of Medicine
Washington University School of Medicine (WUSM), located in St. Louis, Missouri, is the medical school of Washington University in St. Louis on the eastern border of Forest Park in St. Louis. Founded in 1891, the School of Medicine has 1,260 students, 604 of which are pursuing a medical degree with or without a combined Doctor of Philosophy or other advanced degree. It also offers doctorate degrees in biomedical research through the Division of Biology and Biological Sciences. The School has developed large physical therapy (273 students) and occupational therapy (233 students) programs, as well as the Program in Audiology and Communication Sciences (100 students) which includes a Doctor of Audiology (Au.D.) degree and a Master of Science in Deaf Education (M.S.D.E.) degree. There are 1,772 faculty, 1,022 residents, and 765 fellows.The clinical service is provided by Washington University Physicians, a comprehensive medical and surgical practice providing treatment in more than 75 medical specialties. Washington University Physicians are the medical staffs of the two teaching hospitals - Barnes-Jewish Hospital and St. Louis Children's Hospital. They also provide inpatient and outpatient care at the St. Louis Veteran's Administration Hospital, hospitals in the BJC HealthCare system and 35 other office locations throughout the greater St Louis region.
U.S. News and World Report ranks the college high; the school is currently ranked 6th for research and has been ranked as high as 2nd in 2003 and 2004,. It has been listed among the top ten medical schools since rankings were first published in 1987. The school ranks first in the nation in student selectivity.Werner Arber
Werner Arber (born 3 June 1929 in Gränichen, Aargau) is a Swiss microbiologist and geneticist. Along with American researchers Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans, Werner Arber shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of restriction endonucleases. Their work would lead to the development of recombinant DNA technology.