Daniel Keyes

Daniel Keyes (August 9, 1927 – June 15, 2014) was an American writer who wrote the novel Flowers for Algernon. Keyes was given the Author Emeritus honor by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America in 2000.[1]

Daniel Keyes
Daniel Keyes
Daniel Keyes
BornAugust 9, 1927
Brooklyn, New York
DiedJune 15, 2014 (aged 86)
Boca Raton, Florida
OccupationFiction writer
Alma materNew York University, Brooklyn College
GenreScience fiction
Notable worksFlowers for Algernon (1959)
The Minds of Billy Milligan (1981)
Notable awardsHugo Award (1960)
Nebula Award (1966)
Kurd Lasswitz Award (1986)
Seiun Award (1993)
Locus Award (1998)
SpouseAurea Georgina Vazquez
Children2 daughters


Early life and career

Keyes was born in New York City, New York.[2] His family was Jewish.[3][4] He attended New York University briefly before joining the United States Maritime Service at 17, working as a ship's purser on oil tankers.[2] Afterward he returned to New York and in 1950 received a bachelor's degree in psychology from Brooklyn College.[2]

A month after graduation, Keyes joined publisher Martin Goodman's magazine company, Magazine Management.[2] He eventually became an editor of their pulp magazine Marvel Science Stories[5] (cover-dated Nov. 1950 – May 1952) after editor Robert O. Erisman,[6] and began writing for the company's comic-book lines Atlas Comics, the 1950s precursors of Marvel Comics. After Goodman ceased publishing pulps in favor of paperback books and men's adventure magazines, Keyes became an associate editor of Atlas[1] under editor-in-chief and art director Stan Lee. Circa 1952, Keyes was one of several staff writers, officially titled editors, who wrote for such horror and science fiction comics as Journey into Unknown Worlds, for which Keyes wrote two stories with artist Basil Wolverton.[7]

As Keyes recalled, Goodman offered him a job under Lee after Marvel Science Stories ceased publication:

Since my $17.25-a-month rent was almost due, I accepted what I considered a detour on my journey toward a literary career. Stan Lee ... let his editors deal with the scriptwriters, cartoonists, and lettering crew. Writers turned in plot synopses, Stan read them, and as a matter of course, would accept one or two from each of the regulars he referred to as his "stable." As one of his front men, I would pass along comments and criticism. ... Because of my experience editing Marvel and because I'd sold a few science fiction stories by then, Stan allowed me to specialize in the horror, fantasy, suspense, and science fiction comic books. Naturally, I began submitting story ideas, getting freelance assignment, and supplementing my salary by writing scripts on my own time.[8]

One story idea Keyes wrote but did not submit to Lee was called "Brainstorm", the paragraph-long synopsis that would evolve into Flowers for Algernon. It begins: "The first guy in the test to raise the I.Q. from a low normal 90 to genius level ... He goes through the experience and then is thrown back to what was." Keyes recalled, "something told me it should be more than a comic book script."[8]

From 1955 to 1956, Keyes wrote for EC Comics, including its titles Shock Illustrated and Confessions Illustrated, under both his own name and the pseudonyms Kris Daniels and A.D. Locke.[7]

Flowers for Algernon

The short story and subsequent novel, Flowers for Algernon, is written as progress reports of a mentally disabled man, Charlie, who undergoes experimental surgery and briefly becomes a genius before the effects tragically wear off. The story was initially published in the April 1959 issue of The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction and the expanded novel in 1966.[9] The novel has been adapted several times for other media, most prominently as the 1968 film Charly, starring Cliff Robertson (who won an Academy Award for Best Actor) and Claire Bloom. Keyes also won the Hugo Award in 1959 and the Nebula Award in 1966 for the story.[1][10]

Later career

Keyes taught creative writing at Wayne State University, and in 1966 he became an English and creative writing professor at Ohio University, in Athens, Ohio, where he was honored as a professor emeritus in 2000.[5][11][12]


Keyes died at his home in Boca Raton on June 15, 2014, due to complications from pneumonia.[9][13][14] He is survived by two daughters, Leslie and Hillary, and his sister Gail Marcus. His wife Aurea Georgina Vazquez died in 2013.[9]





  • Flowers for Algernon (short story) (1959)[10]
  • Flowers for Algernon (novel) (1966) (adapted for cinema as Charly, 1968)[9]
  • The Touch (1968; vt The Contaminated Man 1977)[20]
  • The Fifth Sally (1980)[20]
  • The Minds of Billy Milligan (1981) (film adaptation unproduced as of August 2014)[21]
  • Unveiling Claudia (1986)
  • Daniel Keyes Collected Stories (Japan, 1993)
  • The Milligan Wars: A True-Story Sequel (Japan, 1994)
  • Until Death (1998)
  • Algernon, Charlie, and I: A Writer's Journey (2000)
  • The Asylum Prophecies (2009)


  1. ^ a b c d "In Memoriam – Daniel Keyes 1927–2014". Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America. June 17, 2014. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d Chambers, Robert, ed. (1993). The Play of Daniel Keyes' Flowers for Algernon. Heinemann. p. vii. ISBN 978-0-435-23293-1. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  3. ^ The National Jewish Monthly, B'nai B'rith, vol. 82-83 (1967), p. 172
  4. ^ Research Studies, Washington State University, vol. 40 (1972), p. 53
  5. ^ a b Budrys, Algis (August 1966). "Galaxy Bookshelf". Galaxy Science Fiction. pp. 186–194.
  6. ^ Ashley, Michael (2005). Transformations: Volume 2 in the History of Science Fiction Magazine, 1950–1970. Liverpool University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0853237693.
  7. ^ a b "Daniel Keyes". Grand Comics Database. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  8. ^ a b Keyes, Daniel (1999). Algernon, Charlie, and I: A Writer's Journey. Boca Raton, FL: Challcrest Press Books. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-0-547-56408-1.
  9. ^ a b c d Slotnik, Daniel E. (June 17, 2014). "Daniel Keyes, a Novelist of the Mind, Dies at 86". The New York Times. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  10. ^ a b Langer, Emily (June 18, 2014). "Daniel Keyes, author of the classic book 'Flowers for Algernon,' dies at 86". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  11. ^ Winters, Rae (December 1, 2009). "Keyes Biography". Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  12. ^ Woodward, Dwight (Fall 2000). "'Algernon' lives on". Ohio Today. Ohio University. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  13. ^ "Daniel Keyes (1927–2014)". Locus Online. June 17, 2014. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  14. ^ Sedensky, Matt (June 18, 2014). "Daniel Keyes, novelist whose "Flowers for Algernon" is a classroom staple, dies at 86". Toronto Star. Associated Press. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  15. ^ "1960 Hugo Awards". Hugo Awards. Archived from the original on May 7, 2011. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  16. ^ "KLP 1986 Preisträger" (in German). Kurd-Laßwitz-Preis. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  17. ^ "sfadb: Seiun Awards 1993". www.sfadb.com. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
  18. ^ "1967 Hugo Awards". Hugo Awards. Archived from the original on February 11, 2012. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  19. ^ a b "Edgar Award Winners and Nominees Database". Mystery Writers of America. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  20. ^ a b "Daniel Keyes: 40 Years of Algernon (excerpt)". Locus. June 1997. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  21. ^ The film adaptation of The Minds of Billy Milligan, originally announced as A Crowded Room (under James Cameron) then as The Crowded Room (under Joel Schumacher), was at some point announced for 2008, but didn't materialize. As of August 2014, the film remains in limbo [1] and its IMDb entry (in-development entry at the Wayback Machine (archived November 29, 2010)) has been deleted.

External links

18th World Science Fiction Convention

The 18th World Science Fiction Convention, also known as Pittcon, was held September 3–5, 1960, at the Penn-Sheraton Hotel in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.

The chairman was Dirce Archer. The guest of honor was James Blish. The toastmaster was Isaac Asimov. Total attendance was 568.

1966 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1966.

2014 in comics

Notable events of 2014 in comics. See also List of years in comics.

This is a list of comics-related events in 2014. It includes any relevant comics-related events, deaths of notable comics-related people, conventions and first issues by title.

Ash Lieb

Ash Lieb (born 22 August 1982) is an Australian artist, writer and comedian, known for his surreal humour and art. Born in Ballarat, Ash Lieb began exhibiting art at eight years of age, and at the age of fifteen, wrote his first novel, The Secret Well. Throughout his career, Lieb has created a diverse range of artworks, books, short films, and comedic performances, which have often possessed philosophical or psychiatric undertones.

Author Emeritus

Author Emeritus was an honorary title annually bestowed by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America upon a living writer. It was created in 1995 "as a way to recognize and appreciate senior writers in the genres of science fiction and fantasy who have made significant contributions to our field but who are no longer active or whose excellent work may no longer be as widely known as it once was." The Author Emeritus is invited to speak at the annual Nebula Awards banquet.The Author Emeritus was inaugurated in 1995 and conferred 14 times in 16 years to 2010 (at the 1994 to 2009 Nebula Awards banquets). Three years later, no more had been named and SFWA simply stated, "This year's Nebula Awards Weekend will not feature an Author Emeritus." By October 2013, early in the 20th year of the honor, SFWA had made unavailable general information about the Author Emeritus and a compiled list of honorees.

1995 Emil Petaja

1996 Wilson Tucker

1997 Judith Merril

1998 Nelson S. Bond

1999 William Tenn

2000 Daniel Keyes

2001 Robert Sheckley

2002 —

2003 Katherine MacLean

2004 Charles L. Harness—declined the banquet invitation due to being unable to travel and was honored by SFWA as an "Author of Distinction"

2005 —

2006 William F. Nolan

2007 D. G. Compton

2008 Ardath Mayhar

2009 M. J. Engh

2010 Neal Barrett, Jr.

Carl Wessler

Carroll O. Wessler (May 25, 1913 – April 9, 1989), better known as Carl Wessler, was an American animator of the 1930s and a comic book writer from the 1940s though the 1980s for such companies as DC Comics, EC Comics, Marvel Comics, and Warren Publishing.

Wessler was one of at least five staff writers (officially titled editors) under editor-in-chief Stan Lee at Marvel's 1950s forerunner, Atlas Comics.

Charlie and Algernon

Charlie and Algernon is a musical with a book and lyrics by David Rogers and music by Charles Strouse. It is based on the novel Flowers for Algernon by Daniel Keyes. It received its premiere on 21 December 1978 at The Citadel Theater, in Edmonton, Canada.


Charly (marketed and stylized as CHAЯLY) is a 1968 American drama film, directed and produced by Ralph Nelson, and written by Stirling Silliphant. It was based on Flowers for Algernon, a science fiction short story (1958) and subsequent novel (1966) by Daniel Keyes.

The film stars Cliff Robertson as Charly Gordon, an mentally retarded adult who is selected by two doctors to undergo a surgical procedure that triples his IQ as it did for Algernon, a laboratory mouse who also underwent the same procedure; additional roles are co-played by Claire Bloom, Lilia Skala, Leon Janney, and Dick Van Patten. Robertson was reprising his previous portrayal of the same role in a 1961 television adaptation, "The Two Worlds of Charlie Gordon", an episode of the anthology series The United States Steel Hour.

The film received positive reviews, and was a success at the box office and, a generation later, in home media sales.

Confessions Illustrated

Confessions Illustrated was a black-and-white magazine published by EC Comics in early 1956. Part of EC's Picto-Fiction line, each magazine featured three to five stories. The format alternated blocks of text with several illustrations per page.

The first issue had a cover date of January–February 1956, but the second issue was the last. A third issue existed but was not printed by EC. The Picto-Fiction magazines lost money from the start, and the line was canceled when EC's distributor went bankrupt.

Confessions Illustrated was edited by Al Feldstein. The stories were written by Daniel Keyes. Artists featured include Bud Parke, Jack Kamen, Joe Orlando, Wally Wood, Johnny Craig, Rudy Nappi and Reed Crandall.

In 2006 Confessions Illustrated was reprinted along with the other Picto-Fiction magazines by publisher Russ Cochran (and Gemstone Publishing) in hardbound volumes as the final part of his Complete EC Library. The reprint volume included the previously unpublished third issue of Confessions Illustrated.

Flowers for Algernon

Flowers for Algernon is a science fiction short story and subsequent novel written by Daniel Keyes. The short story, written in 1958 and first published in the April 1959 issue of The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, won the Hugo Award for Best Short Story in 1960. The novel was published in 1966 and was joint winner of that year's Nebula Award for Best Novel (with Babel-17).Algernon is a laboratory mouse who has undergone surgery to increase his intelligence by artificial means. The story is told by a series of progress reports written by Charlie Gordon, the first human test subject for the surgery, and it touches upon many different ethical and moral themes such as the treatment of the mentally disabled.Although the book has often been challenged for removal from libraries in the United States and Canada, sometimes successfully, it is frequently taught in schools around the world and has been adapted many times for television, theatre, radio, and as the Academy Award-winning film Charly.

Flowers for Algernon (film)

Flowers for Algernon is a 2000 American-Canadian television film written by John Pielmeier, directed by Jeff Bleckner and starring Matthew Modine. It is the second screen adaptation of Daniel Keyes' novel of the same name following the 1968 film Charly.

Hydra Club

The Hydra Club was a social organization of science fiction professionals and fans. It met in New York City during the 1940s and 1950s.

It was founded October 25, 1947 in the apartment of Judith Merril and Frederik Pohl on Grove Street in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of New York. As nine founders were present, the club took its name from the legendary nine-headed monster, the Hydra.

Among its members were Lester del Rey, David A. Kyle, Frederik Pohl, Judith Merril, Martin Greenberg, Robert W. Lowndes, Philip Klass, Jack Gillespie, David Reiner, L. Jerome Stanton, Fletcher and Inga Pratt, Willy Ley, George O. Smith, Basil Davenport, Sam Merwin, Harry Harrison, Jerome Bixby, Groff Conklin, Bea Mahaffey, Murray Leinster, Jack Coggins, and J. Harry Dockweiler.An article by Merril about the club in the November 1951 Marvel Science Fiction was accompanied by Harry Harrison's drawing caricaturing 41 members:

Harrison's caption adds, "The remaining twenty-odd members showed up too late at the meeting."

Joel Schumacher

Joel T. Schumacher (; born August 29, 1939) is an American film director, screenwriter, and producer.

Schumacher rose to fame after directing hit films, including: St. Elmo's Fire (1985), The Lost Boys (1987) and Flatliners (1990). He later went on to direct John Grisham adaptations The Client (1994) and A Time to Kill (1996). His films Falling Down (1993) and 8mm (1999) competed for Palme d'Or and Golden Bear, respectively.

In 1993, he signed on to direct the next installments of the Batman film series. Schumacher-directed Batman films Batman Forever (1995) and Batman & Robin (1997) received mixed-to-negative reactions from both critics and the public. After the Batman films, Schumacher pulled back from blockbusters and returned to making minimalist films such as Tigerland (2000) and Phone Booth (2002), both earning positive reviews. He also directed The Phantom of the Opera (2004), The Number 23 (2007), and two episodes of House of Cards.

Known for casting young actors, Schumacher helped actors like Colin Farrell, Kiefer Sutherland, and Matthew McConaughey to launch careers.

List of Marvel Comics people

Marvel Comics is an American comic book company. These are some of the people (artists, editors, executives, writers) who have been associated with the company in its history, as Marvel and its predecessors, Timely Comics and Atlas Comics.

Loudoun Rangers

The Loudoun Rangers, also known as Mean's Rangers for their commander, Samuel C. Means, was a partisan cavalry unit raised in Loudoun County, Virginia, that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. The Rangers have the distinction of being the only unit raised in present-day Virginia to serve in the Union Army.

The Loudoun Rangers were formed in the spring of 1862, when the Union Army first occupied Loudoun County as part of its campaign in the Shenandoah Valley. Returning with the army was local unionist Samuel Means, who had been run out of the county the previous year by local Confederates. Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton issued Means orders to raise a company of men to serve as an independent command, of which he would be captain, for special service in Loudoun and along the Virginia-Maryland border. Recruiting operations were established in the northern Loudoun Valley, an area of strong unionist sentiment, eventually leading to the formation of 2 companies. For the first two years of service the Loudoun Rangers served as partisans, often in conjunction with Cole's Maryland Cavalry (1st Potomac Home Brigade) fighting their confederate counterparts, such as White's Comanches, Mosby's Rangers and John Mobberly's renegade band in and around Loudoun. In 1864 the Rangers were absorbed into regular service, leading to Means' departure. Daniel Keyes subsequently took his place as leader of the outfit. During the final years of the war the Rangers were attached to the Union army in the Shenandoah Valley and took part in the Valley Campaigns of 1864 under General Phillip Sheridan. As the war in the valley came to an end, the Rangers returned to their partisan role and were eventually effectively broken up in April 1865 when a detachment of Mosby's Rangers raided their camp at Castleman's Ferry and captured the better part of the command. The Rangers were officially mustered out of service the following month.

Nebula Awards Showcase 2001

Nebula Awards Showcase 2001 is an anthology of science fiction short works edited by Robert Silverberg. It was first published in hardcover and trade paperback by Harcourt in April 2001.

That Hell-Bound Train

"That Hell-Bound Train" is a fantasy short story by American writer Robert Bloch. It was originally published in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction in September 1958.

The Minds of Billy Milligan

The Minds of Billy Milligan is a non-fiction novel portraying Billy Milligan, the first person in U.S. history acquitted of a major crime by pleading multiple-personality disorder. The novel was originally published in 1981, written by Hugo Award winning author Daniel Keyes, who received a bachelor's degree in psychology from Brooklyn College in 1950.The sequel, entitled The Milligan Wars, was later published in Japan in 1994. According to the author, its release in the United States is tied to the release of the upcoming film adaptation entitled The Crowded Room.

The Touch

The Touch may refer to:

In film:

The Touch (1971 film), a Swedish film by Ingmar Bergman

The Touch (2002 film), a Hong Kong film starring Michelle YeohIn literature:

The Touch (McCullough novel), a novel by Colleen McCullough

The Touch (Wilson novel), a novel by F. Paul Wilson

The Touch, a novel by Daniel Keyes

The Touch, a novel by Julie MyersonIn music:

The Touch (album), an album by Alabama

"The Touch" (Kim Wilde song), from the 1984 album Teases & Dares

"The Touch" (Stan Bush song), from the 1986 album The Transformers The Movie soundtrack

The Touch (radio network), a 24-hour music format

"The Touch", a song by Maria ArredondoIn theater:

The Touch, an American play by Brian Clark

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