Daniel Gillespie Clowes (/klaʊz/; born April 14, 1961) is an American cartoonist, graphic novelist, illustrator, and screenwriter. Most of Clowes's work first appeared in Eightball, a solo anthology comic book series. An Eightball issue typically contained several short pieces and a chapter of a longer narrative that was later collected and published as a graphic novel, such as Like a Velvet Glove Cast in Iron (1993), Ghost World (1997), and David Boring (2000). Clowes's illustrations have appeared in The New Yorker, Newsweek, Vogue, The Village Voice, and elsewhere. With filmmaker Terry Zwigoff, Clowes adapted Ghost World into a 2001 film and another Eightball story into the 2006 film, Art School Confidential. Clowes's comics, graphic novels, and films have received numerous awards, including a Pen Award for Outstanding Work in Graphic Literature, over a dozen Harvey and Eisner Awards, and an Academy Award nomination.
Clowes at the 2010 Alternative Press Expo
Daniel Gillespie Clowes
April 14, 1961
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Clowes was born in Chicago, Illinois, to an auto mechanic mother and a furniture craftsman father. His mother was Jewish and his father was from a "reserved WASPish Pennsylvania" family; Clowes's upbringing was not religious. In 1979, he finished high school at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools and attended the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York, where he earned a BFA in 1984. It was at Pratt that he met and befriended fellow cartoonist Rick Altergott, with whom he started the small-press comics publisher Look Mood Comics.
According to Clowes scholar, Ken Parille, the cartoonist had an early response to a "graphic" comic when, at age four, he burst into tears and began hitting his head against a wall after seeing a cover of a Strange Adventures comic book that depicted a family dying of heat. Later, he received "piles of 1950s and 1960s classic titles like Archie and The Fantastic Four" from his older brother, who also introduced him to the work of legendary cartoonist R. Crumb.
Clowes's first professional work appeared in 1985 in Cracked, and he contributed to the magazine until 1989, working under a variety of pseudonyms, most prominently "Stosh Gillespie", and, toward the end of his tenure, under his own name. Clowes and writer Mort Todd co-created a recurring Cracked feature titled The Uggly Family. In 1985, Clowes drew the first comic to feature his character Lloyd Llewellyn. He sent the story to Fantagraphics' Gary Groth, and his work soon appeared in the Hernandez brothers' Love and Rockets #13. Fantagraphics published six magazine-sized, black and white issues of Lloyd Llewellyn in 1986 and 1987, and The All-New Lloyd Llewellyn, the final Llewellyn comic book, appeared in 1988.
In 1989, Fantagraphics published the first issue of Clowes's comic book Eightball. On issue #1's masthead, Clowes described the anthology as "An Orgy of Spite, Vengeance, Hopelessness, Despair, and Sexual Perversiona". Eightball lasted twenty three issues, ending in 2004. One of the most widely acclaimed American alternative comics, it won over two dozen awards, and all of Clowes's Eightball serials have been collected and released as graphic novels.
From #1 to #18, an Eightball issue typically contained short pieces that ranged in genre from comical rant and Freudian analysis to fairy tale and cultural criticism. These issues also featured a chapter of a serial that Clowes later collected as a graphic novel: Like a Velvet Glove Cast in Iron (1993), Pussey! (1995), and Ghost World (1997). With #19, Clowes abandoned the anthology format. The oversized black and white issues #19–21 each contained a single act of Clowes's three-act David Boring, which was released as a graphic novel in 2000. Clowes again changed format with #22. The first full-color Eightball, #22 included a single graphic novel-length story Ice Haven. The final issue, #23 was a full-color, single-story comic The Death-Ray released in 2004.
During the early 1990s, Clowes was associated with Seattle label Sub Pop, creating artwork for recordings by Thee HeadCoats, The Supersuckers, The John Peel Sessions, and The Sub Pop Video Program collection. He designed the label's mascot, Punky, who appeared on T-shirts, paddle-balls, watches, and other merchandise. In 1994, Clowes created art for the Ramones video "I Don't Want to Grow Up".
After Eightball ended in 2004, Clowes began to release full-color graphic novels, beginning in 2005 with Ice Haven, a revised version of the comic that appeared in Eightball #22. In 2010 Drawn and Quarterly published Wilson, Clowes's first graphic novel that had not been serialized in Eightball. The next year, Pantheon released Mister Wonderful, a revised and reformatted version of a narrative serialized weekly in 2007 and 2008 in The Sunday New York Times Magazine, a story Clowes described as a "romance." 2011 also saw the Drawn and Quarterly hardcover release of The Death-Ray, which first appeared in Eightball #23.
During this period, Clowes drew the first of several New Yorker covers and contributed comics to Zadie Smith's The Book of Other People (2008) and the influential art comics anthology Kramers Ergot (#7, 2008). In 2006, after a health crisis, Clowes underwent open-heart surgery. His longest graphic novel Patience was released in the US in March 2016. Clowes lives in Oakland, California, with his wife Erika and son Charlie.
Clowes's work emerged from the late-1980 and early-’90s North American alternative comics scene and played an important role in comics achieving a new level of respect from reviewers, academics, and readers. Ghost World was among the earliest American "literary" comics to be marketed and sold through conventional book stores as a graphic novel (Clowes has been critical of the terms "literary comics" and "graphic novel.")
Some of his most popular stories, such as Ghost World and "The Party", are associated with Generation X ("The Party" was reprinted in Douglas Rushkoff's 1994 GenX Reader). This movement's investment in post-adolescent aimlessness was one of Clowes's main themes during the 1990s. The cartoonist led the way for comic artists like Adrian Tomine and Craig Thompson, who also focused on the angst of post-adolescent characters.
Like filmmaker David Lynch, Clowes is known for mixing elements of kitsch and the grotesque. Reflecting the cartoonist's interest in 1950s and 1960s TV, film, mainstream and underground comics, and Mad magazine, these elements surface in Clowes's 1990s work, especially his graphic novel Like a Velvet Glove Cast in Iron. During the 1990s, the juxtaposition of kitsch and horror became something of a zeitgeist in visual art, independent film, and post-underground comics.
Clowes's post-2000 graphic novels marked a shift in subject matter and form. Ice Haven, The Death-Ray, Wilson, and Mister Wonderful featured older protagonists and explored issues of masculinity and aging. Like the work of fellow cartoonists Chris Ware and Art Spiegelman, these comics displayed an interest in American comic-strip history, using layouts, coloring, and drawing styles reminiscent of newspaper cartoons, especially the large early- and mid-twentieth-century Sunday comic strips.
Clowes has received dozens of awards and nominations for his comics and film work. In 2002 he was nominated for several awards for the Ghost World film, including an Academy Award for Best Screenplay Based on Material Previously Published, an AFI Award for Screenwriter of the Year, a Chicago Film Critics Association Awards for Best Screenplay, and others.
For his comics, Clowes has won many Harvey Awards, including Best Writer in 1997 and 2005; Best Series in 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1997; Best Letter in 1991 and 1997; Best Single Issue or Story in 1990, 1991, 1998 and 2005; and Best Cartoonist in 2002. He has won numerous Eisner Awards, including Best Writer/Artist: Drama in 2000 and 2002; Best Single Issue/Single Story in 2002 and 2005; Best Short Story in 2008; Best New Graphic Album in 2011. In 2011, he won a Pen Award for Outstanding Body of Work in Graphic Literature.
Clowes's original art has appeared in American group shows as well as exhibitions in Belgium, France, Germany, Japan, and elsewhere. His first solo show was held at Los Angeles's Richard Heller Gallery in 2003. In 2012, Susan Miller curated his first museum retrospective, Modern Cartoonist: The Art of Daniel Clowes at the Oakland Museum of California. It featured 100 works, including pencil and ink drawings, color pencil illustrations, and gouache art, with covers for The New Yorker, Eightball issues, and Clowes's graphic novels. The show traveled to the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago in 2013, and is at the Wexner Center in Columbus, Ohio, in mid-2014. It may continue on to Europe and Asia.
In the late 1990s, Clowes began a career as a screenwriter. His first film was 2001’s Ghost World. Based on Clowes's comic of the same name and written with director Terry Zwigoff, the film is set in a nondescript American town and follows the misadventures of two best friends, Enid (Thora Birch) and Rebecca (Scarlett Johansson), who detest most of their high school classmates. After graduation they plan on moving in together and avoiding college, but they grow apart as adult pressures take their toll. The girls play a prank on a nerdy record collector named Seymour (Steve Buscemi), who quickly becomes Enid's unlikely friend and confidante, as her relationship with Rebecca deteriorates. Nominated for a host of awards, most notably a 2002 Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, the movie appeared on many 2001 "Best of" lists. In 2001, Fantagraphics published Ghost Word: A Screenplay.
Clowes's second film Art School Confidential was based on the cartoonist's experiences at Pratt Institute in the early 1980s. (Clowes's four-page comic "Art School Confidential" covered some of the same experiences.) Directed by Zwigoff with a script by Clowes, the film follows Jerome (Max Minghella), an art student who dreams of becoming the world's greatest artist. The film was not as well received as Ghost World. In 2006, Fantagraphics published Art School Confidential: A Screenplay. A third adaptation of a Clowes graphic novel, Wilson was directed by Craig Johnson, with Clowes writing the screenplay, was released in 2017.
At least four other film projects have been discussed or partially developed, with one being abandoned and two remaining in limbo for over seven years. Clowes and director Michel Gondry discussed making a film based on Rudy Rucker’s novel Master of Space and Time, with Clowes writing and Gondry directing, but the project never advanced beyond this stage; of the film Clowes said, "I actually announced that that wasn't going to be made at the 2006 San Diego [Comic] Con." In 2006, Clowes began writing a script based on his comic The Death-Ray for a movie to be produced by Jack Black's Black and White Productions. Clowes also wrote a screenplay based on the true story of three boys who, over the course of seven years, filmed a shot-for-shot remake of Raiders of the Lost Ark. As of 2018, neither The Death-Ray nor the Raiders project has been greenlit. In 2016, it was announced Clowes will adapt his graphic novel Patience for Focus Features. As of 2018 the project remains in development.
In December 2013, Shia LaBeouf's short film Howard Cantour.com became available online. Soon thereafter, those familiar with indie comics noticed its remarkable resemblance to Justin M. Damiano, a comic Clowes contributed to the 2008 charity anthology The Book of Other People. The short film was then removed by LaBeouf, who claimed that he was not "copying" Clowes, but rather was "inspired" by him and "got lost in the creative process." LaBeouf later issued several apologies on Twitter, writing, "In my excitement and naiveté as an amateur filmmaker, I got lost in the creative process and neglected to follow proper accreditation", and "I deeply regret the manner in which these events have unfolded and want @danielclowes to know that I have a great respect for his work." Clowes responded by saying "The first I ever heard of the film was this morning when someone sent me a link. I've never spoken to or met Mr. LaBeouf ... I actually can't imagine what was going through his mind."
In 1993 and 1994, Clowes created artwork for Coca-Cola's Generation X-inspired beverage OK Soda, which was test-marketed in select American cities in 1994 and 1995 and then discontinued. His art appeared on cans, bottles, twelve-pack cases, posters, vending machines, and other merchandise, along with point-of sale display items. Clowes's art appears on two cans/bottles (the face of a young man looking forward; the face of a young woman looking forward), though he is often incorrectly credited for other OK can art.
"Art School Confidential" is a four-page black-and-white comic by Daniel Clowes. It originally appeared in issue #7 (November 1991) of Clowes' comic book Eightball and was later reprinted in the book collections Orgy Bound and Twentieth Century Eightball. It inspired the 2006 film of the same name. A color version of the comic was included in the published version of Clowes' original screenplay for the film.
The comic is a satire of American art schools, presented in the manner of a sensationalistic exposé and ostensibly based on Clowes' own experiences at the Pratt Institute. (The story is signed "By D. Clowes, B.F.A." and a Pratt Institute diploma appears on a wall in one panel.)
According to Clowes in a 2006 interview, "Art School Confidential" was
literally something where I had four pages left (in Eightball 7) and I had to turn the issue in. I said, "Well, I'll do something about art school that will amuse my 10 friends who went." I really thought nobody else would comment on it or even notice. As it turned out, every single one of my readers was either in art school or had some affiliation with it. They all responded overwhelmingly (and) were all certain I had gone to the same art school they had. The story took on a life of its own for a while.… People would Xerox it and put it up on the bulletin board at school. Somebody else would take it from there and Xerox it again. There were rumors that it had been Xeroxed so many times that nobody could discern the art style anymore. It became a kind of folk art.
The "tampon-in-a-teacup trick" referred to in "Art School Confidential" appeared in the 2001 film version of Clowes's graphic novel Ghost World.Art School Confidential (film)
Art School Confidential is a 2006 comedy-drama film directed by Terry Zwigoff, loosely based on the comic of the same name by Daniel Clowes. The film is Zwigoff's second collaboration with Clowes, the first being 2001's Ghost World (which was also released by United Artists). The cast includes Max Minghella, Sophia Myles, John Malkovich, Jim Broadbent, Matt Keeslar, Ethan Suplee, Joel Moore, Nick Swardson, Adam Scott, and Anjelica Huston.
The film was partially shot at the Otis College of Art and Design in Los Angeles and at Pasadena City College in Pasadena, California. Otis Foundation Professor Gary Garaths worked as a consultant on the film.Caricature (comics)
Caricature is a book collection of nine comic short stories by Daniel Clowes. In contrast to earlier Clowes collections such as Lout Rampage! and Orgy Bound, Caricature concentrates on the more naturalistic, character-focused side of Clowes's output displayed in Ghost World. It includes some of his most admired short stories, including "Immortal, Invisible", "Gynecology" and the title story. All the material in the collection originally appeared in Clowes's comic book Eightball with the exception of "Green Eyeliner", which was published in Esquire.
Caricature was first published by Fantagraphics Books in 1998 in a deluxe hardcover edition. A less expensive paperback version was released in 2002. Both editions contain a mixture of full-color and black-and-white material.Eightball (comics)
Eightball is a comic book by Daniel Clowes and published by Fantagraphics Books. It ran from 1989 to 2004. The first issue appeared soon after the end of Clowes's previous comic book, Lloyd Llewellyn. Eightball has been among the best-selling series in alternative comics.
Early issues of Eightball feature a mixture of very short, often crudely humorous comics ("Zubrick and Pogeybait", "The Sensual Santa"), topical rants and satires ("Art School Confidential", "On Sports"), longer, more reflective self-contained stories ("Caricature", "Immortal Invisible"), and serialized works. The first extended story serialized in Eightball was Like a Velvet Glove Cast in Iron, which ran in issues #1–10. Glove was followed by Ghost World (issues #11–18). Beginning with #19 each issue of Eightball has been devoted to a single storyline, as opposed to the more eclectic format of the earlier issues. Issues #19–21 serialized the graphic novel David Boring, while issues #22 and 23 each consisted of a collection of short, fragmentary stories in diverse styles and formats that meshed into a unified narrative ("Ice Haven" and "The Death Ray"). The issues of Eightball beginning with #19 have been published in full color in a larger magazine-sized format. Eightball #18 included a bound-in copy of Clowes's pamphlet Modern Cartoonist.Fantagraphics Books
Fantagraphics Books is an American publisher of alternative comics, classic comic strip anthologies, magazines, graphic novels, and the erotic Eros Comix imprint. Many notable cartoonists publish their work through Fantagraphics, including Jessica Abel, Peter Bagge, Ivan Brunetti, Charles Burns, Daniel Clowes, Mary Fleener, Roberta Gregory, Joe Sacco, Chris Ware, and the Hernandez brothers.Ghost World
Ghost World or Ghostworld may refer to:
Ghost World (comics), a comic by Daniel Clowes first published from 1993–1997
Ghost World (film), a 2001 film by Terry Zwigoff, based on the graphic novel
"Ghost World" (The Vampire Diaries), a 2011 episode of The Vampire Diaries
Ghost World, a 1993 stage play by James McLure
"Ghost World," a 2000 song by Aimee Mann from Bachelor No. 2
Ghost World, a trilogy of novels by Susan Price
Ghostworld (novel), a 1993 novel by Simon R. Green
"Ghostworld", a season 6 episode of The Real Ghostbusters
"Ghostworld", a 1986 song by Models from Models' MediaGhost World (comics)
Ghost World is a graphic novel by Daniel Clowes. It was serialized in issues #11–18 (June 1993 – March 1997) of Clowes's comic book series Eightball, and was published in book form in 1997 by Fantagraphics Books. It was a commercial and critical success and developed into a cult classic.
Ghost World follows the day-to-day lives of best friends Enid Coleslaw and Rebecca Doppelmeyer, two cynical, pseudo-intellectual, and intermittently witty teenage girls recently graduated from high school in the early 1990s. They spend their days wandering aimlessly around their unnamed American town, criticizing popular culture and the people they encounter while wondering what they will do for the rest of their days. As the comic progresses and Enid and Rebecca make the transition into adulthood, the two develop tensions and drift apart.
A darkly written comic, with intermittently sombre explorations of friendship and modern life, Ghost World has become renowned for its frank treatment of adolescence. The comic's success led to a movie adaptation of the same name, released in 2001 to critical acclaim and numerous nominations, including a nomination for the Academy Award for Writing Adapted Screenplay, written by Clowes and Terry Zwigoff.Ghost World (film)
Ghost World is a 2001 black comedy film directed by Terry Zwigoff and starring Thora Birch, Scarlett Johansson and Steve Buscemi. Based on the comic book of the same name by Daniel Clowes, with a screenplay co-written by Clowes and Zwigoff, the story focuses on the lives of Enid (Birch) and Rebecca (Johansson), two teenage outsiders in an unnamed American city. They face a rift in their relationship as Enid takes interest in an older man named Seymour (Buscemi), and becomes determined to help his romantic life.
The film debuted at the Seattle International Film Festival in 2001. It had little box office impact, but was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay and has become a cult film.Ice Haven
Ice Haven is a 2005 graphic novel by Daniel Clowes. The book's contents were originally published as the comic book Eightball #22 and were subsequently reformatted to make the hardcover Ice Haven book.
Ice Haven takes the form of 29 short, stylistically diverse comic strips about different residents of the small town of Ice Haven. Although each strip is separately titled and presented as if it is self-contained, together they tell a story about the characters' interrelated lives. The uniting plot line of the book involves the kidnapping of a boy named David Goldberg.Like a Velvet Glove Cast in Iron
Like a Velvet Glove Cast in Iron is a graphic novel by American cartoonist Daniel Clowes. The book follows a rather fantastic and paranoid plot, very different from the stark realism of Clowes' later more widely known Ghost World. It contains nightmarish imagery, including dismemberment, deformed people and animals, and sexual fetishism.
Clowes has talked about how the story was inspired by his dreams, as well as a recurring dream of his ex-wife's:
A lot of it is just daydreams, where ... I can just have these thoughts that are uncontrolled by common logic, and then I start to see things in a different way. It's sort of the same thing as when you wake up from a long dream and you, for one minute, see the absurdity of the world.
The book's title is a quote from the Russ Meyer film Faster, Pussycat! Kill! Kill! (The full line, as delivered by Lori Williams, is "You're cute, like a velvet glove cast in iron. And like a gas chamber, Varla, a real fun gal.")Lloyd Llewellyn
Lloyd Llewellyn (sometimes abbreviated LLLL) is a comic book by Daniel Clowes. The black-and-white series, published by Fantagraphics Books, ran for six issues from April 1986 to June 1987. A final "special" issue was published in December 1988.
The series' title character is a detective who has humorous adventures inspired by film noir and stereotypical 1950s lounge culture. Llewellyn has a sidekick who goes by the name of Ernie Hoyle. The series' police sergeant is called "Red" Hoerring. The series' visual style is influenced by lowbrow art.
The story "The Nightmare" from Lloyd Llewellyn #6 foreshadowed the approach of Clowes's next comic, Eightball, by breaking the conventions of the series' crime setting and turning to social satire. Also in that issue, the author announces:
... And who knows ... somewhere along that lonesome road we might see a new LLLL mag with a brand new format so dazzling, so breathtaking, so monumentally fantastic that I haven't even thought of it yet!
Early issues of Eightball included several additional Lloyd Llewellyn episodes. The character also made various cameo appearances in other Eightball stories.Mister Wonderful (comics)
Mister Wonderful is a graphic novel by American cartoonist Daniel Clowes, published in 2011 by Pantheon Books after first being serialized in The New York Times Magazine. Its main protagonists are Marshall (a self-disparaging, middle-aged loner) and Natalie, who are brought together on a blind date. Marshall finds his date far too attractive to be interested in him and concludes there must be something wrong with her when she does not show signs of wanting to leave. Marshall's self-deprecating, paranoid introspections so overwhelm him that his own thought balloons sometimes cover up Natalie's dialogue.The book is published in an unusual format, wider than it is long. This allows for an extremely wide two-page spread at the conclusion. The book was expanded and the pages were reformatted from their original twenty-instalment appearance in The New York Times Magazine in 2007 and 2008.Patience (graphic novel)
Patience (2016) is a graphic novel by Daniel Clowes, published by Fantagraphics. A science-fiction love story about time travel, it describes the misadventures of a man, Jack, after he finds his pregnant wife, Patience, murdered in their apartment. Many years later, when grief has destroyed his life, chance leads him to discover a time machine, which he plans to use to save Patience.
The book's tagline, in a surreal and tongue-in-cheek style typical of Clowes, is, "a cosmic timewarp deathtrip to the primordial infinite of everlasting love". The book uses bright, contrasting colours to evoke atmosphere, as well as surrealistic sci-fi imagery, when Jack free-falls between dimensions and has nightmarish visions of himself outside time and space. (Clowes' visual approach in his graphic novels tends to vary between full, even gaudy colour, and muted blues and greens that create a black-and-white effect, as in Ghost World and David Boring.)Pussey!
Pussey! is a comics serial and graphic novel by Daniel Clowes. It was originally serialized across nine non-consecutive issues of Clowes's alternative comic book Eightball, and was later collected by Fantagraphics Books.
Pussey! tells the satirical story of a comic book artist named Dan Pussey, following him from his childhood years, through his successful career and into aged obscurity. Along the way he lampoons the comics industry as a whole, including direct satires of several creators, such art Art Spiegelman stand-in character Gummo Bubbleman.Dave Gilson, writing for Mother Jones, called Pussey a "knowing send-up of comic nerddom", and Tom Spurgeon of The Comics Reporter said that "works like Pussey...remind that he may also be its best living practitioner of filthy, blunt satire".The Death-Ray
The Death Ray is a graphic novel by American cartoonist Daniel Clowes that first appeared in issue #23 of Clowes's comic book Eightball in 2004, and then as a standalone book in 2011.Twentieth Century Eightball
Twentieth Century Eightball is a book collection of comics by Daniel Clowes published by Fantagraphics Books in 2002. It consists of numerous short pieces originally published in Clowes's Eightball comic book and other venues. Most of the contents previously appeared in the earlier, out-of-print collections Lout Rampage! and Orgy Bound, but the book also includes eight new stories.Wilson (2017 film)
Wilson is a 2017 American comedy-drama film directed by Craig Johnson and written by Daniel Clowes, based on his graphic novel Wilson. The film stars Woody Harrelson, Laura Dern, Isabella Amara, Judy Greer, and Cheryl Hines.
The film had its world premiere at the Sundance Film Festival on January 22, 2017, and released by Fox Searchlight Pictures on March 24, 2017.Wilson (comics)
Wilson is a satirical graphic novel by American cartoonist Daniel Clowes, published in 2010 by Drawn and Quarterly. Starring the misanthropic Wilson, the book is structured as 70 one-page gag strips, with days or even years passing between the strips. Clowes says, "The story is really what you interpret happens in between each strip." Wilson is condescending and supercilious, and insists on communicating his alienating dissatisfactions with all those he meets, even with strangers, and most often unsolicited. The middle-aged, divorced Wilson, who lives in Oakland, California, finds himself lonely, smug, and obsessed with his past.Young Lust (comics)
Young Lust was an underground comix anthology published sporadically from 1970 to 1993. The title, which parodied 1950s romance comics such as Young Love, was noted for its explicit depictions of sex. Unlike many other sex-fueled underground comix, Young Lust was generally not perceived as misogynistic. Founding editors Bill Griffith and Jay Kinney gradually morphed the title into a satire of societal mores. According to Kinney, Young Lust "became one of the top three best-selling underground comix, along with Zap Comix and The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers."Young Lust featured an all-star lineup of underground, and later alternative, cartoonists. Besides Griffith and Kinney, other frequent contributors included Justin Green, Roger Brand, Spain Rodriguez, Diane Noomin, Kim Deitch, Paul Mavrides, Michael McMillan, Ned Sonntag, Phoebe Gloeckner, and Harry S. Robins. In later years, the title was a showcase for female cartoonists like Gloeckner, M. K. Brown, Carol Lay, and Jennifer Camper; as well as rising alt-comics creators like Daniel Clowes, Charles Burns, Terry LaBan, and Lloyd Dangle.