Born in Honolulu, he served in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers during World War II. He attended the University of Hawaii, where he received his bachelor's and master's degrees. Originally a high school teacher, Akaka went on to serve as a principal for six years. In 1969, the Department of Education hired him as a chief program planner. In the 1970s, he served in various governmental positions.
Akaka was first elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1976 to represent Hawaii's Second Congressional District, and he served for 13 years. In 1990, he was appointed to the U.S. Senate to succeed the deceased Spark Matsunaga, subsequently winning the special election to complete Matsunaga's term. He would later be re-elected to three full terms. In March 2011, he announced he would not run for re-election in 2012.
After fellow U.S. Senator Daniel Inouye died on December 17, 2012, Akaka became the state's senior senator, and briefly remained so until he left office on January 3, 2013. He was succeeded by fellow Democrat Mazie Hirono.
|United States Senator|
May 16, 1990 – January 3, 2013
|Preceded by||Spark Matsunaga|
|Succeeded by||Mazie Hirono|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from Hawaii's 2nd district
January 3, 1977 – May 16, 1990
|Preceded by||Patsy Mink|
|Succeeded by||Patsy Mink|
Daniel Kahikina Akaka
September 11, 1924
Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii, U.S.
|Died||April 6, 2018 (aged 93)|
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.
|Resting place||National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific|
|Children||5, including Alan|
|Relatives||Abraham Akaka (brother)|
|Education||University of Hawaii, Manoa (BEd, MEd)|
|Branch/service||United States Army|
|Years of service||1945–1947|
|Unit||United States Army Corps of Engineers|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
Daniel Kahikina Akaka was born in Honolulu, the son of Annie (née Kahoa) and Kahikina Akaka. His paternal grandfather was born in Swatow, Canton, China during the late Qing Dynasty, and his other grandparents were of Native Hawaiian descent. His brother was Rev. Abraham Akaka.
Akaka graduated from Kamehameha Schools in 1942. During World War II he served in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, including service on Saipan and Tinian. He served from 1945 to 1947. He worked as a welder and a mechanic and in 1948 was a first mate on the schooner Morning Star.
Entering college (funded by the G.I. Bill), he earned a bachelor of education in 1952 from the University of Hawaii. He later received a master of education from the same school in 1966. He worked as a high school teacher in Honolulu from 1953 until 1960, when he was then hired as a vice principal. His son Alan Akaka was born in 1956. In 1963, he became head principal.
In 1969, the Department of Health, Education and Welfare hired Akaka as a chief program planner. Akaka then continued working in government, holding positions as director of the Hawaii Office of Economic Opportunity, human resources assistant for state Governor George Ariyoshi, and director of the Progressive Neighborhoods Program.
Akaka was first elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1976 to represent Hawaii's 2nd congressional district, comprising all of the state outside the inner ring of Honolulu. He was reelected seven times, all by wide margins.
Akaka was appointed by Governor John Waihee to the U.S. Senate in April 1990 to serve temporarily after the death of Senator Spark Matsunaga. In November of the same year, he was elected to complete the remaining four years of Matsunaga's unexpired term, defeating Congresswoman Pat Saiki with 53 percent of the vote. He was re-elected in 1994 for a full six-year term with over 70% of the popular vote. He was reelected almost as easily in 2000.
During his tenure, Akaka served as the Chair of the United States Senate Committee on Indian Affairs and the United States Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs.
In 1996, Akaka successfully sponsored legislation that led to nearly two-dozen Medals of Honor being belatedly awarded to Asian-American soldiers in the 442nd Regimental Combat Team and the 100th Infantry Battalion. He also successfully passed legislation compensating Philippine Scouts who were refused veterans benefits.
From 2000 until his retirement from the Senate in 2013, Akaka sponsored legislation, known as the Akaka Bill, to afford sovereignty to native Hawaiians. In 2005, Akaka acknowledged in an interview with NPR that the Akaka Bill could eventually result in outright independence.
The Akaka Bill has been supported as a means of restoring Hawaiian self-determination lost with the 1893 overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, and would include giving up the ability to sue for sovereignty in federal courts in exchange for recognition by the federal government (but would not block sovereignty claims made under international law.) The bill has been criticized as discriminating on the basis on ethnic origin in that only Native Hawaiians would be permitted to participate in the governing entity that the bill would establish.
In April 2006, he was selected by Time as one of America's Five Worst Senators. The article criticized him for mainly authoring minor legislation, calling him "master of the minor resolution and the bill that dies in committee".
In February 2009, a bill was authored in the Philippine House of Representatives by Rep. Antonio Diaz seeking to confer honorary Filipino citizenship on Akaka, Senators Daniel Inouye and Ted Stevens and Representative Bob Filner, for their role in securing the passage of benefits for Filipino World War II veterans.
On March 2, 2011, Akaka announced he would not be running for re-election in the 2012 U.S. Senate elections. He attended his final session in the Senate on December 12, 2012. He closed his speech with a traditional Hawaiian farewell, "a hui hou" (until we meet again).
Akaka died of organ failure in the early hours of April 6, 2018, at the age of 93. Former president Barack Obama remembered Akaka as "a tireless advocate for working people, veterans, native Hawaiian rights, and the people of Hawaii... He embodied the aloha spirit with compassion and care."
|Democratic||Daniel Akaka (inc.)||256,189||71.8%|
|Democratic||Daniel Akaka (inc.)||251,215||77.7%|
|Natural Law||Lauri A. Clegg||4,220||1.2%|
|Libertarian||Lloyd Jeffrey Mallan||3,127||0.9%|
|United States Senate Democratic primary election, 2006: Hawaii|
|Democratic||Daniel Akaka (inc.)||210,330||61.4||-11.5|
|U.S. House of Representatives|
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Hawaii's 2nd congressional district
|Party political offices|
| Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Hawaii
1990, 1994, 2000, 2006
| U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Hawaii
Served alongside: Dan Inouye, Brian Schatz
| Chair of the Senate Veterans' Affairs Committee
| Chair of the Senate Indian Affairs Committee
The 1990 United States Senate special election in Hawaii took place on November 4, 1990. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Daniel Akaka was elected to finish the term ending in 1995. He had been appointed by Governor John Waihee in April 1990 to serve temporarily after the death of Spark Matsunaga.1994 United States Senate election in Hawaii
The 1994 United States Senate election in Hawaii was held November 8, 1994. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Daniel Akaka won re-election to his first full term.2000 United States Senate election in Hawaii
The 2000 United States Senate election in Hawaii took place on November 7, 2000. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Daniel Akaka won re-election to his second full term.2006 United States Senate election in Hawaii
The 2006 United States Senate election in Hawaii was held November 7, 2006. Incumbent Democrat Daniel Akaka won re-election to his third full term.2012 United States Senate election in Hawaii
The 2012 United States Senate election in Hawaii took place on November 6, 2012, concurrently with the 2012 U.S. presidential election as well as other elections to the United States Senate and House of Representatives and various state and local elections. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Daniel Akaka decided to retire instead of running for re-election to a fourth term. Democratic Congresswoman Mazie Hirono defeated former Hawaii Governor Linda Lingle in a rematch of the 2002 Hawaii gubernatorial election.Alan Akaka
Alan Akaka (born 1956) is a Hawaiian steel guitarist and educator. The son of former congressman and senator Daniel Akaka, he has taught at several schools and is in charge of the Hawaiian music school Ke Kula Mele. In 2014 he successfully led a petition to prevent the ukulele from being named the official state musical instrument, arguing that the steel guitar was more reflective of Hawaiian tradition.Apology Resolution
United States Public Law 103-150, informally known as the Apology Resolution, is a Joint Resolution of the U.S. Congress adopted in 1993 that "acknowledges that the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii occurred with the active participation of agents and citizens of the United States and further acknowledges that the Native Hawaiian people never directly relinquished to the United States their claims to their inherent sovereignty as a people over their national lands, either through the Kingdom of Hawaii or through a plebiscite or referendum" (U.S. Public Law 103-150 (107 Stat. 1510)). The resolution has been cited as a major impetus for the Hawaiian sovereignty movement, and has been the subject of intense debate.The resolution was adopted by both houses of the United States Congress on November 23, 1993. A joint resolution, it was signed by President of the United States Bill Clinton on the same day.
The resolution was passed in the Senate by a vote of 65–34. In the House, it was passed by a two-thirds voice vote. It was sponsored on January 21, 1993, as S.J.Res.19 by Daniel Akaka and co-sponsored by Daniel Inouye, both Democratic senators from Hawaii.Cynthia Thielen
Cynthia Henry Thielen (born September 22, 1933) is a member of the Hawaii House of Representatives representing District 50, the Kailua and Kaneohe Bay areas of Oahu County. She is a Republican and has served in the state House of Representatives since 1990. She served as minority floor leader from 1992 to 1997 and is the current assistant minority leader.
She was the Republican nominee for United States Senate in 2006, challenging incumbent Democrat Daniel Akaka. She lost to Akaka, 62% to 38%, in the general election.Ed Case
Edward Espenett Case (born September 27, 1952) is an American Democratic politician serving as the U.S. Representative for Hawaii's 1st congressional district, which covers the urban core of Honolulu. He represented the 2nd district, which covers the rest of the state, from 2002 to 2007.
Case, a Blue Dog Democrat, first came to prominence in Hawaii as majority leader of the Hawaii State Legislature and in his 2002 campaign for governor of Hawaii.
First elected to the House of Representatives in 2002 in a special election to fill the seat of Patsy Mink, who died of pneumonia, Case represented Hawaii's 2nd congressional district until 2006, when he unsuccessfully challenged Daniel Akaka in the Democratic primary for the U.S. Senate.
In 2010 Case was one of two Democratic candidates in the special election for Hawaii's 1st congressional district. With the Democratic vote split, Republican Councilman Charles Djou's 39% of the vote earned him the seat. Case ran again in the Democratic primary for the November general election, but suspended his campaign in May. Colleen Hanabusa, Case's fellow Democrat in the special election, went on to win the primary and the general election against Djou. Case again ran for the Senate in 2012 after Daniel Akaka announced his retirement, but lost to Mazie Hirono.In July 2013 Case announced that he was joining Outrigger Enterprises Group and that his political career was "likely" over. In June 2018, Case reversed his decision and announced he would run again in Hawaii's 1st congressional district. Case won the crowded Democratic primary election in August 2018, and went on to win the general election. He took office in January 2019.Hawaii's 2nd congressional district
Hawaii's 2nd congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of Hawaii. The district encompasses all rural and most suburban areas of Oahu/Honolulu County, as well as the entire state outside of Oahu. Besides Honolulu, the district includes the counties of Kauai, Maui, Kalawao and Hawaii ("the Big Island"). The district spans 331 miles. The most populous community entirely within the district is Hilo. Major segments of the economy include tourism, ranching and agriculture, especially pineapple and sugarcane cultivation.
The district is represented by Democrat Tulsi Gabbard.Joseph Eve, Certified Public Accountants
Wipfli/Joseph Eve, Certified Public Accountants is an American public accounting firm with approximately 70 employees practicing in 28 states. The firm is unique in that it focuses on the specialty niche of tribal accounting, which accounts for about 95% of its business, and holds about 60 of the US 290 Indian Tribes as clients. On October 1, 2017, Joseph Eve merged with Milwaukee-based Wipfli, one of the top 20 accounting and business consulting firms in the United States.The firm has taken part in events such as testimony about online gaming before the United States Senate Committee on Indian Affairs. In particular, Daniel Akaka, United States Senator representing Hawaiʻi, has shown interest in topics such as Indian and Internet Gaming, and has held oversight meetings with Joseph Eve's partner Grant Eve as an expert witness in the oversight hearing on the future of internet gaming and what is at stake for tribes in November 2011. The National Indian Gaming Association's whitepapers on internet gaming is prepared primarily by the firm, and the firm has continued to be involved in Indian gaming accounting technology development and tribal accounting issues, such as the Rosebud Sioux Casino case and state online lottery accounting. In August 2012, Joseph Eve partner Grant Eve and Consultant Ehren Richardson was chosen to speak before the National Indian Gaming Association Subcommittee on Internet gaming, in which he stressed that "Internet Gaming is here"; and pointed out facts such as Facebook UK launching iGaming slots and MGM Resorts launching MyVegas on Facebook.Linda Lingle
Linda Lingle (née Cutter; June 4, 1953) is an American politician, who was the sixth governor of Hawaii from 2002 until 2010. She was the first Republican governor of Hawaii since 1962. Lingle was also the first female governor of Hawaii and its first Jewish governor. Prior to serving as governor, Lingle served as Maui County mayor, council member, and chair of the Hawaii Republican Party.
During the 2004 Republican National Convention in New York City, Lingle served as chair of the convention during the absence of permanent chair Dennis Hastert from the convention floor. In 2012, she was the Republican nominee for the United States Senate, vying unsuccessfully for an open seat vacated by retiring U.S. Senator Daniel Akaka.In January 2015, Lingle was appointed as a senior adviser to Illinois Governor Bruce Rauner, and left the position in July 2016. She also served on the Governors’ Council of the Bipartisan Policy Center in Washington, D.C. Lingle moved back to Hawaii in the second quarter of 2017 and became a member of Hawaii Pacific University's board of trustees in June 2017.List of United States Representatives from Hawaii
The following is an alphabetical list of members of the United States House of Representatives from the state of Hawaii. For chronological tables of members of both houses of the United States Congress from the state (through the present day), see United States Congressional Delegations from Hawaii. The list of names should be complete (as of January 3, 2015), but other data may be incomplete. It includes members who have represented both the state and the Territory, both past and present.List of United States senators from Hawaii
Hawaii was admitted to the Union on August 21, 1959 and elects U.S. senators to Classes 1 and 3. Seven people including only one Republican have served as a U.S. senator from Hawaii. The state's current U.S. senators are Democrats Brian Schatz and Mazie Hirono. Hawaii's Class 1 seat is the only in the United States that has always been held by an ethnic minority.Mazie Hirono
Mazie Keiko Hirono (; Japanese name: 広野 慶子, Hirono Keiko; born November 3, 1947) is a Japanese-born American politician serving since 2013 as the junior United States Senator from Hawaii. She is a member of the Democratic Party. Hirono served as a member of the Hawaii House of Representatives from 1981 to 1995 and as Hawaii's ninth lieutenant governor from 1994 to 2002, under Ben Cayetano. The Democratic nominee for governor of Hawaii in 2002, Hirono was defeated by Republican Linda Lingle. From 2007 to 2013, she served as a member of the United States House of Representatives for Hawaii's 2nd congressional district.
Hirono is the first elected female senator from Hawaii, the first Asian-American woman elected to the Senate, the first U.S. senator born in Japan, and the nation's first Buddhist senator. She considers herself a non-practicing Buddhist and is often cited with Hank Johnson as the first Buddhist to serve in the United States Congress. She is the third woman to be elected to Congress from Hawaii (after Patsy Mink and Pat Saiki). In 2012, Hirono was the Democratic nominee for the U.S. Senate seat being vacated by the retirement of Daniel Akaka. Hirono won the election, defeating Lingle in landslide, 63% to 37%. She was sworn in on January 3, 2013, by Vice President Joe Biden. Hirono was the only person of Asian ancestry serving in the U.S. Senate from 2013 until 2017, when senators Tammy Duckworth and Kamala Harris were sworn in, representing Illinois and California, respectively. Although Brian Schatz joined the Senate a week before Hirono, following the death of Daniel Inouye, making him Hawaii's senior senator, her six years in the House of Representatives makes her the dean, or longest-serving member overall, of Hawaii's congressional delegation.Morrnah Simeona
Morrnah Nalamaku Simeona (May 19, 1913 – February 11, 1992) was recognized as a kahuna lapaʻau (healer) in Hawaiʻi and taught her updated version of hoʻoponopono throughout the United States, Asia, and Europe.Mun Charn Wong
Mun Charn Wong (Chinese: 黃門贊; January 24, 1918 – September 17, 2002) was an American businessman. Wong served in the U.S. Air Force during World War II along with his friend, Wah Kau Kong, the first Chinese American fighter pilot. He played football on the Air Force team and was a noted quarterback. After the war, Wong became a successful life insurance executive for the Transamerica Corporation. In 1989, the company recognized him as a "Legend of Transamerica", the highest honor awarded by the company.
Wong was active in his community, serving as president of several Chinese cultural organizations and on the board of the Cerebral Palsy Association. In his free time, Wong enjoyed playing with celebrity golfers, and his amateur team won the '87 U.S. Open Preview Pro Am golf tournament with the help of Larry Ziegler. Throughout the years, Wong kept Kong's memory alive, publishing an educational booklet, working with U.S. Senator Daniel Akaka to educate the public, participating in a television program about Kong on KHON-TV, and giving interviews to historians. To preserve Kong's memory, Wong helped establish the Wah Kau Kong Memorial Award Scholarship in Aerospace Studies at the University of Hawaii.Patsy Mink
Patsy Matsu Takemoto Mink (December 6, 1927 – September 28, 2002) was an American lawyer and politician from the U.S. state of Hawaii. Mink was a third generation Japanese American and member of the Democratic Party. She also was the Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs.
Mink served in the U.S. House of Representatives for a total of 12 terms, representing Hawaii's at-large and second congressional districts. While in Congress she was noted for co-authoring the Title IX Amendment of the Higher Education Act.Mink was the first non-white woman and the first Asian American woman elected to Congress. She was also the first woman elected to Congress from the state of Hawaii, and became the first Asian-American to seek the presidential nomination of the Democratic Party in the 1972 election, where she stood in the Oregon primary as an anti-war candidate. From 1978 to 1981, Mink served as the president of Americans for Democratic Action.United States Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs
The United States Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs deals with oversight of United States veterans issues.
|One At-large seat (1959–1963)|
|Two At-large seat (1963–1971)|
Chairs of the United States Senate Committee on Indian Affairs
Chairs of the United States Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs
(Maringal na Kuwintas)
(Maringal na Krus)