Dangerous goods

Dangerous goods or hazardous goods are solids, liquids, or gases that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment. They are often subject to chemical regulations. In the United States, United Kingdom and sometimes in Canada, dangerous goods are more commonly known as hazardous materials (abbreviated as HAZMAT or hazmat). Hazmat teams are personnel specially trained to handle dangerous goods, which include materials that are radioactive, flammable, explosive, corrosive, oxidizing, asphyxiating, biohazardous, toxic, pathogenic, or allergenic. Also included are physical conditions such as compressed gases and liquids or hot materials, including all goods containing such materials or chemicals, or may have other characteristics that render them hazardous in specific circumstances.

In the United States, dangerous goods are often indicated by diamond-shaped signage on the item (see NFPA 704), its container, or the building where it is stored. The color of each diamond indicates its hazard, e.g., flammable is indicated with red, because fire and heat are generally of red color, and explosive is indicated with orange, because mixing red (flammable) with yellow (oxidizing agent) creates orange. A nonflammable and nontoxic gas is indicated with green, because all compressed air vessels are this color in France after World War II, and France was where the diamond system of hazmat identification originated.

HAZMAT training
An emergency medical technician team training as rescue (grey suits) and decontamination (green suits) respondents to hazardous material and toxic contamination situations.

Handling

Dangerous chemicals cabinet in MPI-CBG
A reinforced, fireproof cabinet for dangerous chemicals.

Mitigating the risks associated with hazardous materials may require the application of safety precautions during their transport, use, storage and disposal. Most countries regulate hazardous materials by law, and they are subject to several international treaties as well. Even so, different countries may use different class diamonds for the same product. For example, in Australia, Anhydrous Ammonia UN 1005 is classified as 2.3 (Toxic Gas) with sub risk 8 (Corrosive), whereas in the U.S. it is only classified as 2.2 (Non Flammable Gas).

People who handle dangerous goods will often wear protective equipment, and metropolitan fire departments often have a response team specifically trained to deal with accidents and spills. Persons who may come into contact with dangerous goods as part of their work are also often subject to monitoring or health surveillance to ensure that their exposure does not exceed occupational exposure limits.

Laws and regulations on the use and handling of hazardous materials may differ depending on the activity and status of the material. For example, one set of requirements may apply to their use in the workplace while a different set of requirements may apply to spill response, sale for consumer use, or transportation. Most countries regulate some aspect of hazardous materials.

Global regulations

The most widely applied regulatory scheme is that for the transportation of dangerous goods. The United Nations Economic and Social Council issues the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, which form the basis for most regional, national, and international regulatory schemes. For instance, the International Civil Aviation Organization has developed dangerous goods regulations for air transport of hazardous materials that are based upon the UN Model but modified to accommodate unique aspects of air transport. Individual airline and governmental requirements are incorporated with this by the International Air Transport Association to produce the widely used IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations (DGR).[1] Similarly, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has developed the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code ("IMDG Code", part of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea) for transportation of dangerous goods by sea. IMO member countries have also developed the HNS Convention to provide compensation in case of dangerous goods spills in the sea.

The Intergovernmental Organisation for International Carriage by Rail has developed the Regulations concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail ("RID", part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail). Many individual nations have also structured their dangerous goods transportation regulations to harmonize with the UN Model in organization as well as in specific requirements.

The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is an internationally agreed upon system set to replace the various classification and labeling standards used in different countries. GHS will use consistent criteria for classification and labeling on a global level.

Classification and labeling summary tables

Dangerous goods are divided into nine classes (in addition to several subcategories) on the basis of the specific chemical characteristics producing the risk.[2]

Note: The graphics and text in this article representing the dangerous goods safety marks are derived from the United Nations-based system of identifying dangerous goods. Not all countries use precisely the same graphics (label, placard and/or text information) in their national regulations. Some use graphic symbols, but without English wording or with similar wording in their national language. Refer to the Dangerous Goods Transportation Regulations of the country of interest.

For example, see the TDG Bulletin: Dangerous Goods Safety Marks[3] based on the Canadian Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations.

The statement above applies equally to all the Dangerous Goods classes discussed in this article.

Class 1: Explosives
Information on this graphic changes depending on which, "Division" of explosive is shipped. Explosive Dangerous Goods have compatibility group letters assigned to facilitate segregation during transport. The letters used range from A to S excluding the letters I, M, O, P, Q and R. The example above shows an explosive with a compatibility group "A" (shown as 1.1A). The actual letter shown would depend on the specific properties of the substance being transported.

For example, the Canadian Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations provides a description of compatibility groups.

  • 1.1 Explosives with a mass explosion hazard
  • 1.2 Explosives with a severe projection hazard.
  • 1.3 Explosives with a fire, blast or projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard.
  • 1.4 Minor fire or projection hazard (includes ammunition and most consumer fireworks).
  • 1.5 An insensitive substance with a mass explosion hazard (explosion similar to 1.1)
  • 1.6 Extremely insensitive articles.

The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) regulates hazmat transportation within the territory of the US.

1.1 — Explosives with a mass explosion hazard. (nitroglycerin/dynamite, ANFO)
1.2 — Explosives with a blast/projection hazard.
1.3 — Explosives with a minor blast hazard. (rocket propellant, display fireworks)
1.4 — Explosives with a major fire hazard. (consumer fireworks, ammunition)
1.5 — Blasting agents.
1.6 — Extremely insensitive explosives.
Class 1: Explosives Hazardous Materials
Class 1: Explosives
Class 1.1: Explosives Hazardous Materials
Class 1.1: Explosives

Mass Explosion Hazard
Class 1.2: Explosives Hazardous Materials
Class 1.2: Explosives

Blast/Projection Hazard
Class 1.3: Explosives Hazardous Materials
Class 1.3: Explosives

Minor Blast Hazard
Class 1.4: Explosives Hazardous Materials
Class 1.4: Explosives

Major Fire Hazard
Class 1.5: Blasting Agents Hazardous Materials
Class 1.5: Blasting Agents

Blasting Agents
 
Class 1.6: Explosives Hazardous Materials
Class 1.6: Explosives

Extremely Insensitive Explosives
 
Class 2: Gases
Gases which are compressed, liquefied or dissolved under pressure as detailed below. Some gases have subsidiary risk classes; poisonous or corrosive.
  • 2.1 Flammable Gas: Gases which ignite on contact with an ignition source, such as acetylene, hydrogen, and propane.
  • 2.2 Non-Flammable Gases: Gases which are neither flammable nor poisonous. Includes the cryogenic gases/liquids (temperatures of below -100 °C) used for cryopreservation and rocket fuels, such as nitrogen, neon, and carbon dioxide.
  • 2.3 Poisonous Gases: Gases liable to cause death or serious injury to human health if inhaled; examples are fluorine, chlorine, and hydrogen cyanide.
Class 2.1: Flammable Gas Hazardous Materials
Class 2.1: Flammable Gas
Class 2.2: Nonflammable Gas Hazardous Materials
Class 2.2: Nonflammable Gas
Class 2.3: Poisonous Gas Hazardous Materials
Class 2.3: Poisonous Gas
Class 2.2: Oxygen (Alternative Placard) Hazardous Materials
Class 2.2: Oxygen (Alternative Placard)
Class 2.3: Inhalation Hazard (Alternative Placard) Hazardous Materials
Class 2.3: Inhalation Hazard (Alternative Placard)
 
Class 3: Flammable Liquids
Flammable liquids included in Class 3 are included in one of the following packing groups:
  • Packing Group I, if they have an initial boiling point of 35°C or less at an absolute pressure of 101.3 kPa and any flash point, such as diethyl ether or carbon disulfide;
  • Packing Group II, if they have an initial boiling point greater than 35°C at an absolute pressure of 101.3 kPa and a flash point less than 23°C, such as gasoline (petrol) and acetone; or
  • Packing Group III, if the criteria for inclusion in Packing Group I or II are not met, such as kerosene and diesel.

Note: For further details, check the Dangerous Goods Transportation Regulations of the country of interest.

Class 3: Flammable Liquids Hazardous Materials
Class 3: Flammable Liquids
Class 3: Combustible (Alternate Placard) Hazardous Materials
Class 3: Combustible (Alternate Placard)
Class 3: Fuel Oil (Alternate Placard) Hazardous Materials
Class 3: Fuel Oil (Alternate Placard)
 
Class 3: Gasoline (Alternate Placard) Hazardous Materials
Class 3: Gasoline (Alternate Placard)
 
Class 4: Flammable Solids
Class 4.1: Flammable Solids Hazardous Materials
Class 4.1: Flammable Solids

4.1 Flammable Solids: Solid substances that are easily ignited and readily combustible (nitrocellulose, magnesium, safety or strike-anywhere matches).
Class 4.2: Spontaneously Combustible Solids Hazardous Materials
Class 4.2: Spontaneously Combustible Solids

4.2 Spontaneously Combustible: Solid substances that ignite spontaneously (aluminium alkyls, white phosphorus).
Class 4.3: Dangerous when Wet Hazardous Materials
Class 4.3: Dangerous when Wet

4.3 Dangerous when Wet: Solid substances that emit a flammable gas when wet or react violently with water (sodium, calcium, potassium, calcium carbide).
Class 5: Oxidizing Agents and Organic Peroxides
Class 5.1: Oxidizing Agent Hazardous Materials
Class 5.1: Oxidizing Agent

5.1 Oxidizing agents other than organic peroxides (calcium hypochlorite, ammonium nitrate, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate).
Class 5.2: Organic Peroxide Oxidizing Agent Hazardous Materials
Class 5.2: Organic Peroxide Oxidizing Agent

5.2 Organic peroxides, either in liquid or solid form (benzoyl peroxides, cumene hydroperoxide).
 
Class 6: Toxic and Infectious Substances
Class 6.1: Poison Hazardous Materials
Class 6.1: Poison
  • 6.1a Toxic substances which are liable to cause death or serious injury to human health if inhaled, swallowed or by skin absorption (potassium cyanide, mercuric chloride).
  • 6.1b (Now PGIII) Toxic substances which are harmful to human health (N.B this symbol is no longer authorized by the United Nations) (pesticides, methylene chloride).
Class 6.2: Biohazard Hazardous Materials
Class 6.2: Biohazard
  • 6.2 Biohazardous substances; the World Health Organization (WHO) divides this class into two categories: Category A: Infectious; and Category B: Samples (virus cultures, pathology specimens, used intravenous needles).
 
Class 7: Radioactive substances Class 8: Corrosive substances Class 9: Miscellaneous
Class 7: Radioactive Hazardous Materials
Class 7: Radioactive

Radioactive substances comprise substances or a combination of substances which emit ionizing radiation (uranium, plutonium).
Class 8: Corrosive Hazardous Materials
Class 8: Corrosive

Corrosive substances are substances that can dissolve organic tissue or severely corrode certain metals:
Class 9: Miscellaneous Hazardous Materials
Class 9: Miscellaneous

Hazardous substances that do not fall into the other categories (asbestos, air-bag inflators, self inflating life rafts, dry ice).

Other hazardous materials labels (CHIP)

Taken from the UNECE Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)

Hazard Symbol: C/Corrosive Hazardous Materials
Hazard Symbol: C/Corrosive
Hazard Symbol: E/Explosive Hazardous Materials
Hazard Symbol: E/Explosive
Hazard Symbol: F/Flammable Hazard Materials
Hazard Symbol: F/Flammable
Hazard Symbol: N/Environmental Hazard Hazardous Materials
Hazard Symbol: N/Environmental Hazard
Hazard Symbol: O/Oxidizing Hazardous Materials
Hazard Symbol: O/Oxidizing
Hazard Symbol: T/Toxic Hazardous Materials
Hazard Symbol: T/Toxic
Hazard Symbol: Xn/Harmful; Xi/Irritant Hazardous Materials
Hazard Symbol: Xn/Harmful; Xi/Irritant
   

Australasia

Australia

The Australian Dangerous Goods Code, seventh edition (2008) complies with international standards of importation and exportation of dangerous goods in line with the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. Australia uses the standard international UN numbers with a few slightly different signs on the back, front and sides of vehicles carrying hazardous substances. The country uses the same "Hazchem" code system as the UK to provide advisory information to emergency services personnel in the event of an emergency.

New Zealand

New Zealand's Land Transport Rule: Dangerous Goods 2005 and the Dangerous Goods Amendment 2010 describe the rules applied to the transportation of hazardous and dangerous goods in New Zealand. The system closely follows the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods[4] and uses placards with Hazchem codes and UN number on packaging and the transporting vehicle's exterior to convey information to emergency services personnel.

Drivers that carry dangerous goods commercially, or carry quantities in excess of the rule's guidelines must obtain a D (dangerous goods) endorsement on their driver's licence. Drivers carrying quantities of goods under the rule's guidelines and for recreational or domestic purposes do not need any special endorsements.[5]

Canada

Transportation of dangerous goods (hazardous materials) in Canada by road is normally a provincial jurisdiction.[6] The federal government has jurisdiction over air, most marine, and most rail transport. The federal government acting centrally created the federal transportation of dangerous goods act and regulations, which provinces adopted in whole or in part via provincial transportation of dangerous goods legislation. The result is that all provinces use the federal regulations as their standard within their province; some small variances can exist because of provincial legislation. Creation of the federal regulations was coordinated by Transport Canada. Hazard classifications are based upon the UN Model.

The province of Nova Scotia's dangerous goods transportation act can be viewed here: Dangerous Goods Transportation Act

The province of Nova Scotia's dangerous goods transportation regulations can be viewed here: Dangerous Goods Transportation Regulations

The federal government's Transport Dangerous Goods website is located here: Transportation of Dangerous Goods

Outside of federal facilities, labour standards are generally under the jurisdiction of individual provinces and territories. However, communication about hazardous materials in the workplace has been standardized across the country through Health Canada's Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS).

Europe

The European Union has passed numerous directives and regulations to avoid the dissemination and restrict the usage of hazardous substances, important ones being the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive and the REACH regulation. There are also long-standing European treaties such as ADR, ADN and RID that regulate the transportation of hazardous materials by road, rail, river and inland waterways, following the guide of the UN Model Regulation.

European law distinguishes clearly between the law of dangerous goods and the law of hazardous materials. The first refers primarily to the transport of the respective goods including the interim storage, if caused by the transport. The latter describes the requirements of storage (including warehousing) and usage of hazardous materials. This distinction is important, because different directives and orders of European law are applied.

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom (and also Australia, Malaysia, and New Zealand) use the Hazchem warning plate system which carries information on how an emergency service should deal with an incident. The Dangerous Goods Emergency Action Code List (EAC) lists dangerous goods; it is reviewed every two years and is an essential compliance document for all emergency services, local government and for those who may control the planning for, and prevention of, emergencies involving dangerous goods. The latest 2015 version is available from the National Chemical Emergency Centre (NCEC) website.[7]

United States

Prohibitionboard
A picture of the U.S. DOT classes in use.

Due to the increase in the threat of terrorism in the early 21st century after the September 11, 2001 attacks, funding for greater hazmat-handling capabilities was increased throughout the United States, recognizing that flammable, poisonous, explosive, or radioactive substances in particular could be used for terrorist attacks.

The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration regulates hazmat transportation within the territory of the US by Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulates the handling of hazardous materials in the workplace as well as response to hazardous-materials-related incidents, most notably through Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER).[8] regulations found at 29 CFR 1910.120.

In 1984 the agencies OSHA, EPA, USCG, NIOSH jointly published the first Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Guidance Manual[8] which is available for download, or can be purchased from the US Government Printing Office, Pub. 85-115.[9]

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates hazardous materials as they may impact the community and environment, including specific regulations for environmental cleanup and for handling and disposal of waste hazardous materials. For instance, transportation of hazardous materials is regulated by the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act was also passed to further protect human and environmental health.[10]

The Consumer Product Safety Commission regulates hazardous materials that may be used in products sold for household and other consumer uses.

Hazard classes for materials in transport

Following the UN Model, the DOT divides regulated hazardous materials into nine classes, some of which are further subdivided. Hazardous materials in transportation must be placarded and have specified packaging and labelling. Some materials must always be placarded, others may only require placarding in certain circumstances.[11]

Trailers of goods in transport are usually marked with a four digit UN number. This number, along with standardized logs of hazmat information, can be referenced by first responders (firefighters, police officers, and ambulance personnel) who can find information about the material in the Emergency Response Guidebook.[12]

Fixed facilities

Different standards usually apply for handling and marking hazmats at fixed facilities, including NFPA 704 diamond markings (a consensus standard often adopted by local governmental jurisdictions), OSHA regulations requiring chemical safety information for employees, and CPSC requirements requiring informative labeling for the public, as well as wearing hazmat suits when handling hazardous materials.

Packing groups

Corrugated box - haz mat
Doublewall corrugated fiberboard box with dividers for shipping four bottles of corrosive liquid, UN 4G, certified performance for Packing Group III

Packing groups are used for the purpose of determining the degree of protective packaging required for Dangerous Goods during transportation.

  • Group I: great danger, and most protective packaging required. Some combinations of different classes of dangerous goods on the same vehicle or in the same container are forbidden if one of the goods is Group I.[13]
  • Group II: medium danger
  • Group III: minor danger among regulated goods, and least protective packaging within the transportation requirement

Transport documents

One of the transport regulations is that, as an assistance during emergency situations, written instructions how to deal in such need to be carried and easily accessible in the driver’s cabin.[14]

A license or permit card for hazmat training must be presented when requested by officials.

Dangerous goods shipments also require a special declaration form prepared by the shipper. Among the information that is generally required includes the shipper's name and address; the consignee's name and address; descriptions of each of the dangerous goods, along with their quantity, classification, and packaging; and emergency contact information. Common formats include the one issued by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) for air shipments and the form by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) for sea cargo.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Dangerous Goods Regulations (DGR)". IATA. Archived from the original on 2014-04-23.
  2. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-04-16.
  3. ^ "TDG Bulletin: Dangerous Goods Safety Marks" (PDF). TDG Bulletin: Dangerous Goods Safety Marks. Transport Canada. January 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 October 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  4. ^ "Rev. 12 (2001) - Transport - UNECE". www.unece.org. Archived from the original on 2015-04-18.
  5. ^ "Transporting Hazardous or Dangerous Goods in a Truck or Car". Archived from the original on 2016-02-01.
  6. ^ Safety, Government of Canada, Transport Canada, Safety and Security, Motor Vehicle. "Information Links". www.tc.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 2015-04-17.
  7. ^ "The Dangerous Goods Emergency Action Code List 2017". the-ncec.com. Archived from the original on 2015-04-17.
  8. ^ a b "Hazardous waste operations and emergency response (HAZWOPER)". Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). 2006. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 17 February 2010.
  9. ^ DHHS (NIOSH) (October 1985), Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site Activities, p. 142, Pub. no. 85-115, archived from the original on June 29, 2011, retrieved 2011-02-22
  10. ^ Taylor, Penny. "Transporting and Disposing of Dangerous Goods in the US: What You Need to Know". ACT Environmental Services. Archived from the original on 19 January 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
  11. ^ Werman, Howard A.; Karren, K; Mistovich, Joseph (2014). "Protecting Yourself from Accidental and Work-Related Injury: Hazardous Materials". In Werman A. Howard; Mistovich J; Karren K. Prehospital Emergency Care, 10e. Pearson Education, Inc. p. 31.
  12. ^ Levins, Cory. "Dangerous Goods". Archived from the original on 9 May 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  13. ^ "Land Transport Rule - Dangerous Goods". New Zealand Land Transport Agency. Archived from the original on 10 May 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2010.
  14. ^ "Guide for Preparing Shipping Papers" (PDF). US Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.

Further reading

  • Shipper's Guide to Loading and Securement of Hazardous Materials/Dangerous Goods in Intermodal Equipment-Highway, Rail and Water, October 1999, Institute of Packaging Professionals
  • ASTM D4919-03 Standard Specification for Testing of Hazardous Materials Packagings

External links

ADR (treaty)

ADR (formally, the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR)) is a 1957 United Nations treaty that governs transnational transport of hazardous materials. "ADR" is derived from the French name for the treaty: Accord européen relatif au transport international des marchandises Dangereuses par Route).

Concluded in Geneva on 30 September 1957 under the aegis of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, it entered into force on 29 January 1968. The agreement was modified (article 14, paragraph 3) in New York City on 21 August 1975, though these changes only took effect on 19 April 1985. A new amended ADR 2011 entered into force on 1 January 2011. Annexes A and B have been regularly amended and updated since the entry into force of ADR. Consequently, to the amendments for entry into force on 1 January 2015 (until June 2017), a revised consolidated version has been published as document ECE/TRANS/242, Vol. I and II. A further revision applies from 1 January 2017As of 2018, 51 states are party to ADR.

Australian Dangerous Goods Code

The Australian Dangerous Goods Code (ADGC or ADG7) is promulgated by The Advisory Committee on Transport of Dangerous Goods. The most current version is the seventh edition, released in 2008. Read in conjunction with accompanying national and State laws, the document creates a significant level of standardisation for the transportation of dangerous goods in Australia.

British Columbia Commercial Vehicle Safety and Enforcement

British Columbia Commercial Vehicle Safety & Enforcement (BCCVSE) is a provincial law enforcement agency that is responsible for the compliance and enforcement of the commercial transport sector, protection of the environment and transportation infrastructure of British Columbia, increasing road safety and protecting the motoring public.CVSE officers are provincial peace officers who are empowered by the Motor Vehicle Act, Inspectors Authorization Regulation and Transport of Dangerous Goods Act to enforce provincial and select pieces of federal legislation. These acts are the Motor Vehicle Act, Commercial Transport Act, Transportation Act, Passenger Transportation Act, Transport of Dangerous Goods Act, Motor Fuel Tax Act and the federal Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act Regulations.CVSE is headquartered out of Victoria, the provincial capital of British Columbia and operates out of 24 inspection stations throughout the province. Areas with converted self-weigh scales and decommissioned inspection stations are actively patrolled by vehicle.

GHS hazard pictograms

Hazard pictograms form part of the international Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). Two sets of pictograms are included within the GHS: one for the labelling of containers and for workplace hazard warnings, and a second for use during the transport of dangerous goods. Either one or the other is chosen, depending on the target audience, but the two are not used together. The two sets of pictograms use the same symbols for the same hazards, although certain symbols are not required for transport pictograms. Transport pictograms come in wider variety of colors and may contain additional information such as a subcategory number.

Hazard pictograms are one of the key elements for the labelling of containers under the GHS, along with:

an identification of the product;

a signal word – either Danger or Warning – where necessary

hazard statements, indicating the nature and degree of the risks posed by the product

precautionary statements, indicating how the product should be handled to minimize risks to the user (as well as to other people and the general environment)

the identity of the supplier (who might be a manufacturer or importer)The GHS chemical hazard pictograms are intended to provide the basis for or to replace national systems of hazard pictograms. It has still to be implemented by the European Union (CLP regulation) in 2009.

The GHS transport pictograms are the same as those recommended in the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, widely implemented in national regulations such as the U.S. Federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 5101–5128) and D.O.T. regulations at 49 C.F.R. 100–185.

Hazardous materials apparatus

A hazardous material apparatus is a specialized piece of equipment used by hazmat responders responding to calls involving potentially hazardous materials. Due to the ever-evolving nature of dangerous goods, these vehicles are highly customized to fit the needs of the fire department responsible for the apparatus. The needs of a relatively small town such as Santa Barbara will not be the same as that of a big city such as Los Angeles.

International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code

IMDG Code or International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code is accepted as an international guideline to the safe transportation or shipment of dangerous goods or hazardous materials by water on vessel. IMDG Code is intended to protect crew members and to prevent marine pollution in the safe transportation of hazardous materials by vessel. It is recommended to governments for adoption or for use as the basis for national regulations.s mandatory in conjunction with the obligations of the members of united nation government under the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78).

It is intended for use not only by the mariner but also by all those involved in industries and services connected with shipping. Contains advice on terminology, packaging, labeling, placarding, markings, stowage, segregation, handling, and emergency response. The HNS Convention covers hazardous and noxious substances that are included in the IMDG code.

The code is updated and maintained by the CCC (formerly DSC) Sub-Committee of the International Maritime Organization every 2 years.

IMG Code in calendar year 2017 is the either the 2014 Edition; Incorporating Amendment 37-14 or 2016 Edition; Incorporating Amendment 38-16. Both the 2014 Edition and the 2016 Edition were voluntary in 2017. The 2016 Edition becomes mandatory in 2018 and will again be voluntary in 2019 when the 2018 Edition will also be in use.

List of UN numbers 0501 to 0600

See also: Lists of UN numbers

The UN numbers from UN0501 to UN0600 as assigned by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods.

List of UN numbers 1001 to 1100

The UN numbers from UN1001 to UN1100 as assigned by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods.

List of UN numbers 1201 to 1300

The UN numbers from UN1201 to UN1300 as assigned by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods.

List of UN numbers 1801 to 1900

The UN numbers from UN1801 to UN1900 as assigned by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods.

List of UN numbers 2401 to 2500

The UN numbers from UN2401 to UN2500 as assigned by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods.

List of UN numbers 3501 to 3600

The UN numbers from UN3501 to UN3600 as assigned by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods.

Lists of UN numbers

The UN numbers range from UN0001 to about UN3600 and are assigned by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods.100793049071

Oxidizing agent

In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons. Common oxidizing agents are oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and the halogens.

In one sense, an oxidizing agent is a chemical species that undergoes a chemical reaction that removes one or more electrons from another atom. In that sense, it is one component in an oxidation–reduction (redox) reaction. In the second sense, an oxidizing agent is a chemical species that transfers electronegative atoms, usually oxygen, to a substrate. Combustion, many explosives, and organic redox reactions involve atom-transfer reactions.

Port of Hong Kong

The Port of Hong Kong, located by the South China Sea, is a deepwater seaport dominated by trade in containerised manufactured products, and to a lesser extent raw materials and passengers. A key factor in the economic development of Hong Kong, the natural shelter and deep waters of Victoria Harbour provide ideal conditions for berthing and the handling of all types of vessels. It is one of the busiest ports in the world, in the three categories of shipping movements, cargo handled and passengers carried.

Safety data sheet

A safety data sheet (SDS), material safety data sheet (MSDS), or product safety data sheet (PSDS) is a document that lists information relating to occupational safety and health for the use of various substances and products. SDSs are a widely used system for cataloging information on chemicals, chemical compounds, and chemical mixtures. SDS information may include instructions for the safe use and potential hazards associated with a particular material or product, along with spill-handling procedures. SDS formats can vary from source to source within a country depending on national requirements.

A SDS for a substance is not primarily intended for use by the general consumer, focusing instead on the hazards of working with the material in an occupational setting. There is also a duty to properly label substances on the basis of physico-chemical, health or environmental risk. Labels can include hazard symbols such as the European Union standard symbols. The same product (e.g. paints sold under identical brand names by the same company) can have different formulations in different countries. The formulation and hazard of a product using a generic name may vary between manufacturers in the same country.

UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods

The UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods are contained in the UN Model Regulations prepared by the Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). They cover the transport of dangerous goods by all modes of transport except by bulk tanker. They are not obligatory or legally binding on individual countries, but have gained a wide degree of international acceptance: they form the basis of several international agreements and many national laws.

"Dangerous goods" (also known as "hazardous materials" or "HAZMAT" in the United States) may be pure chemical substance (for example, trinitrotoluene (TNT), nitroglycerin), mixtures (for example, dynamite, gunpowder) or manufactured articles (for example, ammunition, fireworks). The transport hazards that they pose are grouped into nine classes, which may be subdivided into divisions and/or packing groups. The most common dangerous goods are assigned a UN number, a four digit code which identifies it internationally: less common substances are transported under generic codes such as "UN1993: flammable liquid, not otherwise specified".

The UN Recommendations do not cover the manufacture, use or disposal of dangerous goods.

UN number

UN numbers (United Nations numbers) are four-digit numbers that identify hazardous materials, and articles (such as explosives, Flammable Liquids to oxidizing solid or toxic liquids, etc.) in the framework of international transport.

Some hazardous substances have their own UN numbers (e.g. acrylamide has UN 2074), while sometimes groups of chemicals or products with similar properties receive a common UN number (e.g. flammable liquids, not otherwise specified, have UN1993). A chemical in its solid state may receive a different UN number than the liquid phase if their hazardous properties differ significantly; substances with different levels of purity (or concentration in solution) may also receive different UN numbers.

UN numbers range from UN 0004 to about UN 3534 (UN 0001 – UN 0003 no longer exist) and are assigned by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. They are published as part of their Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, also known as the Orange Book. These recommendations are adopted by the regulatory organization responsible for the different modes of transport.

There is no UN number allocated to non-hazardous substances. These will simply not have a UN number.

For more details, see Lists of UN numbers.

NA numbers (North America), are issued by the United States Department of Transportation and are identical to UN numbers, except that some substances without a UN number may have an NA number. These additional NA numbers use the range NA 9000 - NA 9279. There are some exceptions, for example NA 2212 is all asbestos with UN 2212 limited to Asbestos, amphibole amosite, tremolite, actinolite, anthophyllite, or crocidolite. Another exception, NA 3334, is self-defense spray, non-pressurized while UN 3334 is aviation regulated liquid, not otherwise specified. For the complete list, see NA/UN exceptions.

For more details see List of NA numbers.

ID numbers are a third type of identification number used for hazardous substances. Substances with an ID number are associated with proper shipping names recognized by the ICAO Technical Instructions. There is only one substance that currently has such a number: ID 8000, Consumer commodity. This substance does not have a UN or NA number, and is classed as a Class 9 hazardous material.

WorkSafe Victoria

WorkSafe Victoria is the trading name of the Victorian WorkCover Authority, a statutory authority of the state government of Victoria, Australia.

After being renamed in 2014 as Victorian Workcover Authority - its official name - by then Minister Gordon Rich-Phillips, it returned to the WorkSafe trading name after the election of the Labor Government in November 2014. Previous to this it has had a number of different names including VWA, WorkCare and the Department of Labour. The name WorkSafe became the trading name for the workplace health and safety and workers compensation divisions in mid-2008 as it reflected its objective of encouraging people to work safely and reduce the personal and commercial effect of workplace injuries.

The organisation reports to a Minister, Robin Scott (since November 2014) and has a Board of Management (Chairperson Paul Barker. Previously, John Walter - acting since his predecessor, David Krasnostein, resigned in March 2015 along with CEO Denise Cosgrove who had only joined the organisation in 2012.) The Chief Executive is Clare Amies.

A review of WorkSafe and the Geelong-based Transport Accident Commission was announced in February 2015 by the Victorian Government. It is being carried out by a former WorkSafe and TAC Chair, businessman James MacKenzie. In announcing the review, the government confirmed its commitment to moving WorkSafe to Geelong. From July 2018, WorkSafe's headquarters will be 1 Malop Street Geelong.

Sudden departure

Mr Krasnostein and Ms Cosgrove were appointed by the previous Liberal Government and were charged with the responsibility of restructuring the organisation. This led to substantial job losses which resulted in the loss of many senior managers and experienced staff. Ms Cosgrove announced the start of the restructure program in June 2012 after the Queens Birthday long weekend in an email to staff which describes how she had had a pleasant weekend at the spa town of Daylesford in regional Victoria and that job losses would be the product of restructuring that would begin immediately. It took some weeks for the story to be reported. Their sudden resignations on 3 March 2015 were announced in a State Government news release were said to have been due to the loss of confidence in WorkSafe's leadership and the handling of chemical contamination of the soil and a cancer cluster at the Country Fire Authority's Fiskville training facility near Ballarat, however there had been a number of other senior officials who had also resigned since the government's election including Country Fire Authority CEO Mick Bourke, and the board of Ambulance Victoria.

In an unusual move after the resignations of Ms Cosgrove and Mr Krasnostein, Minister Robin Scott spoke to staff at WorkSafe's headquarters and re-affirmed the government's support for WorkSafe's health and safety priorities which was widely seen as having been undermined under by the previous government.

Corporate objectives

WorkSafe's corporate aims are to take a constructive, accountable, transparent, effective and caring approach to all its operations.Although it is active in carrying out workplace safety inspections across the state and prosecuting breaches of workplace health, safety and workers compensation laws, a significant focus of WorkSafe's activity includes communication with internal and external stakeholders, media (including publishing details of significant incidents and prosecutions)and the wider community.

WorkSafe runs advertising and social media campaigns, an annual small/medium business road show (May–June) and events such as Work Safe Week (last week of October each year), farming sector field days and conferences where speakers from WorkSafe present information on general and specialist topics.

Workplace health and safety

WorkSafe employs safety inspectors based at 12 offices in Melbourne (City, Dandenong, Essendon Fields, Mulgrave) and regional Victoria (Ballarat, Bendigo, Geelong, Mildura, Shepparton, Traralgon, Wangaratta and Warrnambool) and conduct targeted visits based on identified high-risk industries and in response to calls where dangers are identifeid. There is also a 24/7 emergency response service.

Workers compensation and return to work

WorkSafe oversees Victoria's workers compensation system which provides financial as well as health and related support to people who have been hurt in the course of their work. The system is funded by Victorian employers who pay a percentage of their total remuneration which provides the insurance cover. In 2011 with increases to the average premium rates in other jurisdictions, the Victoria premium became Australia's lowest at 1.338%.

With the Victorian state budget in May 2012, this position was further reinforced for 2012-13 (June to June) with a further reduction to 1.229%. The amount paid by individual employers varies depending on their personal claims performance and that of their industry - i.e. a 'good' performing employer in an industry with many claims may pay rather less than others, while conversely a poorly performing employer will pay more. Around 29,000 people a year make a workers compensation claim (10.58/1000 employees in Victoria in 2010/11).

WorkSafe promotes to employers, injured workers and the people who treat them, the idea of an early and sustainable return to work. This helps keep business and premium costs down and benefits injured workers. Where it is not possible for a worker to return to their old workplace, WorkSafe's support program, WISE, which encourages other employers to step in and take advantage of their skills.

Legislation and regulation

WorkSafe is regulator of a wide range of Acts of Parliament including the Accident Compensation Act 1985; Accident Compensation (Occupational Health and Safety) Act 1996;

Accident Compensation (WorkCover Insurance) Act 1993; Workers Compensation Act 1958;

Occupational Health and Safety Act 1985; Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004;

Dangerous Goods Act 1985; Equipment (Public Safety) Act 1994; Road Transport (Dangerous Goods) Act 1995; Road Transport Reform (Dangerous Goods) Act 1995 (Commonwealth)

Mines Act 1958.

Regulations set out mandatory requirements under the Acts and are linked to copies held at Victorian Law Today.

Accident Compensation Regulations 2001; Dangerous Goods (Explosives) Regulations 2000;

Dangerous Goods (HCDG) Regulations 2005; Dangerous Goods (Storage and Handling) Regulations 2000; Dangerous Goods (Transport by Rail) Regulations 1998; Equipment (Public Safety) Regulations 2007; Magistrates' Court (Occupational Health and Safety) Rules 2005; Occupational Health and Safety Regulations 2007; Road Transport (Dangerous Goods) (Licence Fees) Regulations 1998; Road Transport Reform (Dangerous Goods) Regulations 1997.

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