Dan I of Wallachia

Dan I was the ruler of Wallachia from 1383 to 1386.[2] He was the son of Radu I of Wallachia[2] and the step-brother of Mircea I of Wallachia.

The circumstances surrounding his death are unclear. Laonikos Chalkokondyles claims that he was assassinated by his stepbrother Mircea I in collusion with a boyar party.[3] However, the Anonymous Bulgarian Chronicle states that Dan I was assassinated during a campaign fought between 1384-1386 against Ivan Shishman of Tarnovo, who was backed by the Ottomans, purportedly in favour of his half-brother Ivan Sratsimir of Vidin, but ultimately part of the early Wallachian rulers' attempts to expand their rule south of the Danube.

Dan I's descendants were members of the House of Dăneşti, one of the two factions descended from Basarab I, that were claimants to the voivodeship of the Principality of Wallachia in subsequent centuries. The other rival faction was the House of Drăculeşti.

Dan I
Voivode of Wallachia
Reign1383–1386
PredecessorRadu I of Wallachia
SuccessorMircea the Elder
Born1354[1]
Died23 September 1386
Bulgaria
SpouseDoamna Maria of Serbia
IssueDan II of Wallachia
HouseHouse of Dăneşti
FatherRadu I of Wallachia
MotherDoamna Ana

References

  1. ^ Tismana town official site
  2. ^ a b Czamańska, Ilona (1996). Mołdawia i Wołoszczyzna wobec Polski, Węgier i Turcji w XIV i XV wieku. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM. p. 204. ISBN 83-232-0733-X.
  3. ^ Chalkokondyles, 2.23; translated by Anthony Kaldellis, The Histories (Cambridge: Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library, 2014), vol. 1 pp. 125-7
Dan I of Wallachia
 Died: 1386
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Radu I
Voivode of Wallachia
c. 1383–1386
Succeeded by
Mircea I
1380s

The 1380s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1380, and ended on December 31, 1389.

== Events ==

=== 1380 ===

==== January–December ====

February – Olaf II of Denmark also becomes Olaf IV of Norway, with his mother Margrete (Margaret) as regent. Iceland and the Faroe Islands, as parts of Norway, pass under the Danish crown.

March 13 – The southern England town of Winchelsea in East Sussex is attacked and burned by an expeditionary force from France .

May 31 – Grand Duke of Lithuania Jogaila signs the secret Treaty of Dovydiškės, with the Teutonic Knights. This sparks a civil war with his uncle Kęstutis.

June 21 – Battle of Chioggia: the Venetian fleet defeats the Genoese.

July 27 – Henry Bolingbroke marries Mary de Bohun at Arundel Castle.

September 8 – Battle of Kulikovo: Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance.

September 16 – Charles V of France is succeeded by his twelve-year-old son, Charles VI.

October 2 – Caterina Visconti marries her first cousin, Gian Galeazzo Visconti, later Duke of Milan, at the Church of San Giovanni in Conca.

November 3 – Charles VI of France, who succeeded his father (Charles V of France) in September, is crowned.

==== Date unknown ====

Sir William Walworth, a member of the Fishmongers Guild, becomes Lord Mayor of London for the second time.

Khan Tokhtamysh of the White Horde dethrones Khan Mamai of the Blue Horde. The two hordes unite to form the Golden Horde.

Karim Al-Makhdum arrives in Jolo, and builds a mosque.

The Hongwu Emperor purges the chancellor of China, Hu Weiyong, and abolishes that office, as he imposes direct imperial rule over the six ministries of central government, for the Ming Empire.

The last islands of Polynesia are discovered and inhabited.

The Companhia das Naus is founded by King Ferdinand I of Portugal.

The imposter Paul Palaiologos Tagaris, having been appointed Latin Patriarch of Constantinople by Pope Urban VI, takes up residence in his see at Chalcis.

=== 1381 ===

==== January–December ====

March 14 – Chioggia concludes an alliance with Zadar and Trogir against Venice, which becomes changed in 1412 in Šibenik.

June 12 – Peasants' Revolt: In England, rebels from Kent and Essex, led by Wat Tyler and Jack Straw, meet at Blackheath. There the rebels are encouraged by a sermon, by renegade priest John Ball.

June 14 – Peasants' Revolt: Rebels destroy John of Gaunt's Savoy Palace and storm the Tower of London, killing the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Lord Chancellor. King Richard II of England meets the leaders of the revolt, and agrees to reforms such as fair rents, and the abolition of serfdom.

June 15 – Peasants' Revolt: During further negotiations, Wat Tyler is murdered by the King's entourage. Noble forces subsequently overpower the rebel army. The rebel leaders are eventually captured and executed and Richard II revokes his concessions. The revolt is discussed in John Gower's Vox Clamantis and Froissart's Chronicles.

August – Kęstutis overthrows his nephew, Jogaila, as Grand Duke of Lithuania. Jogaila is allowed to remain as governor of eastern Lithuania. This marks the beginning of the Lithuanian Civil War (1381–84).

==== Date unknown ====

Due to Joanna I of Naples' support for Antipope Clement VII, Pope Urban VI bestows Naples upon Charles of Durazzo. With the help of the Hungarians, Charles advances on Naples and captures Joanna.

The Ming Dynasty of China annexes the areas of the old Kingdom of Dali, in what is now Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, inhabited by the Miao and Yao peoples. Hundreds of thousands of Chinese (including military colonists) will migrate there from the rest of China.

James of Baux, the ruler of Taranto and the Latin Empire, claims the Principality of Achaea, after the imprisonment of Joanna I of Naples.

Sonam Drakpa deposes Drakpa Changchub, as ruler of Tibet.

Hajji I succeeds Alah-ad-Din Ali, as Mamluk Sultan of Egypt. The Egyptian government continues to be controlled by rebel leader Barquq.

After a naval battle, Venice wins the three-year War of Chioggia against Genoa. The Genoans are permanently weakened by the conflict.

Timur conquers east Persia, ending the rule of the Sarbadar dynasty.

In Ming Dynasty China, the lijia census registration system begun in 1371 is now universally imposed, during the reign of the Hongwu Emperor. The census counts 59,873,305 people living in China in this year. This depicts a drastic drop in population since the Song Dynasty, which counted 100 million people at its height in the early 12th century. The historian Timothy Brook, in his The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China, states that the Ming census was inaccurate, as China in the late 14th century had at least 65,000,000 inhabitants, if not 75,000,000.

=== 1382 ===

==== January–December ====

January 20 – Princess Anne of Bohemia, a daughter of the late Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, becomes the Queen Consort of England by marrying King Richard II; the marriage produces no heirs before her death in 1395.

May 12 – Charles of Durazzo executes the imprisoned Joanna I of Naples, and succeeds her as Charles III of Naples.

May 21 – John Wycliffe's teachings are condemned by the Synod of London, which becomes known as the "Earthquake Synod", after its meetings are disrupted by an earthquake.

August – The iconic painting the Black Madonna of Częstochowa is brought from Jerusalem, to the Jasna Góra Monastery in Poland.

September – Following the death of Louis I of Hungary and Poland:

Louis' daughter Mary becomes Queen of Hungary.

The Poles, who do not wish to be ruled by Mary's fiancee, the future Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, choose Mary's younger sister, Jadwiga, to become ruler of Poland. After two years of negotiations, Jadwiga is eventually crowned "King" in 1384.

September 30 – The inhabitants of Trieste (now in northern Italy) donate their city to Duke Leopold III of Austria.

October – James I succeeds his nephew, Peter II, as King of Cyprus.

November 27 – Battle of Roosebeke: A French army under Louis II, Count of Flanders defeats the Flemings, led by Philip van Artevelde.

==== Date unknown ====

Khan Tokhtamysh of the Golden Horde overruns Muscovy, as punishment for Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy's resistance to Khan Mamai of the Blue Horde in the 1370s. Dmitry Donskoy pledges his loyalty to Tokhtamysh, and is allowed to remain as ruler of Moscow and Vladimir.

The Ottomans take Sofia from the Bulgarians.

After a five-year revolt, Barquq deposes Hajji II as Mamluk Sultan of Egypt, marking the end of the Bahri Dynasty, and the start of the Burji Dynasty.

Ibrahim I is selected to succeed Husheng, as Shah of Shirvan (now Azerbaijan).

Kęstutis, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, is taken prisoner by former Grand Duke Jogaila, whilst meeting him to hold negotiations. Kęstutis is subsequently murdered, and Jogaila regains the rule of Lithuania.

Ahmed deposes his brother, Hussain, as ruler of the Jalayirid Dynasty in western Persia.

Rana Lakha succeeds Rana Kshetra Singh, as ruler of Mewar (now part of western India).

Conrad Zöllner von Rothenstein succeeds Winrich von Kniprode, as Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights.

Balša II of Zeta conquers Albania.

Dawit I succeeds his brother Newaya Maryam, as Emperor of Ethiopia.

Winchester College is founded in England.

=== 1383 ===

==== January–December ====

May 17 – King John I of Castile and Leon marries Beatrice of Portugal.

July 7 – The childless James of Baux, ruler of Taranto and Achaea, and last titular Latin Emperor, dies. As a result:

Charles III of Naples becomes ruler of Achaea (now southern Greece).

Otto, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, the widower of Joanna I of Naples, becomes ruler of Taranto (now eastern Italy).

Louis I, Duke of Anjou inherits the claim to the Latin Empire (now western Turkey), but never uses the title of Emperor.

October 22 – King Fernando I of Portugal dies, and is succeeded by his daughter, Beatrice of Portugal. A period of civil war and anarchy, known as the 1383–85 Crisis, begins in Portugal, due to Beatrice being married to King John I of Castile and Leon.

==== Date unknown ====

Dan I succeeds his father as Prince of Wallachia. He is the ancestor of the House of Dăneşti.

The Teutonic Knights recommence war against pagan Lithuania.

Rao Chanda succeeds Rao Biram Dev, as Rathore ruler of Marwar (now in western India).

Löwenbräu beer is first brewed.

Completion of the original inner courtyard of Farleigh Hungerford Castle in Somersetshire, England.

The Wat Phra That Doi Suthep Temple is built in present-day Thailand, by King Kuena of Lanna.

Construction of the Bastille is completed in Paris, France.

=== 1384 ===

==== January–December ====

May–September 3 – Siege of Lisbon by the Castilian army, during the 1383–85 Crisis in Portugal.

August 16 – The Hongwu Emperor of Ming China hears a case of a couple who tore paper money notes, while fighting over them. Under the law, this is considered to be destroying stamped government documents, which is to be punished by a caning with a bamboo rod of 100 strokes. However, the Emperor decides to pardon them, on the grounds that it was unintentional.

November 16 – 10-year-old Jadwiga is crowned "King" of Poland in Kraków following the death of her father, King Louis, in 1382.

December 25 – Use of the Spanish era dating system in the Crown of Castile is suppressed.

====== Unknown Date ======

The Hongwu Emperor of China reinstates the Imperial examination system for drafting scholar-officials to the civil service, after suspending the system since 1373, in favor of a recommendation system to office.

The Nasrid princes of Al-Andalus replace Abu al-Abbas with Abu Faris Musa ibn Faris, as ruler of the Marinid dynasty in modern-day Morocco.

Zain Al-Abidin succeeds his father, Shah Shuja, as ruler of the Muzaffarids in central Persia.

Shortly before his death, John Wycliffe sends out tracts against Pope Urban VI, who has not turned out to be the reformist Wycliffe had hoped.

Qara Muhammad succeeds Bairam Khawaja, as ruler of the Kara Koyunlu ("Black Sheep Turkomans"), in modern-day Armenia and northern Iraq.

Timur conquers the northern territories of the Jalayirid Empire, in western Persia.

Katharine Lady Berkeley's School is founded in Gloucestershire, England.

=== 1385 ===

==== January–December ====

July 17 – Charles VI of France marries Isabeau of Bavaria; the wedding is celebrated with France's first court ball.

August 6 – Edmund of Langley is elevated to become the first Duke of York.

August 14

Battle of Aljubarrota: John of Aviz defeats John I of Castile in the decisive battle of the 1383–85 Crisis in Portugal. John of Aviz is crowned King John I of Portugal, ending Queen Beatrice's rule, and Portugal's independence from the Kingdom of Castile is secured.

The Union of Krewo establishes the Jagiellonian Dynasty in Poland and Lithuania, through the proposed marriage of Queen regnant Jadwiga of Poland and Grand Duke Jogaila of Lithuania, and sees the acceptance of Roman Catholicism by the Lithuanian elite, and an end to the Greater Poland Civil War.

August 31 – King Richard II of England begins an invasion of Scotland. The English burn Holyrood and Edinburgh, but return home without a decisive battle.

September 18 – Battle of Savra: Serbian forces under Balša II and Ivaniš Mrnjavčević are defeated by Ottoman commander Hayreddin Pasha, near Berat.

October 15 – Battle of Valverde: The armies of Portugal defeat Castile.

December – A group of Hungarian nobles helps Charles III of Naples to overthrow Queen Mary, as ruler of Hungary and Croatia.

==== Date unknown ====

Tokhtamysh of the Golden Horde conquers parts of the Jalayirid Empire in western Persia, causing a rift between himself and Timur of the Timurid Empire, who had also wanted to conquer Persia.

Olav IV of Norway is elected as titular King of Sweden, in opposition to the unpopular King Albert.

The Hongwu Emperor of China's Ming Dynasty relents after eighteen tribute missions over the previous eight years, and agrees to invest King U of Goryeo.

Construction of:

Castello Estense in Ferrara (modern-day Italy)

Bodiam Castle (East Sussex, England)

=== 1386 ===

==== January–December ====

February 24 – Elizabeth of Bosnia, the mother of the overthrown Queen Mary of Hungary and Croatia, arranges the assassination of Charles III of Naples, the ruler of Hungary, Naples, Achaea and Croatia, with the result that:

Mary is reinstated as Queen of Hungary and Croatia.

Charles' son, Ladislaus, becomes King of Naples.

A period of interregnum begins in Achaea, lasting until 1396. The rule of Achaea is sought by numerous pretenders, none of whom can be considered to have reigned.

March 4 – Grand Duke of Lithuania Jogaila (having been baptised on February 15 in Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, and on February 18 married Jadwiga, 12-year-old queen regnant of Poland) is crowned Władysław II Jagiełło, King of Poland, beginning the Jagiellonian dynasty.

May 9 – King John I of Portugal and King Richard II of England ratify the Treaty of Windsor.

May 20 – Earliest recorded mention of the city of Pitești, in modern-day Romania.

July 9 – Battle of Sempach: The Swiss safeguard independence from Habsburg rule.

July – John of Gaunt leaves England to make good his claim to the throne of Castile by right of his second marriage to Constanza of Castile in 1371.

September 23 – Dan I of Wallachia (modern-day southern Romania) is killed in battle against the Bulgarians and is succeeded by Mircea the Elder, one of the greatest rulers of Wallachia.

October 18 – Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg, the oldest university in Germany, is founded.

November 21 – Timur's invasions of Georgia: Timurid dynasty Turco-Mongol leader Timur captures and sacks the Georgian capital of Tbilisi, taking King Bagrat V prisoner.

==== Date unknown ====

The mother and sister of Queen Jadwiga of Poland are kidnapped by Jadwiga's brother-in-law.

Abu al-Abbas is reinstated as ruler of the Marinid dynasty in present day Morocco.

The Republic of Venice takes control of the island of Corfu.

Construction begins on the Brancacci Chapel in Florence.

Rozhdestvensky monastery is built in Muscovy.

=== 1387 ===

==== January–December ====

January – Sigismund, the future Holy Roman Emperor and husband of Mary, Queen of Hungary, orders the murder of her mother-in-law, Elizabeta Kotromanic, and declares himself joint ruler of Hungary.

January 1 – Charles III ascends to the throne of Navarre, after the death of his father, Charles II.

January 5 – John I succeeds his father, Peter IV, as King of Aragon and Valencia, and forms an alliance with France and Castile.

March 11 – Battle of Castagnaro: Padua, led by John Hawkwood, is victorious over Giovanni Ordelaffi of Verona.

June 2 – John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon.

August 22 – Olaf, King of Norway and Denmark and claimant to the throne of Sweden, dies. The vacant thrones come under the regency of his mother Margaret I of Denmark, who will soon become queen in her own right.

September 27 – Petru of Moldavia pays homage to Władysław II Jagiełło, making Moldavia a Polish fief (which it will remain until 1497).

December 19 – Battle of Radcot Bridge: Forces loyal to Richard II of England are defeated by a group of rebellious barons known as the Lords Appellant. Richard II is imprisoned until he agrees to replace all the councillors in his court.

==== Date unknown ====

Timur conquers the Muzaffarid Empire in central Persia, and appoints three puppet rulers.

Khan Tokhtamysh of the Golden Horde invades the Timurid Empire, but has to withdraw soon after, due to heavy snow.

Magha II succeeds his brother, Musa II, as Mansa of the Mali Empire.

=== 1388 ===

==== January–December ====

February – The entire court of Richard II of England are convicted of treason by the Merciless Parliament, under the influence of the Lords Appellant, and are all either executed or exiled. Richard II effectively becomes a puppet of the Lords Appellant.

April 9 – Battle of Näfels: Glarus, in alliance with the Old Swiss Confederacy, decisively defeat the Habsburgs, despite being outnumbered sixteen to one.

May 18 – Battle of Buyur Lake: A Chinese Ming invasion force under General Lan Yu defeats a large Mongolian army under Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür, and captures 100 members of the Northern Yuan Dynasty. Uskhal Khan is killed whilst trying to escape, and is succeeded as Khan of Mongolia by his rival, Jorightu. The invading Chinese army destroys Karakorum, the capital of the Mongolian Empire.

August 5 – Battle of Otterburn: A Scottish army, led by James Douglas, defeats an English army, capturing their leader, Harry Hotspur. Douglas is killed during the battle.

August 27 – Battle of Bileća: The Bosnians check the Ottoman advance.

December 12 – Maria of Enghien sells the Lordship of Argos and Nauplia to the Republic of Venice.

==== Date unknown ====

Mircea I of Wallachia takes control of Dobruja, thus preventing its occupation by the Ottomans.

Petru of Moldavia receives Pokuttya, as a pawn for a loan to the Polish king.

The revision of Wycliffe's Bible is completed by John Purvey, and Wyclif's followers, known as the Lollards, begin to be persecuted in England.

John of Gaunt, the uncle of Richard II of England, makes peace with Castile and gives up his claim to the Castilian throne, by allowing his daughter Catherine of Lancaster to marry Prince Henry, the eldest son of John I of Castile.

The title of Prince of Asturias is created.

Ramesuan is reinstated as King of Ayutthaya (modern-day southern Thailand), after dethroning and executing 17-year-old King Thong Chan.

Goryeo Revolution: General Yi Seong-gye begins a four year revolution in Goryeo (modern-day Korea), after being ordered by King U of Goryeo to attack the superior Chinese army. King U is forced from power, and replaced by his son Chang.

Tran Ngung overthrows Tran Hien as King of Vietnam.

Omar I is succeeded by Sa'id, as King of the Kanem-Bornu Empire (modern-day east Chad and Nigeria). Sa'id is succeeded in the same year by Kade Alunu. Omar and Sa'id are both killed by Bilala invaders from the west.

Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq II succeeds Firuz Shah Tughlaq as Sultan of Delhi.

Charles VI of France takes full control of the government, ending the regency of his uncle, Philip the Bold.

The University of Cologne is established; by the 21st century it will be the largest university in Germany.

Cozia Monastery is built in Wallachia.

Ljubostinja Monastery is built in Serbia.

=== 1389 ===

==== January–December ====

February 24 – Queen Margaret of Norway and Denmark defeats Albert, King of Sweden in battle and becomes ruler of all three kingdoms. Albert is deposed from the Swedish throne and taken prisoner.

May 19 – Vasili I becomes Grand Prince of Moscow after the death of his father, Dmitry Donskoy.

June – The Käpplinge murders take place in Stockholm in Sweden.

June 15 – Battle of Kosovo: The Ottoman Empire scores a decisive victory over the Serbs and their Christian allies. Both Sultan Murad I and the Serbian Prince Lazar are killed in battle.

Bayezid I (1389–1402) succeeds his father Murad I (1359–1389), as Ottoman Emperor.

Stefan III succeeds his father, as ruler of Serbia.

July 18 – Hundred Years' War: The kingdoms of England and France sign the Truce of Leulinghem, ending the second phase of the war, and bringing a 13-year peace.

November 2 – Pope Boniface IX succeeds Pope Urban VI, as the 203rd pope.

==== Date unknown ====

Mircea I of Wallachia and Polish king Władysław II Jagiełło sign their first treaty, to protect their countries against Ottoman expansion.

Goryeo Revolution in Korea (1388–1392): King Chang of Goryeo is forced from power and replaced by King Gongyang. The ten-year-old Chang and his predecessor, U, are both assassinated later in the year.

Hadji II is restored as Mamluk Sultan of Egypt, after overthrowing Sultan Barquq.

With the backing of Antipope John XXIII, supporters of Louis II overthrow the underage King Ladislaus as King of Naples. The new Pope Boniface IX recognises Ladislaus's claim to the throne.

Wikramawardhana succeeds Hayam Wuruk, as ruler of the Majapahit Empire (now Indonesia).

The unpopular Sultan Tughluq Khan of Delhi is murdered and succeeded by his brother, Abu Bakr Shah.

Biri II succeeds Kade Alunu as King of the Kanem-Bornu Empire (now eastern Chad and Nigeria), and the Empire loses its land in present-day Chad to the Bilala.

Sandaki overthrows Magha II, as Mansa of the Mali Empire.

Abd ar-Rahmân II succeeds Musa II as ruler of the Ziyanid Dynasty, in present-day western Algeria.

Abu Tashufin II succeeds his nephew, Abu Hammu II, as ruler of the Abdalwadid Dynasty in present-day eastern Algeria.

Carmo Convent is built in Lisbon, Portugal.

1386

Year 1386 (MCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Dan I

Dan I may refer to:

Dan I of Wallachia, reigned c. 1383 - 1386

Dan I of Denmark, progenitor of the Danish royal house

Dan-I - Disco one hit wonder from 1979

Dan II of Wallachia

Dan II (? – June 1, 1432) was a voivode of the principality of Wallachia, ruling an extraordinary five times, and succeeded four times by Radu II Chelul, his rival for the throne. Of those five periods on the throne of Wallachia (1420–1421, 1421–1423, 1423–1424, 1426–1427, and 1427–1431), four were within a period of only seven years.

Despotate of Dobruja

The Principality of Karvuna or Despotate of Dobruja (Bulgarian: Добруджанско деспотство or Карвунско деспотство; Romanian: Despotatul Dobrogei or Țara Cărvunei) was a 14th-century quasi-independent polity in the region of modern Dobruja, that split off from the Second Bulgarian Empire under the influence of the Byzantine Empire.

The principality's name is derived from the fortress of Karvuna (present Kavarna), mentioned in Bulgarian and Byzantine documents and Italian portolans of the 14th century as its first capital, and located between Varna and Cape Kaliakra.

House of Dănești

The House of Dănești was one of the two main lineages of the Wallachian noble family House of Basarab. They were descended from Dan I of Wallachia.

The other lineage of the Basarabs is the House of Drăculești.

List of people of Cuman descent

Qutb-ud-din Aibak - founder of the Delhi sultanate.

Khan Boniak/Boniek/Bongek/Maniak. Boniak was a khan during the time of Sharukan. He was called "the Mangy" by Russians. He led invasions, together with Togortac, on Kyivan Rus’ in 1096, 1097, 1105, and 1107. In 1096 Boniak attacked Kyiv, burned down the princely palace in Berestove, and plundered the Kiev Monastery of the Caves. In 1107 he was defeated by the Kyivan Rus’ princes' forces near Lubny. He led the invasions, together with Togortac, on Kievan Rus'. In 1096 Boniak attacked Kiev, plundered the Kiev Monastery of the Caves, and burned down the prince's palace in Berestovo. He was defeated in 1107 by the princes of Rus's forces, near Lubni. He is mentioned for the last time in the Primary Chronicle in 1167, when he was defeated by Prince Oleg I of Chernigov. Boniak is often represented as a sorcerer in Rus' folklore.

Taz (meaning 'bald'), brother of Boniak. He perished at the battle on the Sula River, along with Sugr.

Khan Köten Sutoiovych (Kuthen/Kotian/Kotony/Zayhan or Jonas), son of Khan Konchek. He is Mstislav Mstislavich's father-in-law. Köten was of the Terteroba clan. He participated in the power struggles between the princes of Kyivan Rus' in 1202, 1225 and 1228. After the defeat by the Mongols in 1222, he convinced the princes of Kyivan Rus' to forge an alliance against the Mongols. He fought in the war against the Mongols (allied with the Russians) in the Battle of Kalka River, where the Rus'-Cuman alliance was defeated. In 1238 he was again defeated by Batu Khan on the Astrakhan steppes. Afterwards, Koten led 40,000 "huts" (families) (around 70 - 80,000 people) to Hungary (to escape from the Mongols), where he was later assassinated by the Hungarian and Germans in concert. The Cumans then left Hungary, pillaging along the way and emigrated to the Second Bulgarian Empire. Some of the Cumans were later asked to come back to Hungary and help rebuild it after Mongol devastation. He was possibly the most notable of Cumans (together with Baibars). Koten was from the Terteroba clan that ruled Cumania in the late 11th century, as well as in the mid-13th century.

Khan Koten's daughter, married Mstislav Mstislavich, Prince of Halych (r. 1219–1228).

Khan Koten's second daughter, married Narjot de Toucy. After her husband died, she became a nun.

Khan Konchak (Konchek, Kumcheg - meaning 'trousers') Otrakovich, his daughter married Igor's son, prince Vladimir III Igorevich of Putivl. He was involved in wars and raids with the Russians (Prince Igor), along the Ros River, where the Cumans attacked towns belonging to the Olgovichi (the ruling dynasty of Chernigov). He defeated Igor Svyatoslavich, prince of the Principality of Novgorod-Seversk, the tale of which is immortalized in the Rus' epic The Tale of Igor's Campaign. He united the western and eastern Cuman-Kipchak tribes.

Konchakovna (also known as Svoboda), daughter of Khan Konchek, married prince Vladimir III Igorevich of Putivl (son of Igor Svyatoslavich) in 1188.

Yuri, son of Khan Konchek. His name may indicate his conversion to Christianity.

Khan Kobyak/Kobiak/Kopyak/Köpek ("dog" in Turkish), one of the leaders of Crimea. He was involved in wars and raids against Prince Igor, along the Ros River, where the Cumans attacked towns belonging to the Olgovichi (the ruling dynasty of Chernigov). He also participated with Khan Konchak in an assault on Kyivan Rus’. Kobiak, Khan Konchak and other notable were routed and captured on the Khorol River in 1183/1184. He had an alliance with Igor in his feud with the son of Rostislav I.

IIziaslav Vladimirovich, son of prince Vladimir III Igorevich and Konchakovna (Svoboda). He was prince of Terebovl in 1210.

Isac and Daniel, sons of Kobiak.

Chilbuk: chieftain, captured Igor of Novgorod-Seversk

Roman, son of Kza, chieftain, captured Vsevolod of Kursk.

Khan Gzak/Gza/Kza/Koza, chieftain, father of Roman. Khan Gzak was a rival of Khan Konchek.He attacked Putyvl where Prince Igor Svyatoslavich's army is destroyed; the prince gets wounded and captured with his son and brother. This tale is immortalized in the Rus' epic The Tale of Igor's Campaign and in Alexander Borodin's opera Prince Igor.

Kopti, chieftain, captured Vladimir.

Eldechyuk: chieftain, captured Svyatoslav of Rilsk.

Toksobich, Kolobich, Etebich, Tetrobich - Russian versions of Cuman-Kipchak chieftains captured in battle, may be any of the above forementioned or other individuals entirely. The Cuman-Kipchak base name would most likely be the equivalent of - Toks(o), Kolo, Ete, Tetr(o).

Lavor/Ovlur/Vlur, possibly a kinsman, aided Igor in his escape.

Sharokan/Sharohan/Sharukan, (Cuman-Kipchak base name Sharu/Sharo), chieftain, Konchak's grandfather, who had been defeated by the Russians in a great battle on the Sula River in 1107. Called "the Old" by Russians.

Khan Ayepa, son of Osen, father in law of Yuri Dolgorukiy (a Russian Rurikid prince and founder of Moscow). His daughter married Yuri Dolgorukiy. Khan Ayepa attacked Volga Bulgaria, perhaps due to an instigation of his son in law. The Bulgars in turn poisoned Ayepa and the other princes, all of which died.

Prince Andrei I of Vladimir (Andrey Bogolyubsky). He was the son of Yuri Dolgoruki, who proclaimed Andrei a prince in Vyshhorod (near Kiev). His mother was a Polovtsian/Cuman princess, khan Aepa's/Ayepa's daughter. Andrey is beatified as a saint in Russian Orthodox Church. He was known in the West as Scythian Caesar.

Toglyy: Cuman chieftain during time of Igor's imprisonment.

Sokal, Cuman chieftain who obtained a major victory against Rus' in 1061.

Kutesk, headed the Cuman attack on Hungary in 1085-1086, coming into Hungary by a north-east route, possibly via Verecke pass.

Boricius, Cuman chieftain in Hungary, of the 4th rank of Cuman political hierarchy.

Jiajak Jaqeli, empress consort of Alexios II of Trebizond. Jiajak (meaning 'flower') was daughter of Beka I, the Cuman atabeg of Samtskhe. The Jaqelis held the Georgian feudal office of Eristavi, which could be "governor of a region" or an "army-commander".

Etrek/Otrok/Atraka, son of Sharokan/Sharohan/Sharukan. Otrok withdrew to the north Caucasian steppes due to the aggressive policies of Vladimir II Monomakh, grand prince of Kievan Rus'. Thereafter, in 1118, 40,000 Cuman troops under Otrok entered the service of the Georgian king David IV of Georgia, where they helped to make Georgia the most powerful kingdom in the region.

Princess Gurandukht, daughter of Khan Otrok of the Cumans. She married king David IV of Georgia in 1107. The marriege occurred years before the recruitment of around 40,000 Cuman-Kipchaks in the Georgian service. Gurandukht is a Persianate name; her original Turkic name is unknown as are the details of her life. The chronicler of king David IV praises Gurandukht's virtues and points out that the marriage helped David to secure the transfer of the Cuman-Kipchak families as allies of the Georgian crown, which in turn helped to make Georgia the most powerful kingdom in the region.

Vakhtang, born in 1118, son of King David IV of Georgia and the Cuman princess Gurandukht, daughter of Khan Otrok. He was involved in an attempted coup against Demetrius I of Georgia, his brother and heir apparent. Vakhtang was captured, blinded and cast in prison where he apparently died shortly afterwards.

Sirchan, son of Sharokan/Sharohan/Sharukan.

Eltut, brother to Konchak/Konchek, died when the Chernigovian-Cuman army was defeated in 1180.

Sevinch, son of Khan Boniak/Maniak. Sevinch helped Yuri Dolgorukiy, grand prince of Kiev, in 1151, in his struggles against other princes in the south. According to the Rus sources, Sevinch expressed his desire to "plant his sword in the golden gate of Kiev as his illustrious father had done."

Yurgi/Yuri, occidental name of Konchak/Konchek's son, died against the Mongols at the Battle of Kalka River. He and his father Khan Konchek tried to create a more cohesive force out of the many Cuman tribes. His Russian name may indicate his conversion to Christianity.

Asalup, his daughter married Igor's grandfather, Oleg.

Girgen, his granddaughter was Igor's stepmother.

Zeyhan/Zehanus, possible murderer of Ladislas IV.

Arbuz, meaning "watermelon", possible murderer of Ladislas IV.

Turtel/Tort-oyul, meaning "five sons" possible murderer of Ladislas IV.

Menk/Manj, meaning "birthmark", led Bela IV's troops in 1264 against Bela's own son, Duke Stephen.

Begovars, Cuman chieftain who led the Cumans that helped King Béla IV of Hungary with his attack on the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia in 1229.

Tortel/Tortul, one of the murderers of King Ladislaus IV in 1290.

Uzur: a member of the Great Council at Teteny which settled the provisions of the law of 1279 regarding Cuman settlement. In preparatory discussion for this, Cuman interests were represented by Uzur and Tolon.

Tolon, meaning "full moon", participated with Uzur in the preparatory discussion for the Great Council at Teteny which settled the provisions of the law of 1279 regarding Cuman settlement.

Alpra/Al-bura (meaning "tawny colored camel", supreme Cuman commander of the 1260s and 70s, who in 1273 King Charles of Sicily admonishes to stay loyal to the Hungarian crown after the death of King Stephen.

Arbuz (meaning "watermelon"), possible murderer of Ladislaus IV.

Kemenche, meaning "little bow", possible murderer of Ladislas IV - assassination attempt on the king of Hungary; he was caught and executed.

Kutlu Aslan (happy lion in Turkish) - involved in Kubasar's coup.

Kitzes, chief of the Cumans that were in a war against the Byzantine Empire. He fought a battle against emperor Alexios I Komnenos with a body of 12,000 Cumans. The Cumans lost the battle; Alexios had the mountain passes sealed and either massacred or captured the Cuman forces who had refused to submit.

Sytzigan (from Cuman-Turkic Sïčğan, "mouse"), Syrgiannes after baptism, son of a Cuman leader and member of an influential Cuman group that was present in the Byzantine court. Later he marries a member of the ruling Palaiologos family and before 1290 became Megas Domestikos (Commander-in-Chief of the Army), a title granted by Byzantine Emperor Andronikos II. Sytzigan's son, Syrgiannes Palaiologos was a Pinkernes and a friend of Andronikos III Palaiologos and John Kantakouzenos.

Bartz/Barc, Hungary, prince of the Cumans that settled in Hungary. Under his leadership, he and 15,000 Cumans got baptized in 1227.

Membrok, Hungary, leader of the Cumans.

Baytursun, Cuman leader, Dagestan.

Sevinch, Dagestan - went, with 40,000 people, and the family of Artvin Trabzon, to the Byzantine Empire.

Dobrich, Balkans, involved with establishment of the Dubrovnik (Ragusa) state in the Balkans/

Tapar (worship in Turkish), southern modern day Russia "Direct translation from Turkish: the organization established the first Kipchak Kipchak lady. Longitudinal Elbörili belongs.

Şaraga (yellow hammer), Crimea - organized slave trade.

Bachman Khan, he rallied the Cuman-Kipchak clans after a Mongol surprise attack in 1237 – they hid in the forests along the Dnieper River. Khan Bachman and his ally, the Alan leader Catchar and were eventually surrounded and captured by Budjek and Mangku/Möngke/Mangku Khan. Möngke Khan demanded he kneel before him. Khan Bachman refused and said “Do you think I am a camel?” Instead of asking for mercy, Bachman asked to die by Möngke’s own hand. Instead, Möngke had Budjek kill him - by cutting him in two, possibly as insult to injury. Khan Bachman’s death was a major blow to the Cuman-Kipchaks’ fate

Sultan Baibars ("white bigcat-Siberian Tiger"/"leopard" in Turkic), fourth Sultan of Egypt from the Mamluk Bahri dynasty. He was one of the commanders of the Egyptian forces that inflicted a devastating defeat on the Seventh Crusade of King Louis IX of France. He also led the vanguard of the Egyptian army at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260,[2] which marked the second substantial defeat of the Mongol army, and is considered a turning point in history.

Quman, a noble Bulgar.

Quman, a governor of Haleb (Allepo), Syria.

Qutuz, Sultan of Egypt (Mamluke Empire).

Seyhan, a Cuman chieftain and father of Queen Elizabeth the Cuman. Historians point out that a charter of her father-in-law, Béla IV refers to a Cuman chieftain Seyhan as his kinsman, implying that Seyhan was Elizabeth's father. His domains lay near the Tisza.

Elizabeth the Cuman, queen of Hungary in 1272-1277, during the minority of her son, King Ladislaus IV of Hungary. She was queen consort and wife of King Stephen V of Hungary. A struggle took place between her and the noble opposition, which led to her imprisonment; but supporters freed her in 1274. Elizabeth was the daughter of Seyhan, a Cuman chieftain.

Ladislaus IV of Hungary, "The Cuman", son of Elizabeth the Cuman and King Stephen V of Hungary. He was the King of Hungary.

Mary of Hungary, Queen of Naples, daughter of Elizabeth the Cuman and King Stephen V of Hungary. She also served as Regent in Provence in 1290-1294.

Anna of Hungary (1260–1281), daughter of Elizabeth the Cuman and King Stephen V of Hungary.

Elizabeth of Hungary, Queen of Serbia was one of the older children of King Stephen V of Hungary and his wife Queen Elizabeth the Cuman. She first married Zavis Vítkovci, Lord of Rosenberg, Skalitz and Falkenstein and secondly Stefan Uroš II Milutin of Serbia.

Andrew of Hungary (1268 – 1278), son of Elizabeth the Cuman and King Stephen V of Hungary. He was the Duke of Slavonia.

Elizabeth of Sicily, Queen of Hungary (Trouble with Cumans).

Catherine of Hungary, Queen of Serbia, second daughter of Elizabeth the Cuman and King Stephen V of Hungary. She became Queen of Serbia.

John Hunyadi, his name is of Cuman origin and his ancestors had Cuman names.

Michael IX Palaiologos (17 April 1277 – 12 October 1320), son of Anna of Hungary.

Tsar Ivan Asen I of the Second Bulgarian Empire, established the Second Bulgarian Empire, with the help of his Cuman allies. First emperor of the new empire. The Asen dynasty is of Cuman origin, as well as the Terter dynasty (which Koten was part of) and the Shishman dynasty.

Boril of Bulgaria (Boril Kaliman), 1207–1218, Second Bulgarian Empire, descended from Cumans through the Asen dynasty of Bulgaria - of Cuman origin.

Everyone from the Sratsimir dynasty, a medieval Bulgarian dynasty that ruled the Tsardom of Tarnovo, the Tsardom of Vidin, the Principality of Valona and Kanina, and the Despotate of Lovech. Paternally, they descended from the Asen dynasty (of Cuman origin), and maternally, they descended from the Shishman dynasty (of Cuman origin).

Sratsimir, of the Sratsimir dynasty.

Patriarch Joseph II of Constantinople, Patriarch of Constantinople 1416-1439, Sratsimir dynasty.

Fruzhin, a 15th-century Bulgarian noble who fought actively against the Ottoman conquest of the Second Bulgarian Empire. He was a son of one of Tsar Ivan Shishman.

John Komnenos Asen (1332 – 1363), of the Sratsimir dynasty.

Alexander Komnenos Asen (1363 – 1372), of the Sratsimir dynasty.

Komnena (1372 – 1395), of the Sratsimir dynasty.

Helena of Bulgaria (1332 – 1356), of the Sratsimir dynasty.

Tsar Peter IV of Bulgaria, 1186–1197, Second Bulgarian Empire.

Tsar Ivan Asen II of the Second Bulgarian Empire, 1218–1241.

Tsar Ivan Stephen Shishman, of the Second Bulgarian Empire, son of Michael III Shishman.

Tsar Kaloyan, Second Bulgarian Empire, defeated the crusaders with the help of his Cumans, captured Baldwin.

Tsar Kaliman I of Bulgaria (Kaliman Asen) of the Second Bulgarian Empire.

Tsar Constantine Tikh of Bulgaria, 1257–1277.

Tsar Michael Asen I of Bulgaria, Second Bulgarian Empire.

Tsar Michael Asen II of Bulgaria, Second Bulgarian Empire.

Tsar Michael Asen III of Bulgaria, Second Bulgarian Empire.

Tsar Michael Asen IV of Bulgaria, Second Bulgarian Empire.

Tsar Kaliman Asen II of Bulgaria, Second Bulgarian Empire.

Tsar Mitso Asen of the Second Bulgarian Empire.

Tsar Ivan Asen III of the Second Bulgarian Empire

Tsar George Terter I of the Second Bulgarian Empire, descended from the Cuman Terteroba clan. Khan Köten was probably his relative or even direct ancestor.

Tsar George Terter II of the Second Bulgarian Empire, descended from the Cuman Terteroba clan.

Aldimir (Bulgarian: Алдимир) or Eltimir. A member of the Terter dynasty and a younger brother of Tsar George I Terter, Aldimir was an influential local ruler as the despot of Kran. Khan Köten was probably his relative or even direct ancestor. His name means "heated iron".

Dobrotitsa, a Bulgarian noble, ruler of the de facto independent Principality of Karvuna and the Kaliakra fortress from 1354 to 1379–1386. He is considered a Bulgarian noble kindred of the Terter dynasty (from the Cuman Terteroba clan).

Balik, Dobrotitsa's brother and a noble of the Second Bulgarian Empire. He increased the autonomy of his province and became despot of the Principality of Karvuna. During the Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347 he supported the regent Anna of Savoy against pretender John VI Kantakouzenos. Balik's death was in 1347, either due to an outbreak of the Black Death or being killed during a retaliation campaign led by Umur Beg, on behalf of John V Palaiologos, that destroyed Dobruja's seaports. He was succeeded by his brother, DObrotitsa.

Tsar Michael III Shishman of the Second Bulgarian Empire.

Tsar Theodore Svetoslav of the Second Bulgarian Empire, son of George Terter I.

Tsar Ivan Alexander of the Second Bulgarian Empire, descended of the Asen, Terter and Shishman dynasties. Was Tsar during the second golden age of Bulgaria (naphew of Michael Shishman).

Ivan Shishman of Bulgaria (b. 1350/1351, ruled 1371–1395 in Tarnovo).

Constantine II, 1396–1422, spent most of his life in exile. Most historians do not include him in the list of the Bulgarian monarchs.

Ivan Sratsimir of Bulgaria (b. 1324/1325, ruled 1356–1397 in Vidin).

Belaur of Vidin, 1336 (Shishman dynasty).

Constantine II of Bulgaria (b. early 1370s, ruled 1397–1422 in Vidin and in exile).

Darman and Kudelin - Bulgarians of Cuman origin.

Queen Dorothea of Bosnia.

The Cuman Tsaritsa of Bulgaria, Cuman noblewoman who subsequently married two Tsars Emperors of Bulgaria, Kaloyan of Bulgaria and Boril of Bulgaria.

Shishman of Vidin.

Kalinikia.

Nicholas Alexander of Wallachia.

Thocomerius/Tihomir of Wallachia, father of Basarab. The Hungarian László Rásonyi derives the name from a well-known Cuman and Tatar name, Toq-tämir (‘hardened steel’).

Every ruler from the Wallachian House of Dănești, which was one of the two main lineages of the Wallachian noble family House of Basarab. They were descended from Dan I of Wallachia. The other lineage of the Basarabs is the House of Drăculești.

The House of Drăculeşti were one of two major rival lines of Wallachian voivodes of the House of Basarab, the other being the Dăneşti. The following rulers of the House of Drăculeşti are of Cuman descent:

Vlad II Dracul 1436–1442, 1443–1447; son of Mircea cel Bătrân.

Mircea II 1442; son of Vlad II.

Vlad III Drăculea, "Vlad the Impaler", "Dracula" 1448, 1456–1462, 1476; son of Vlad II.

Radu cel Frumos 1462–1473, 1474; son of Vlad II.

Vlad Călugărul 1481, 1482–1495; son of Vlad II.

Radu cel Mare 1495–1508; son of Vlad Călugărul.

Mihnea cel Rău 1508–1509; son of Vlad III.

Mircea III Dracul 1510; son of Mihnea cel Rău.

Vlad cel Tânăr 1510–1512; son of Vlad Călugărul.

Radu de la Afumaţi 1522–1523, 1524, 1524–1525, 1525–1529; son of Radu cel Mare.

Radu Bădica 1523–1524; son of Radu cel Mare.

Vlad Înecatul 1530–1532; son of Vlad cel Tânăr.

Vlad Vintilă de la Slatina 1532–1534, 1534–1535; son of Radu cel Mare.

Radu Paisie 1534, 1535–1545; son of Radu cel Mare.

Mircea the Shepherd 1545–1552, 1553–1554, 1558–1559; son of Radu cel Mare.

Pătraşcu cel Bun 1554–1558; son of Radu Paisie.

Petru cel Tânăr 1559–1568; son of Mircea the Shepherd.

Alexandru II Mircea 1568–1574, 1574–1577; son of Mircea III Dracul.

Vintilă 1574; son of Pătraşcu cel Bun.

Mihnea Turcitul 1577–1583, 1585–1591; son of Alexandru II Mircea.

Petru Cercel 1583–1585; son of Pătraşcu cel Bun.

Mihai Viteazul 1593–1600; possibly a son of Pătraşcu cel Bun.

Nicodemus of Tismana

Nikodim Tismanski (also known as Nikodim Osvećeni, Nikodim Vratnenski, Nikodim Grčić, and in Romanian, Nikodim de la Tismana; Prilepac, near Novo Brdo in Kosovo, Medieval Serbia, c. The 1320s - Tismana, Wallachia, now Romania, 26 December 1406) is a Serbian Orthodox monk scribe and translator who was the founder of monasteries, one in Serbia and two in Romania. In Serbian medieval history he is remembered for conveying hesychastic monastic traditions and as a member of a diplomatic and ecclesiastical mission to Constantinople in 1375. He was one of the followers of St. Gregory of Sinai. Sanctified in 1767 by the Eastern Orthodox Church Nikodim is commemorated on 26 December. Also, he was canonized by the Romanian Orthodox Church in 1955.

Rise of the Ottoman Empire

The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in c. 1299, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople on May 29, 1453. This period witnessed the foundation of a political entity ruled by the Ottoman Dynasty in the northwestern Anatolian region of Bithynia, and its transformation from a small principality on the Byzantine frontier into an empire spanning the Balkans and Anatolia. For this reason, this period in the empire's history has been described as the Proto-Imperial Era. Throughout most of this period, the Ottomans were merely one of many competing states in the region, and relied upon the support of local warlords and vassals to maintain control over their realm. By the middle of the fifteenth century the Ottoman sultans were able to accumulate enough personal power and authority to establish a centralized imperial state, a process which was brought to fruition by Sultan Mehmed II (r. 1451-1481). The conquest of Constantinople in 1453 is seen as the symbolic moment when the emerging Ottoman state shifted from a mere principality into an empire, marking a major turning point in its history.The cause of Ottoman success cannot be attributed to any single factor, and they varied throughout the period as the Ottomans continually adapted to changing circumstances.The earlier part of this period, the fourteenth century, is particularly difficult for historians to study due to the scarcity of sources. Not a single written document survives from the reign of Osman I, and very little survives from the rest of the century. The Ottomans, furthermore, did not begin to record their own history until the fifteenth century, more than a hundred years after many of the events they describe. It is thus a great challenge for historians to differentiate between fact and myth in analyzing the stories contained in these later chronicles, so much so that one historian has even declared it impossible, describing the earliest period of Ottoman history as a "black hole."

Romania in the Middle Ages

The Middle Ages in Romania began with the withdrawal of the Mongols, the last of the migrating populations to invade the territory of modern Romania, after their attack of 1241–1242. It came to an end with the reign of Michael the Brave (1593–1601) who managed, for a short time in 1600, to rule Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania, the three principalities whose territories were to be united some three centuries later to form Romania.

Over most of this period, Banat, Crişana, Maramureş and Transylvania – now regions in Romania to the west of the Carpathian Mountains – were part of the Kingdom of Hungary. They were divided into several types of administrative units, such as "counties" and "seats". The heads of the Transylvanian counties or "counts" were subordinated to a special royal official called voivode, but the province was seldom treated as a single unit, since the Székely and Saxon seats were administered separately. In the kingdom, Romanian peasants, being Orthodox, were exempt from the tithe, an ecclesiastical tax payable by all Roman Catholic commoners. However, Romanian noblemen slowly lost the ability to participate in political life, as the 14th-century monarchs pursued a zealous pro-Catholic policy. Their position became even worse after 1437 when the so-called "Union of Three Nations", an alliance of the Hungarian noblemen, the Székelys, and the Saxons, was formed in order to crush the Bobâlna peasant uprising.

Wallachia, the first independent medieval state between the Carpathians and the lower Danube was created when Basarab I (c. 1310–1352) terminated the suzerainty of the king of Hungary with his victory in the battle of Posada in 1330. The independence of Moldavia, to the east of the Carpathians, was achieved by Bogdan I (1359–1365), a nobleman from Maramureş, who led a revolt against the former ruler who was appointed by the Hungarian monarch. The independence of the two principalities, however, was rarely secure, and vassalage to multiple states became an important aspect of their diplomacy. Although Wallachia paid tribute to the Ottoman Empire from 1417, and Moldavia from 1456, their two medieval monarchs, Mircea the Old of Wallachia (1386–1418) and Stephen the Great of Moldavia (1457–1504) conducted successful military operations against the Ottoman Turks. The two principalities' trade with other parts of Europe began to decrease after the last decades of the 15th century. Before this the sale of hides, grain, honey, and wax to the Holy Roman Empire, Venice and Poland, and the import of silk, weapons and other manufactured goods from these areas had been widespread, but by the end of the 16th century the Ottoman Empire became the main market for Romanian products.

Transylvania, together with the neighboring counties, gained the status of an autonomous state under Ottoman suzerainty after the central territories of the Kingdom of Hungary had been annexed by the Ottomans in 1541. The fall of the kingdom also deprived Wallachia and Moldavia of their main ally in the struggle against the Ottoman Empire. In 1594, Michael the Brave of Wallachia joined the anti-Ottoman alliance initiated by Pope Clement VIII. After a series of victory over the Ottomans, he turned against Transylvania and Moldavia where pro-Polish and pro-Ottoman princes were reigning. He invaded and occupied Transylvania in 1599, and Moldavia in 1600. Although the union of the three countries collapsed four months later, it served as an ideal for later generations working for the unification of the lands that now form Romania.

Second Bulgarian Empire

The Second Bulgarian Empire (Bulgarian: Второ българско царство, Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsarstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed between 1185 and 1396. A successor to the First Bulgarian Empire, it reached the peak of its power under Tsars Kaloyan and Ivan Asen II before gradually being conquered by the Ottomans in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. It was succeeded by the Principality and later Kingdom of Bulgaria in 1878.Until 1256, the Second Bulgarian Empire was the dominant power in the Balkans, defeating the Byzantine Empire in several major battles. In 1205 Emperor Kaloyan defeated the newly established Latin Empire in the Battle of Adrianople. His nephew Ivan Asen II defeated the Despotate of Epiros and made Bulgaria a regional power again. During his reign, Bulgaria spread from the Adriatic to the Black Sea and the economy flourished. In the late 13th century, however, the Empire declined under constant invasions by Mongols, Byzantines, Hungarians, and Serbs, as well as internal unrest and revolts. The 14th century saw a temporary recovery and stability, but also the peak of Balkan feudalism as central authorities gradually lost power in many regions. Bulgaria was divided into three parts on the eve of the Ottoman invasion.

Despite strong Byzantine influence, Bulgarian artists and architects created their own distinctive style. In the 14th century, during the period known as the Second Golden Age of Bulgarian culture, literature, art and architecture flourished. The capital city Tarnovo, which was considered a "New Constantinople", became the country's main cultural hub and the centre of the Eastern Orthodox world for contemporary Bulgarians. After the Ottoman conquest, many Bulgarian clerics and scholars emigrated to Serbia, Wallachia, Moldavia, and Russian principalities, where they introduced Bulgarian culture, books, and hesychastic ideas.

September 23

September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 99 days remaining until the end of the year. It is frequently the day of the autumnal equinox in the Northern Hemisphere and the day of the vernal equinox in the Southern Hemisphere.

Vlad II Dracul

Vlad II (Romanian: Vlad al II-lea), also known as Vlad Dracul (Vlad al II-lea Dracul) or Vlad the Dragon (before 1395 – November 1447), was Voivode of Wallachia from 1436 to 1442, and again from 1443 to 1447. Born an illegitimate son of Mircea I of Wallachia, he spent his youth at the court of Sigismund of Luxembourg, who made him a member of the Order of the Dragon in 1431 (hence his sobriquet). Sigismund also recognized him as the lawful voivode of Wallachia, allowing him to settle in the nearby Transylvania. Vlad could not assert his claim during the life of his half-brother, Alexander I Aldea, who acknowledged the suzerainty of the Ottoman Sultan, Murad II.

After Alexander Aldea died in 1436, Vlad seized Wallachia with Hungarian support. Following the death of Sigismund of Luxembourg in 1437, Hungary's position weakened, causing him to pay homage to Murad II, which included participating in Murad II's invasion of Transylvania in the summer of 1438. John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania, came to Wallachia to convince Vlad to join a crusade against the Ottomans in 1441. After Hunyadi routed an Ottoman army in Transylvania, the sultan ordered Vlad to come to Edirne where he was captured in 1442. Hunyadi invaded Wallachia and made Vlad's cousin, Basarab II, voivode.

Vlad was released before the end of the year, but he had to leave his two sons as hostages in the Ottoman Empire. He was restored in Wallachia with Ottoman support in 1443. He remained neutral during Hunyadi's "Long Campaign" against the Ottoman Empire between October 1443 and January 1444, but he sent 4,000 horsemen to fight against the Ottomans during the Crusade of Varna. With the support of a Burgundian fleet he captured the important Ottoman fortress at Giurgiu in 1445. He made peace with the Ottoman Empire in 1446 or 1447, which contributed to the deterioration of his relationship with Hunyadi. Hunyadi invaded Wallachia, forcing Vlad to flee from Târgoviște in late November, where he was killed at a nearby village.

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