Damask

Damask (/ˈdæməsk/; Arabic: دمشق‎) is a reversible figured fabric of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or synthetic fibres, with a pattern formed by weaving. Damasks are woven with one warp yarn and one weft yarn, usually with the pattern in warp-faced satin weave and the ground in weft-faced or sateen weave. Twill damasks include a twill-woven ground or pattern.[1][2]

ItalianSilkDamask
Italian silk polychrome damasks, 14th century.

History

Damask with floral sprigs, Italy, Baroque, 1600-1650, silk two-tone damask - Royal Ontario Museum - DSC04376
Damask with floral sprigs, Italy, Baroque, 1600-1650, silk two-tone damask

The production of damask was one of the five basic weaving techniques—the others being tabby, twill, lampas, and tapestry—of the Byzantine and Islamic weaving centres of the early Middle Ages.[3] Damasks derive their name from the city of Damascus—in that period a large city active both in trading (as part of the silk road) and in manufacture.[4] Damasks became scarce after the 9th century outside Islamic Spain, but were revived in some places in the 13th century.[3]

The word "damask" first appeared in records in a Western European language in the mid-14th century in French.[5] By the 14th century, damasks were being woven on draw looms in Italy. From the 14th to 16th century, most damasks were woven in one colour with a glossy warp-faced satin pattern against a duller ground. Two-colour damasks had contrasting colour warps and wefts, and polychrome damasks added gold and other metallic threads or additional colours as supplemental brocading wefts. Medieval damasks were usually woven in silk, but weavers also produced wool and linen damasks.[2]

Modern usage

Water droplet lying on a damask
Damask as a tablecloth. Water droplet is lying on the surface due to low absorption of damask.

Modern damasks are woven on computerized Jacquard looms.[1] Damask weaves are commonly produced in monochromatic (single-colour) weaves in silk, linen, or synthetic fibres such as rayon and feature patterns of flowers, fruit, and other designs. The long floats of satin-woven warp and weft threads cause soft highlights on the fabric which reflect light differently according to the position of the observer. Damask weaves appear most commonly in table linens and furnishing fabrics, but they are also used for clothing. The Damask weave is used extensively throughout the fashion industry due to its versatility and high-quality finish. Damask is usually used for mid-to-high-quality garments, meaning the label tends to have a higher definition and a more “expensive” look.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Kadolph, Sara J., ed.: Textiles, 10th edition, Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2007, ISBN 0-13-118769-4, p. 251
  2. ^ a b Monnas, Lisa. Merchants, Princes and Painters: Silk Fabrics in Italian and Northern Paintings 1300-1550. New Haven, Yale University Press, 2008, pp. 295–299
  3. ^ a b Jenkins, David T., ed.: The Cambridge History of Western Textiles, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-521-34107-8, p. 343.
  4. ^ "What is Damask Fabric", Period Home and Garden
  5. ^ "Damas" etymology (in French).
Aesculus

The genus Aesculus ( or ), with varieties called buckeye and horse chestnut, comprises 13–19 species of flowering plants in the soapberry and lychee family Sapindaceae. They are trees and shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere, with six species native to North America and seven to 13 species native to Eurasia. Also, several hybrids occur. Aesculus exhibits a classical arcto-Tertiary distribution.Linnaeus named the genus Aesculus after the Roman name for an edible acorn. Common names for these trees include "buckeye" and "horse chestnut", though they are not in the same order as chestnut trees. Some are also called white chestnut or red chestnut. In Britain, they are sometimes called conker trees because of their link with the game of conkers, played with the seeds, also called conkers.

Aso Oke hat

An Aso Oke Hat (), a type of soft fez, is a traditional Yoruba hat that is made of hand woven Aso Oke, cotton, velvet, or damask. In the Yoruba language, this hat is called a Fila. Although these hats originated in Nigeria they are worn by many men of African descent. Typically, the top of the hat slouches to one side, and rests above the wearer's ear. It is said by some that slouching the hat right signifies unmarried man and left side indicate a married man. It is commonly worn with the Yoruba formal attire, Agbada (equally made with Aso Oke, lace or cotton) or brocade dashiki suits. Many men wear a bowler hat with the lace dashiki suit. However, an aso oke hat or crown style kufi cap are the most common choices when wearing any other type of formal attire.

Australian contribution to the 1991 Gulf War

Australia was a member of the international coalition which contributed military forces to the 1991 Gulf War, also known as Operation Desert Storm. More than 1800 ADF personnel were deployed to the Persian Gulf from August 1990 to September 1991. In August 1990, two frigates HMAS Adelaide and HMAS Darwin and the replenishment ship HMAS Success left for the Persian Gulf. HMAS Success had no air defences so the Army 16th Air Defence Regiment deployed on this ship. On 3 December 1990, HMAS Brisbane and HMAS Sydney (IV) relieved HMAS Adelaide and HMAS Darwin. On 26 January 1991, HMAS Westralia replaced HMAS Success. A Navy Clearance diving team was also deployed for explosive ordnance and demolition tasks. Australian ships were in danger of mines and possible air attacks. In a number of recorded incidents, HMAS Brisbane encountered free floating mines, on one occasion narrowly avoiding a collision. Both HMA Ships Brisbane and Sydney encountered significant air threat warnings from Iran and Iraq throughout the initial period of the commencement of the Desert Storm Campaign. The detection of land based silkworm missiles from Iran throughout the campaign also added to the challenges for both crews as well as the multi-national Naval Forces.

In addition to the naval contingent, Australian service personnel were seconded to British and United States ground troops. The government position was not to deploy ground troops with "no boots in the sand". The RAAF deployed a unit of photo-interpreters which were based in Saudi Arabia. Four medical teams were also deployed. At the end of Desert Storm, 75 ADF personnel were deployed to Northern Iraq to assist in the provision of humanitarian aid to the Kurds living in the UN-declared exclusion zone.Whilst there were no casualties of ADF personnel during the Gulf War, a significant number of Australian Gulf War veterans appear to continue to suffer from Gulf War illness.

Cha mongkut

Cha mongkut (Thai: จ่ามงกุฎ, pronounced [t͡ɕàː mōŋkùt]) is a name of one of the traditional Thai desserts. It is similar to kalamae and is made of rice flour and glutinous flour mixed with green bean flour, and is stirred with coconut milk and sugar until it becomes sticky; it is typically sprinkled with chopped roasted peanuts on top or stuffed with melon seeds (The old traditional recipe uses pieces of fried flour that are as small as rice grains, which take a longer time to prepare.). Traditionally, they are cut it into bite-size pieces and wrapped with banana leaf. Moreover, the aromatic scents of the dessert are given by fresh flowers such as Kesidang, Ylang-Ylang, Damask rose, and Jasmine with boiled water, which is used to squeeze coconut milk. Cha mongkut is easy to keep and does not need to be stored in a refrigerator.

Damascus steel

Damascus steel was the forged steel comprising the blades of swords smithed in the Near East from ingots of wootz steel imported from India and Sri Lanka. These swords are characterized by distinctive patterns of banding and mottling reminiscent of flowing water. Such blades were reputed to be tough, resistant to shattering, and capable of being honed to a sharp, resilient edge.The steel is named after Damascus, the capital city of Syria and one of the largest cities in the ancient Levant. It may either refer to swords made or sold in Damascus directly, or it may just refer to the aspect of the typical patterns, by comparison with Damask fabrics (which are themselves named after Damascus).The original method of producing wootz is not known. Modern attempts to duplicate the metal have not been entirely successful due to differences in raw materials and manufacturing techniques. Several individuals in modern times have claimed that they have rediscovered the methods by which the original Damascus steel was produced.The reputation and history of Damascus steel has given rise to many legends, such as the ability to cut through a rifle barrel or to cut a hair falling across the blade. A research team in Germany published a report in 2006 revealing nanowires and carbon nanotubes in a blade forged from Damascus steel. Although many types of modern steel outperform ancient Damascus alloys, chemical reactions in the production process made the blades extraordinary for their time, as Damascus steel was superplastic and very hard at the same time. During the smelting process to obtain Wootz steel ingots, woody biomass and leaves are known to have been used as carburizing additives along with certain specific types of iron rich in microalloying elements. These ingots would then be further forged and worked into Damascus steel blades. Research now shows that carbon nanotubes can be derived from plant fibers, suggesting how the nanotubes were formed in the steel. Some experts expect to discover such nanotubes in more relics as they are analyzed more closely.

Damask, Iran

Damask (Persian: دامسك‎, also Romanized as Dāmask) is a village in Bala Velayat Rural District, in the Central District of Torbat-e Heydarieh County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 634, in 162 families.

Damson

The damson () or damson plum (Prunus domestica subsp. insititia, or sometimes Prunus insititia), also archaically called the "damascene" is an edible drupaceous fruit, a subspecies of the plum tree. Varieties of insititia are found across Europe, but the name "damson" is derived from and most commonly applied to forms which are native to Great Britain. Damsons are relatively small plum-like fruit with a distinctive, somewhat astringent taste, and are widely used for culinary purposes, particularly in fruit preserves or jam.

In South and Southeast Asia, the term "damson plum" sometimes refers to jambul, the fruit from a tree in the Myrtaceae family. The name "mountain damson" or "bitter damson" was also formerly applied in Jamaica to the tree Simarouba amara.

Garden roses

Garden roses are predominantly hybrid roses that are grown as ornamental plants in private or public gardens. They are one of the most popular and widely cultivated groups of flowering plants, especially in temperate climates. Numerous cultivars have been produced, especially over the last two centuries, though roses have been known in the garden for millennia beforehand. While most garden roses are grown for their flowers, some are also valued for other reasons, such as having ornamental fruit, providing ground cover, or for hedging.

Hellfire Club

Hellfire Club was a name for several exclusive clubs for high society rakes established in Britain and Ireland in the 18th century. The name is most commonly used to refer to Sir Francis Dashwood's Order of the Friars of St. Francis of Wycombe. Such clubs were rumoured to be the meeting places of "persons of quality" who wished to take part in socially perceived immoral acts, and the members were often involved in politics. Neither the activities nor membership of the club are easy to ascertain, for the clubs were rumoured to have distant ties to an elite society known only as The Order of the Second Circle.The first official Hellfire Club was founded in London in 1718, by Philip, Duke of Wharton and a handful of other high society friends. The most notorious club associated with the name was established in England by Sir Francis Dashwood, and met irregularly from around 1749 to around 1760, and possibly up until 1766. In its later years, the Hellfire was closely associated with Brooks's, established in 1764. Other clubs using the name "Hellfire Club" were set up throughout the 18th century. Most of these clubs were set up in Ireland after Wharton's had been dissolved.

Hesperis matronalis

Hesperis matronalis is a herbaceous plant species in the mustard family, Brassicaceae. It has numerous common names, including dame's rocket, damask-violet, dame's-violet, dames-wort, dame's gilliflower, night-scented gilliflower, queen's gilliflower, rogue's gilliflower, summer lilac, sweet rocket, mother-of-the-evening, and winter gilliflower.

These plants are biennials or short-lived perennials, native to Eurasia and cultivated s, it has escaped from cultivation and become a weed species. The genus name Hesperis'the name was probably given because the scent of the flowers becomes more conspicuous towards evening.

Irish linen

Irish linen (Irish: Línéadach Éireannach) is the brand name given to linen produced in Ireland. Linen is cloth woven from, or yarn spun from the flax fibre, which was grown in Ireland for many years before advanced agricultural methods and more suitable climate led to the concentration of quality flax cultivation in northern Europe (Most of the world crop of quality flax is now grown in Northern France, Belgium and the Netherlands). Since about the 1950s to 1960s the flax fibre for Irish Linen yarn has been, almost exclusively, imported from France, Belgium and the Netherlands. It is bought by spinners who produce yarn and this, in turn, is sold to weavers (or knitters) who produce fabric. Irish linen spinning has now virtually ceased, yarns being imported from places such as the Eastern part of the European Union and China.

Weaving continues mainly of plain linens for niche, top of the range, apparel uses. Linen damask weaving in Ireland has less capacity, and it is confined at very much the top end of the market for luxury end uses. Companies including Thomas Ferguson & Co Ltd continue to weave in Ireland tend to concentrate on the quality end of the market, and Jacquard weaving is moving towards the weaving of specials and custom damask pieces, made to the customers' own individual requirements. Fabric which is woven outside Ireland and brought to Ireland to be bleached/dyed and finished cannot carry the Irish Linen Guild logo, which is the Guild trademark, and signifies the genuine Irish Linen brand.

The Irish Linen Guild has defined Irish linen as yarn which is spun in Ireland from 100% flax fibres. Irish linen fabric is defined as fabric which is woven in Ireland from 100% linen yarns. It is not required that every stage from the growing of the flax to the weaving must take place in Ireland. To be Irish linen fabric the yarns do not necessarily have to come from an Irish spinner, and to be Irish linen (yarn) the flax fibre does not have to be grown in Ireland. However, the skills, craftsmanship, and technology that go into spinning the yarn must be Irish, as is the case with Irish linen fabric; where the design and weaving skills must be Irish, and all of such must take place in Ireland.

Finished garments, or household textile items can be labelled Irish linen, although they may have been made up in another country. Irish linen does not refer to the making up process (such as cutting and sewing). It refers to where the constituent fabric was woven or knitted.

Like to the Damask Rose

”Like to the Damask Rose” is a poem either by Francis Quarles called "Hos ego versiculos", or by Simon Wastell called “The flesh profiteth nothing”. It was set to music by the English composer Edward Elgar in 1892.

The song, together with Through the Long Days, was first performed by Charles Phillips in St. James's Hall on 25 February 1897.

It was first published (Tuckwood, Ascherberg) in 1893, and re-published by Boosey in 1907 as one of the Seven Lieder of Edward Elgar, with English and German words.

The 'damask rose' (Damascus rose) of the title is the common name of Rosa × damascena, a hybrid rose.

List of recent Australian warship deployments to the Middle East

The Royal Australian Navy has deployed ships to the Middle East over 57 times since 1990. These ships have participated in the 1991 Gulf War, enforced sanctions against Iraq, taken part in the 2003 Invasion of Iraq and provided security for Iraq's oil exports. Since 2009 Australian ships have also been involved in counter piracy operations.The dates provided are the dates the ship arrived and departed from the Middle East Area of Operations. Please see the Database of Royal Australian Navy Operations 1990–2005 for the dates the ships arrived and departed from Australia. Except where otherwise noted, all ships mainly operated in the Persian Gulf.

Rinzu

For the anime character, see Raimuiro Senkitan.Rinzu (綸子) is a Japanese silk satin damask. It was the preferred fabric for kimonos in the Edo period.

Rosa 'Ispahan'

'Ispahan', also known as 'Rose d'Ispahan' and 'Pompon des Princes', is a clear pink, half-open kind of Damask rose, a type of garden rose introduced from the Middle East to Europe during the crusading 13th century. Its origin is unclear – it was introduced in the UK by the garden designer Norah Lindsay (1873–1948), but was probably developed in the early 19th century – probably in Persia. The cultivar is named 'Ispahan' after the city Isfahan in Iran, renowned for its gardens and roses, where the cultivar was apparently discovered in a garden.The double flowers are big, reaching a diameter of 9 centimetres (3.5 in), and have a strong, sweet fragrance. They appear in great numbers in clusters that can hold up to 15 flowers, and are well suited as cut flowers. Their colour is described as silky medium pink, with a slightly darker middle, and fades only slightly. 'Ispahan' flowers only once, but for a period of six weeks – the longest of all Damask roses.The vigorous shrub grows 1.2 to 2.5 metres (3.9 to 8.2 ft) tall and 0.9 to 2 metres (3.0 to 6.6 ft) wide, with an overhanging form, light green foliage, and few big prickles. It is robust, disease resistant, and winter hardy up to -20 °C (USDA zone 5 to 6). The cultivar tolerates half shade, poor soils and is well suited for harsher climates. It can be grown in containers, solitary, in groups or as hedges.The cultivar is still popular. David Austin still recommends it highly as free flowering, among the first Old Roses to start blooming and the last to continue, and for its fine Damask fragrance. Peter Beales counts it as one of his favourite Damask roses, Christine Meile calls the flowering 'Ispahan' the most attractive rose bush and an ideal solitaire plant, if one has enough space. In 1993, and was granted the Award of Garden Merit of the Royal Horticultural Society.

Rosa 'de Rescht'

Rosa 'de Rescht' is a Portland Damask rose introduced by English gardener Nancy Lindsay in 1945. In the first part of her book The Genus Rosa, Ellen Willmott described a rose that is known by the Gilaks as "Gul e Reschti", which is probably the same as Rose de Rescht.

Rosa × damascena

Rosa × damascena, more commonly known as the Damask rose, or sometimes as the rose of Castile, is a rose hybrid, derived from Rosa gallica and Rosa moschata. Further DNA analysis has shown that a third species, Rosa fedtschenkoana, is associated with the Damask rose.The flowers are renowned for their fine fragrance, and are commercially harvested for rose oil (either "rose otto" or "rose absolute") used in perfumery and to make rose water and "rose concrete". The flower petals are also edible. They may be used to flavor food, as a garnish, as an herbal tea, and preserved in sugar as gulkand.

Satin stitch

In sewing and embroidery, a satin stitch or damask stitch is a series of flat stitches that are used to completely cover a section of the background fabric. Narrow rows of satin stitch can be executed on a standard sewing machine using a zigzag stitch or a special satin stitch foot.

In order to maintain a smooth edge, shapes can be outlined with back, split or chain stitch before the entire shape including the outline is covered with satin stitch.

Machine-made satin stitch is often used to outline and attach appliques to the ground fabric.

Ulla Stenberg

Ulla (Johanna Ulrica) Stenberg, née Colliander (1792–1858) was a Swedish damask maker.

Stenberg was the daughter of vicar Nils Johan Colliander in Jönköping. She was professional damask maker from 1822, and had her own weaving school from 1830. She also designed her own damask patterns. She participated in the art exhibitions at the Prince Carl Palace in Stockholm 1834-40 and in Stockholm and London in 1851 and Paris in 1855. She had a Royal Warrant of Appointment in Sweden and international customers.

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