Dalmatian dog

The Dalmatian is a breed of medium-sized dog,[3] noted for its unique black or liver spotted coat and mainly used as a carriage dog in its early days. Its roots trace back to Croatia and its historical region of Dalmatia.[4][5] Today, it is a popular family pet and many dog enthusiasts enter Dalmatians into kennel club competitions.

Dalmatian
Prunella Fitzgerald de Puech Barrayre
Other namesCarriage Dog
Spotted Coach Dog
Leopard Carriage Dog
Firehouse Dog
Plum Pudding Dog
OriginCroatia[1]
Traits
Height Male 58–61 cm (23–24 in)[2]
Female 56–58 cm (22–23 in)[2]
Coat Short, smooth
Color White background, black or liver spots
Litter size 6–18 puppies (avg.: 7–8)
Life span 10–18 years (avg.: 12–14)
Classification / standards
FCI Group 6, Section 3 Related breeds #153 standard
AKC Non-sporting standard
ANKC Group 7 (Non-sporting) standard
CKC Group 6 (Hound) standard
KC (UK) Utility standard
NZKC Non-sporting standard
UKC Companion Breeds standard
Domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris)

Characteristics

Binka 10 06
A tricolor Dalmatian female—with tan spotting on the eyebrows, snout, cheeks, neck, chest, and legs.

Body

The Dalmatian is a medium sized,[3] well-defined, muscular dog with excellent endurance and stamina. When fully grown, according to the American Kennel Club breed standard, it stands from 19 to 23 inches (48 to 58 cm) tall, with males usually slightly larger than females. Both the AKC and The Kennel Club in the UK allows height up to 24 inches (61 cm) but that isn't ideal.[6] The outline of the dog should be square when viewed from the side: The body is as long from forechest to buttocks as it is tall at the withers, and the shoulders are well-laid back, the stifle is well-bent and the hocks are well-let down. The Dalmatian's feet are round with well-arched toes, and the nails are usually white or the same colour as the dog's spots. The thin ears taper towards the tip and are set fairly high and close to the head. Eye color varies between brown, amber, or blue, with some dogs having one blue eye and one brown eye, or other combinations.[7]When they are born they have no spots and they can have brown spots.

Coat

Dalmatian puppies are born with plain white coats and their first spots usually appear within 3 to 4 weeks after birth, however spots are visible on their skin. After about a month, they have most of their spots, although they continue to develop throughout life at a much slower rate. Spots usually range in size from 30 to 60 mm, and are most commonly black or brown (liver) on a white background. Other, more rare colors, include blue (a blue-grayish color), brindle, mosaic, tricolor-ed (with tan spotting on the eyebrows, cheeks, legs, and chest), and orange or lemon (dark to pale yellow). Patches of color may appear anywhere on the body, mostly on the head or ears, and usually, consist of a solid color. Patches are visible at birth and are not a group of connected spots and are identifiable by the smooth edge of the patch. [8]

The Dalmatian coat is usually short, fine, and dense; however, smooth-coated Dalmatians occasionally produce long-coated offspring. Long-coated Dalmatians are not acceptable in the breed standard, however, these individuals experience much less shedding than their smooth-coated counterparts, which shed considerably year-round. The standard variety's short, stiff hairs often weave into carpet, clothing, upholstery and nearly any other kind of fabric and can be difficult to remove. Weekly grooming with a hound mitt or curry can lessen the amount of hair Dalmatians shed, although nothing can completely prevent shedding. Due to the minimal amount of oil in their coats, Dalmatians lack a dog odor ("dog smell") and stay fairly clean relative to many other dog breeds.[7][9]

Litter size

Dalmatians usually have litters of six to nine pups,[10] but they have been known to have larger litters on occasion, such as a massive eighteen puppy brood born in January 2009 (all were healthy).[11] Puppies are born without spots, which develop and darken as the pup ages.[12]

Weisse welpen

Newborn Dalmatian puppies

Dalmatian puppy, three weeks-3

Dalmatian puppies, three weeks old, spots beginning to develop

Chienne dalmatienne allaitant 6 chiots dalmatiens

Puppies, four-five weeks

Dalmatian puppy

A three-month-old Dalmatian

Health

Blauauge
Blue and brown-eyed Dalmatian

Dalmatians are a relatively healthy and easy to keep breed. Like other breeds, Dalmatians display a propensity towards certain health problems specific to their breed, such as deafness, allergies and urinary stones. Reputable breeders have their puppies BAER (Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response) tested to ensure the status of the hearing on their pups. The Dalmatian Club of America lists the average lifespan of a Dalmatian at between 11 and 13 years, although some can live as long as 15 to 16 years.[13] Breed health surveys in the US and the UK show an average lifespan of 9.9 and 11.55 years, respectively.[14][15] In their late teens, both males and females may suffer bone spurs and arthritic conditions. Autoimmune thyroiditis may be a relatively common condition for the breed, affecting 11.6% of dogs.[16]

Deafness

A genetic predisposition for deafness is a serious health problem for Dalmatians; only about 70% have normal hearing.[17] Deafness was not recognized by early breeders, so the breed was thought to be unintelligent. Even after recognizing the problem as a genetic fault, breeders did not understand the dogs' nature, and deafness in Dalmatians continues to be a frequent problem.

Researchers now know deafness in albino and piebald animals is caused by the absence of mature melanocytes in the inner ear.[18] This may affect one or both ears. The condition is also common in other canine breeds that share a genetic propensity for light pigmentation. This includes, but is not limited to Bull Terriers, Dogo Argentinos, Poodles, Boxers, Border Collies and Great Danes.

Typically, only dogs with bilateral hearing are bred, although those with unilateral hearing, and even dogs with bilateral deafness, make fine pets with appropriate training.[7] The Dalmatian Club of America's position on deaf pups is that they should not be used for breeding, and that humane euthanasia may be considered as an "alternative to placement". Deaf Dalmatian puppies can be difficult to home, due to increased aggression and difficulty in managing behavior.[19] Dalmatians with large patches of colour present at birth may have a lower rate of deafness. Selecting for this trait may reduce the frequency of deafness in the breed.[20] However, patches are a disqualifying factor in Dalmatian breed standards in an effort to preserve the spotted coat (the continual breeding of patched dogs would result in heavily patched Dalmatians with few spots).

Blue-eyed Dalmatians are thought to have a greater incidence of deafness than brown-eyed Dalmatians, although a mechanism of association between the two characteristics has yet to be conclusively established.[21] Some kennel clubs discourage the use of blue-eyed dogs in breeding programs.[22]

Hip dysplasia

Hip dysplasia is another disease that affects nearly 5% of purebred Dalmatians,[23] causing those to experience limping, fatigue, moderate to severe pain, and trouble standing up. Most Dalmatians who eventually develop hip dysplasia are born with normal hips, but the soft tissues surrounding the joint grow abnormally due to their genetic make-up. The disease may affect both hips, or only the right or left hip, leading afflicted dogs to walk or run with an altered gait.[24]

Hyperuricemia

Female dalmatian head shot
Dalmatian portrait

Dalmatians, like humans, can suffer from hyperuricemia.[25] Dalmatians' livers have trouble breaking down uric acid, which can build up in the blood serum (hyperuricemia) causing gout. Uric acid can also be excreted in high concentration into the urine, causing kidney stones and bladder stones. These conditions are most likely to occur in middle-aged males. Males over 10 are prone to kidney stones and should have their calcium intake reduced or be given preventive medication.[26] To reduce the risk of gout and stones, owners should carefully limit the intake of purines by avoiding giving their dogs food containing organ meats, animal byproducts, or other high-purine ingredients. Hyperuricemia in Dalmatians responds to treatment with orgotein, the veterinary formulation of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase.[27]

Dalmatian-Pointer Backcross Project

Hyperuricemia in Dalmatians (as in all breeds) is inherited, but unlike other breeds, the "normal" gene for a uric acid transporter that allows for uric acid to enter liver cells and be subsequently broken down is not present in the breed's gene pool. Therefore, there is no possibility of eliminating hyperuricemia among pure-bred Dalmatians. The only possible solution to this problem must then be crossing Dalmatians with other breeds to reintroduce the "normal" uric acid transporter gene. This led to the foundation of the Dalmatian-Pointer Backcross Project, which aims to reintroduce the normal uric acid transporter gene into the Dalmatian breed. The backcross used a single English Pointer; subsequent breedings have all been to purebred Dalmatians. This project was started in 1973 by Dr. Robert Schaible. The first cross (F1) hybrids did not resemble Dalmatians very closely. The F1s were then crossed back to purebreds. This breeding produced puppies of closer resemblance to the pure Dalmatian. By the fifth generation in 1981, they resembled purebreds so much, Dr. Schaible convinced the AKC to allow two of the hybrids to be registered as purebreds. Then AKC President William F. Stifel stated, "If there is a logical, scientific way to correct genetic health problems associated with certain breed traits and still preserve the integrity of the breed standard, it is incumbent upon the American Kennel Club to lead the way."[28] The Dalmatian Club of America's (DCA) board of directors supported this decision, however it quickly became highly controversial among the club members. A vote by DCA members opposed the registration of the hybrids, causing the AKC to ban registration to any of the dog's offspring.[29][30]

At the annual general meeting of the DCA in May 2006, the backcross issue was discussed again by club members. In June of the same year, DCA members were presented with an opportunity to vote on whether to reopen discussion of the Dalmatian Backcross Project. The results of this ballot were nearly 2:1 in favor of re-examining support of the project by the DCA. This has begun with publication of articles presenting more information both in support of and questioning the need for this project. In July 2011, the AKC agreed to allow registration of backcrossed Dalmatians.[31]

In 2010, the UK Kennel Club registered a backcrossed Dalmatian called Ch. Fiacre’s First and Foremost. Several restrictions were imposed on the dog. Although the dog is at least 13 generations removed from the original Pointer cross, its F1 to F3 progeny will be marked on registration certificates with asterisks (which "indicate impure or unverified breeding",[32]) no progeny will be eligible to be exported as pedigrees for the next five years, and all have to be health tested.[33] UK Dalmatian breed clubs have objected to the decision by the Kennel Club.[34]

The Dalmatian Heritage Project

The Dalmatian Heritage Project began in 2005. The goal of the project is to preserve and improve the Dalmatian breed by breeding parent dogs with the following traits:

  • Normal urinary metabolism
  • Bilateral hearing
  • Friendly and confident

All puppies in the Heritage Project are descendants of Dr. Robert Schaible's parent line. Today, "Dr. Schaible’s line produces the only Dalmatians in the world today that are free of a metabolic defect that can lead to urinary tract problems."[35]

History

Justus Sustermans 038
Francesco di Cosimo II de' Medici (1614–1634) with a Dalmatian, by Justus Sustermans

The FCI recognized Croatia as its country of origin, citing several historical sources.[36][37]

The first illustrations of the dog have been found in Croatia: an altar painting in Veli Lošinj dating to 1600–1630, and a fresco in Zaostrog.[36] The first documented descriptions of the Dalmatian (Croatian: Dalmatinski pas, Dalmatiner, Dalmatinac) trace back to the early 18th century and the archives of the Archdiocese of Đakovo, where the dog was mentioned and described as Canis Dalmaticus in the church chronicles from 1719 by Bishop Petar Bakić and then again by church chronicles of Andreas Keczkeméty in 1739.[38] In 1771, Thomas Pennant described the breed in his book Synopsis of Quadrupeds, writing that the origin of the breed is from Dalmatia, he referred to it as Dalmatian.[38] The book by Thomas Bewick A General History of Quadrupeds published in 1790 refers to the breed as Dalmatian or Coach Dog.[38]

During the Regency period, the Dalmatian became a status symbol trotting alongside the horse-drawn carriages and those with decorative spotting were highly prized. For this reason, the breed earned the epithet 'the Spotted Coach Dog.' The breed was also used to guard the stables at night. [39]

The breed had been developed and cultivated chiefly in England.[38] The first unofficial standard for the breed was introduced by an Englishman Vero Shaw in 1882.[38] In 1890 with the formation of the first Dalmatian Club in England the standard became official.[38] When the dog with the distinctive markings was first shown in England in 1862, it was said to have been used as a guard dog and companion to the nomads of Dalmatia. The breed's unique coat became popular and widely distributed over the continent of Europe beginning in 1920. Its unusual markings were often mentioned by the old writers on cynology.[40]

Duties

093. Dalmatian Dog
A Dalmatian, published in 1859

The roles of this ancient breed are as varied as their reputed ancestors. They were used as dogs of war, guarding the borders of Dalmatia. To this day, the breed retains a high guarding instinct; although friendly and loyal to those the dog knows and trusts, it is often aloof with strangers and unknown dogs. Dalmatians have a strong hunting instinct and are an excellent exterminator of rats and vermin. In sporting, they have been used as bird dogs, trail hounds, retrievers, or in packs for wild boar or stag hunting. Their dramatic markings and intelligence have made them successful circus dogs throughout the years.

Dalmatians are perhaps best known for working for the firefighters for their role as firefighting apparatus escorts and firehouse mascots. Since Dalmatians and horses are very compatible, the dogs were easily trained to run in front of the carriages to help clear a path and quickly guide the horses and firefighters to the fires.[41]

Dalmatians are often considered to make good watchdogs, and they may have been useful to fire brigades as guard dogs to protect a firehouse and its equipment. Fire engines used to be drawn by fast and powerful horses, a tempting target for thieves, so Dalmatians were kept in the firehouse as deterrence to theft.[41]

In popular culture

Old fire engine and dalmatian
Dalmatian in a parade

"Firehouse dog"

Dalmatians are associated with firefighting, particularly in the United States. In the days of horse-drawn fire engines, dogs would guard the horses, who could easily become uncomfortable at the scene of a fire.[42] Dalmatians were a popular breed for this job, due to their natural affinity to horses and history of being used as carriage dogs.[41] This role became redundant once horse-drawn fire engines were replaced with steam and diesel powered ones. Due to its history, the Dalmatian often serves as a mascot for the fire service, and is still chosen by many firefighters as a pet.[43] The Dalmatian is also the mascot of the Pi Kappa Alpha International Fraternity, which has been associated with firefighting.

"Anheuser-Busch dog"

Budweiser Clydesdale Dalmatian
Budweiser Clydesdale Dalmatian

The Dalmatian is also associated, particularly in the United States, with Budweiser beer and the Busch Gardens theme parks, since the Anheuser-Busch company's iconic beer wagon, drawn by a team of Clydesdale horses, is always accompanied by a Dalmatian. The company maintains several teams at various locations, which tour extensively. Dalmatians were historically used by brewers to guard the wagon while the driver was making deliveries.[44]

101 Dalmatians

The Dalmatian breed experienced a massive surge in popularity as a result of the 1956 novel The Hundred and One Dalmatians written by British author Dodie Smith, and later due to the two Walt Disney films based on the book. The Disney animated film[45], released in 1961, later spawned a 1996 live-action remake, 101 Dalmatians. In the years following the release of the sequel 102 Dalmatians, the breed suffered greatly at the hands of irresponsible breeders and inexperienced owners. Many well-meaning enthusiasts purchased Dalmatians—often for their children—without educating themselves on the breed and the responsibilities that come with owning such a high-energy dog breed.[46] Dalmatians were abandoned in large numbers by their original owners and left with animal shelters. As a result, Dalmatian rescue organizations sprang up to care for the unwanted dogs and find them new homes. AKC registrations of Dalmatians decreased 90% during the 2000–2010 period.[47]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Dalmatian Club of America - A Short History of the Dalmatian". www.thedca.org.
  2. ^ a b "Dalmatian breed standard". The Kennel Club. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  3. ^ a b "Dalmatian (dog)". www.thekennelclub.org.uk.
  4. ^ "''Fédération Cynologique Internationale Standard of Dalmatian'', No. 153, dated 14 April 1999" (PDF). Fci.be. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
  5. ^ "Dalmatian – FCI Standard" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-08-12.
  6. ^ "American Kennel Club – Dalmatian". Akc.org. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  7. ^ a b c Thornton, Kim Campbell. "THE DALMATIAN". Dog World 89.11 (2004): 24.
  8. ^ "Breed Faults".
  9. ^ "American Kennel Club – Dalmatian". Akc.org. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  10. ^ "The Dalmatian Club of America Health Survey Results: General Dog Information". The Dalmatian Club of America. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  11. ^ Bates, Daniel (9 January 2009). "The dalmatian who gave birth to a bumper litter of EIGHTEEN pups". Daily Mail. London.
  12. ^ "When Do Dalmatian Puppies Get Their Spots? | Cuteness". Cuteness.com. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
  13. ^ "The Red Book: The Dalmatian Club Of America's Informational brochure regarding Dalmatians". The Dalmatian Club Of America. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
  14. ^ "The Dalmatian Club of America Health Survey Results: Health Related Conditions". The Dalmatian Club of America. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
  15. ^ Summary results for the purebred dog health survey for Dalmatians (PDF), The Kennel Club, archived (PDF) from the original on 19 September 2014, retrieved 19 September 2014
  16. ^ "OFA: Thyroid Statistics".
  17. ^ "Breed-Specific Deafness Incidence In Dogs (percent)". Lsu.edu. 23 June 2010. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  18. ^ Proctor PH (1988). "Free Radicals and Human Disease". In Weber HH, Miquel J, Quintanilha AT. Handbook of free radicals and antioxidants in biomedicine. 1. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 209–21. ISBN 978-0-8493-3268-5.
  19. ^ "Position on Dalmatian Deafness From the Board of Governors of the Dalmatian Club of America". Dalmatian Club of America. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  20. ^ "DALMATIAN DILEMMA – PART 1". Steynmere.com. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  21. ^ "Reference Materials Concerning Deafness In The Dalmatian". Thedca.org. 14 July 2010. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  22. ^ The Dalmatian Club of America. "Dalmatian Club of America Position Statement Regarding Reducing Dalmatian Deafness". Thedca.org. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  23. ^ "Common Dalmatian Health Problems". Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  24. ^ "Hip Dysplasia in Dalmatians – Dog'sHealth.com Blog". Dogshealth.com. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  25. ^ Friedamman, M; S.O Byers (1 September 1948). "Observations concerning the causes of the excess excretion of uric acid in the dalmatian dog". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 175 (2): 727–35. PMID 18880769.
  26. ^ Simkin PA (August 2005). "The Dalmatian defect: a hepatic endocrinopathy of urate transport". Arthritis Rheum. 52 (8): 2257–62. doi:10.1002/art.21241. PMID 16052594.
  27. ^ Lowrey JC (March 1976). "An unusual diet-derived inflammatory dermatosis in a Dalmatian dog responds to orgotein". Vet Med Small Anim Clin. 71 (3): 289–95. PMID 1045695.
  28. ^ Schaible, Robert H. (April 1981). "A Dalmatian Study: The Genetic Correction of Health Problems". The AKC Gazette. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
  29. ^ Jensen, Mary–Lynn: Dalmatian Backcross Project. Past, Present and Future. In: Spotter, Fall 2006, p. 44–46 (Journal of the Dalmatian Club of America) Online PDF 296 kB, accessed 1 September 2013.
  30. ^ Schaible, Robert H.: Backcross Project: Long–Standing Issues. In: Spotter, Winter 2006, p. 34 (Journal of the Dalmatian Club of America) Online PDF 34 kB, accessed 1 September 2013.
  31. ^ "AKC agrees to register low uric acid Dalmatians". Dog World. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  32. ^ "Registration Rules and Regulations (B Regs)". The Kennel Club. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
  33. ^ "Registration of a Low Uric Acid Dalmatian Import from the USA". The Kennel Club. 12 January 2010. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
  34. ^ "Backcross Dalmatians – The UK Dalmatian Clubs Respond". British Dalmatian Club. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
  35. ^ "About the Project". The Dalmatian Heritage Project. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
  36. ^ a b "''Fédération Cynologique Internationale Standard of Dalmatian'', No. 153, dated 14 April 1999" (PDF). Fci.be. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  37. ^ "Dalmatian – FCI Standard" (PDF). Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  38. ^ a b c d e f "FCI-Standard N° 153 – DALMATIAN (Dalmatinski pas)" (PDF). Hks.hr. Croatian Kennel Club. 30 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
  39. ^ "The Kennel Club". thekennelclub.org.uk.
  40. ^ Schneider-Leyer, Erich ; Fitch Daglish, Eric. Dogs of the World, Popular Dogs, 1964.
  41. ^ a b c "Fire buffs traditions". Windsor Fire. Archived from the original on 30 July 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  42. ^ "The history of Dalmatians in the fire service". 2017-02-10. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
  43. ^ "Fire Dogs and Fire Horses". Publicsafety.net. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  44. ^ "British Carriage Dog Society". carriagedog.org. Archived from the original on 19 November 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
  45. ^ "One Hundred and One Dalmatians (1961)". Web.archive.org. 7 March 2008. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  46. ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine" (PDF). Web.archive.org. 1 November 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 November 2005. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  47. ^ "American Kennel Club – Facts and Stats". Akc.org. Retrieved 26 October 2011.

External links

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The ident package was retained following the corporate rebrand of the BBC in 1997 with a new logo and new idents commissioned. They were taken out of service in November 2001, and were later revived in 21st June 2014 for 90's Night and on July 2014, to commemorate the 50th birthday of BBC Two. They replaced the 'Window on the World' idents and were broadcast until the early hours of 27 September 2018.

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British Spotted pony

The British Spotted is a small pony breed originating in England. It has existed for several centuries. The main distinguishing feature of the breed is its leopard-spotted colouration. The height at withers varies greatly, between 8 hands (32 inches, 81 cm) and 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm). An even larger horse-type variant existed, but is nowadays considered to belong to the Appaloosa breed. The breed is unique for its unusual colouration and origins, and is rare with only about 800 registered animals.

Budweiser Clydesdales

The Budweiser Clydesdales are a group of Clydesdale horses used for promotions and commercials by the Anheuser-Busch Brewing Company. There are several "hitches" or teams of horses, that travel around the United States and others that remain in their official homes at the company headquarters at the Anheuser-Busch brewery complex in St. Louis, Missouri, or at Merrimack, New Hampshire. At St. Louis, they are housed in a historic brick and stained-glass stable built in 1885. There are eight horses driven at any one time, but ten horses are on each team to provide alternates for the hitch when needed. Assorted Clydesdales are also used as animal actors in television commercials for Budweiser beer, particularly in Super Bowl ads.

Dalmatian

Dalmatian may refer to:

Dalmatia, a region mainly in the southern part of modern Croatia

Dalmatae, an ancient Illyrian tribe in Dalmatia

Dalmatian language, an extinct Romance language

Dalmatian (dog), a breed of dog

Dalmatian pelican, a large bird native to central Europe

Dalmatian (band), a South Korean boy band

Dalmatian (EP), its self-titled EP

Dalmatians (band), a punk band from Seattle, Washington, US

Serbo-Croatian language, also known historically as Dalmatian

Dolomite

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Firehouse (disambiguation)

Firehouse may refer to:

Fire station, where firefighters work

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Gestalt psychology

Gestalt psychology or gestaltism (; from German: Gestalt [ɡəˈʃtalt] "shape, form") is a philosophy of mind of the Berlin School of experimental psychology. Gestalt psychology is an attempt to understand the laws behind the ability to acquire and maintain meaningful perceptions in an apparently chaotic world. The central principle of gestalt psychology is that the mind forms a global whole with self-organizing tendencies.

This principle maintains that when the human mind (perceptual system) forms a percept or "gestalt", the whole has a reality of its own, independent of the parts. The original famous phrase of Gestalt psychologist Kurt Koffka, "the whole is something else than the sum of its parts" is often incorrectly translated as "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts", and thus used when explaining gestalt theory, and further incorrectly applied to systems theory. Koffka did not like the translation. He firmly corrected students who replaced "other" with "greater". "This is not a principle of addition" he said. The whole has an independent existence.

In the study of perception, Gestalt psychologists stipulate that perceptions are the products of complex interactions among various stimuli. Contrary to the behaviorist approach to focusing on stimulus and response, gestalt psychologists sought to understand the organization of cognitive processes (Carlson and Heth, 2010). Our brain is capable of generating whole forms, particularly with respect to the visual recognition of global figures instead of just collections of simpler and unrelated elements (points, lines, curves, etc.).

In psychology, gestaltism is often opposed to structuralism. Gestalt theory, it is proposed, allows for the deconstruction of the whole situation into its elements.

Hypouricemia

Hypouricemia is a level of uric acid in blood serum that is below normal. In humans, the normal range of this blood component has a lower threshold set variously in the range of 2 mg/dL to 4 mg/dL, while the upper threshold is 530 micromol/L (6 mg/dL) for women and 619 micromol/L (7 mg/dL) for men. Hypouricemia usually is benign and sometimes is a sign of a medical condition.

List of guinea pig breeds

There are many breeds of guinea pig or cavy which have been developed since its domestication ca. 5000 BC. Breeds vary widely in appearance and purpose, ranging from show breeds with long, flowing hair to those in use as model organisms by science. From ca. 1200 AD to the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in 1532, selective breeding by indigenous South American people resulted in many landrace varieties of domestic guinea pigs, which form the basis for some of the modern, formal breeds. Early Andean varieties were primarily kept as agricultural stock for food, and efforts at improving the guinea pig as a food source continue to the modern era.

With the export of guinea pigs to Europe in the 15th century, the goal in breeding shifted to focus on the development of appealing pets. To this end, various competitive breeding organizations were founded by fanciers. The American Cavy Breeders Association, an adjunct to the American Rabbit Breeders Association, is the governing body in the United States and Canada. The British Cavy Council governs cavy clubs in the United Kingdom. Similar organizations exist in Australia (Australian National Cavy Council) and New Zealand (New Zealaland Cavy Council) Each club publishes its own Standard of Perfection and determines which breeds are eligible for showing. New breeds continue to emerge in the 21st century.

Though there are many breeds of guinea pig, only a few breeds are commonly found on the show table as pets. Most guinea pigs found as pets were either found undesirable by breeders or were bred to be pleasant pets regardless of how well they meet the breed standard of perfection. The English/American Short-haired, the Abyssinian (rough-coated), the Peruvian (long-coated), and the Sheltie (also known as Silkie, long-coated) breeds are those most frequently seen as pets, and the former three are the core breeds in the history of the competitive showing of guinea pigs. In addition to their standard form, nearly all breeds come in a Satin variant. Satins, due to their hollow hair shafts, possess coats of a special gloss and shine. However, there is growing evidence that the genes responsible for the satin coat also can cause severe bone problems, including osteodystrophy and Paget's disease. Showing satin variations is prohibited by some cavy breeders' associations because of animal welfare reasons.

All cavy breeds have some shared general standards: the head profile should be rounded, with large eyes and large, smooth ears. The body should be strong and of compact build. Coat colour should in all variations be clearly defined and thorough from root to tip. These standards are best met by long established, commonly bred breeds, as their breeders have had enough time and animals to effectively breed for these qualities. The coat colour ideal of good definition and thoroughness is rarely met by other than the smooth-coated breeds, which have had well established, separate breeding lines for different colours.

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Pepper (dog)

Pepper was a female Dalmatian dog from Pennsylvania, United States, who disappeared in 1965, eventually to turn up euthanased in a New York hospital, having been stolen by an animal dealer who supplied vivisectionists. Pepper's story, along with a Life magazine article titled "Concentration Camp for Dogs", led to members of the United States Congress and Senate being bombarded with angry letters, the volume of which surpassed briefly those about either Civil Rights and the Vietnam War. This campaign resulted in lawmakers passing the Animal Welfare Act of 1966.

Rod Taylor

Rodney Sturt Taylor (11 January 1930 – 7 January 2015) was an Australian actor. He appeared in more than 50 films, including The Time Machine (1960), The Birds (1963), and One Hundred and One Dalmatians (1961).

Shenyang zoo scandal

The Shenyang zoo scandal refers to a series of incidents in which The Shenyang Forest Wild Animal Zoo (沈阳动物园), a private zoo located in Shenyang, Liaoning, People's Republic of China, was accused of mistreating and starving a number of animals, many of which died of various causes between 2009 and 2010. In March of the same year, a large protest was held by employees of the zoo. The revelations of abuse at the institution shocked animal conservationists around the world.

Trevor Grove

Trevor Grove (born 1 January 1945) is a British journalist and former editor of The Sunday Telegraph (1989–1992).

Raised and educated in Buenos Aires, Argentina, where he was educated at St. George's College, Quilmes, Grove was appointed editor of The Sunday Telegraph on 3 October 1989 under Max Hastings, then editor-in-chief of both the daily and Sunday titles. Unusually, the previous editor, Peregrine Worsthorne, was not removed from the newspaper, but instead was retained as editor of the comment section. This prompted the emergence of factionalism on the newspaper, which made Grove's position difficult. He was eventually succeeded in 1992, after less than three years in the post, by Charles Moore. Grove subsequently moved back to Argentina to launch El Periodico de Tucuman. In 2004 he was the director of Inside Time, the national publication for UK prisoners.

He has also written a number of books, including The Juryman's Tale (1998), a defence of the jury system, and One Dog and His Man about his relationship with his Dalmatian dog.

He is married to the columnist and interviewer Valerie Grove. He is also a magistrate. In Who's Who he gives his recreations as "playing tennis, messing about in a boat, learning the tango, walking the dog".

Uric acid

Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. It forms ions and salts known as urates and acid urates, such as ammonium acid urate. Uric acid is a product of the metabolic breakdown of purine nucleotides, and it is a normal component of urine. High blood concentrations of uric acid can lead to gout and are associated with other medical conditions, including diabetes and the formation of ammonium acid urate kidney stones.

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