Dallara Automobili is an Italian chassis manufacturer for various motor racing series, being most notable for its near-monopoly in Formula Three since 1993. Dallara also produces the chassis used by the IndyCar Series, Indy Lights, FIA Formula 2 Championship, World Series by Renault, GP3 Series, Super Formula, Formula E and ADAC Formel Masters and is one of the manufacturers in the Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series. In recent years their engineering activities have expanded considerably (now represents 40% of total sales), both in terms of the racing cars and high performance road cars.
|Dallara Automobili S.p.A.|
|Founder||Gian Paolo Dallara|
|Headquarters||Varano de' Melegari, Italy|
|Gian Paolo Dallara|
The company was founded by designer Gian Paolo Dallara in 1972 in Varano de' Melegari, near Parma, Italy, and started building chassis for sports car racing and hillclimbing, racing in the smaller engine classes. Dallara designed his first Formula Three car for Walter Wolf Racing in 1978. Dallara also had a brief involvement in Formula 3000 in the mid-1980s.
The first F3 car under the Dallara name came in 1981, and the cars became particularly successful in Italy. Since 1985 Dallara drivers have taken the Italian Formula Three Championship every year except 1990. The late 1980s and early 1990s also saw Dallara make inroads into the German and French markets, winning the German title in 1987 and the French in 1987 and 1992.
1993 was the first year that Dallaras were entered in the British Formula Three Championship and was the beginning of the company's dominance of Formula Three. The new F393 featured major aerodynamic changes compared to its predecessor and introduced a monodamper front suspension layout. The F393 won every race in the Italian, French and German championships that year, while the British series saw numerous entrants – including champion Kelvin Burt – forced to switch from Reynard or Ralt chassis to Dallara in order to remain competitive. TOMS would win the Japanese championship with its own cars in 1993 and 1994 before switching to Dallara chassis. From then on Dallara would dominate the Formula Three market, although Martini had some success in France and Germany in the late 1990s, including Sébastien Bourdais winning the French title in 1999. Since then Dallara have won every major Formula Three title, although Ho-Pin Tung won the 2006 Recaro F3 Cup in a Lola against a field that included several current Dallaras. Dallaras have won the Macau Grand Prix since 1993.
In 1988 the company became a Formula One constructor, after being hired by BMS Scuderia Italia to build their chassis. The relationship between the Italian constructor and Beppe Lucchini's racing outfit endured until 1992, with their best result being two third places: one at the 1989 Canadian Grand Prix with Andrea de Cesaris; the other at the 1991 San Marino Grand Prix, thanks to JJ Lehto. The Constructors' Championship results were: no classification in 1988, 8th in 1989 (with 8 points), 15th (with no points) in 1990, 8th in 1991 (with 5 points) and 10th in 1992 (with 2 points) by Pierluigi Martini.
During 2004, Dallara recruited ex-Jordan, Stewart and Jaguar F1 designer Gary Anderson, leading to speculation that the Italian company was working on another F1 project. Late in 2004 the nascent Midland team announced that Dallara would be designing and building their Formula One chassis which was due to be entered for the 2006 season. Following Midland's purchase of the Jordan team for early entry to F1 in 2005, Dallara continued co-operating with the team technically. However, the relationship fizzled out as Midland focussed its resources on developing the existing Jordan infrastructure, and a new Dallara F1 chassis never appeared.
Dallara built the cars for Hispania's entry in the 2010 season. The Hispania team's financial problems—which delayed payment of money owed to Dallara and the completion of the cars—and the alleged low quality of the F110 chassis resulted in the two parties officially ending their partnership in May 2010. The car was used in all 2010 races without any development except the graphics. They had only one aerodynamic configuration, used for all races, including Monte Carlo and Monza. Geoff Willis, who joined Hispania in March 2010, criticized the F110, saying that he was disappointed at the quality and level of engineering in the car and that the design of the car was missing a lot of practices commonly employed in the process of building a Formula One car those days.
On 15 April 2014 Gene Haas confirmed his new Formula One team, Haas F1 Team, had entered talks to form a partnership with Dallara in 2015 for the build of their first car. On 21 February 2016, the Haas VF-16 was officially unveiled. For the 2017 season, Haas once again had Dallara design their car, the VF-17.
Dallara debuted as chassis supplier at the IndyCar Series in 1997, and has been the single chassis supplier since 2007. The manufacturer has won seventeen of the twenty Indianapolis 500s they have contested. In 2013, Dallara reached its milestone 200th Indy car victory at Barber.
In 2012 the company opened an engineering center in Speedway, Indiana, at the Speed Zone Redevelopment Area near the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, where they produce and assemble the IndyCar. The same building also houses an entertainment center, where visitors can learn how a racing car is manufactured.
Dallara was one of the original three chassis constructors when the Indy Racing League debuted its own chassis formula during the 1997 season. The first model year (1997) was named the IR7. The cars were most notably differentiated from the competing G-Force chassis by the ovoid shape of the air intake inlet, while the G-Force's was triangular. The IR8 (1998) and IR9 (1999) were essentially 1997 model year chassis with update kits.
A new model chassis was introduced for the 2000 season. When updated for 2001 the chassis was designated as the IR-01 and for 2002 it was referred to as the IR-02.
For the 2003 season, Dallara rolled out the new IR-03 chassis. This chassis would later become the de facto "spec car" in the series. An aerodynamic update kit was released for 2007, which changed its designation to IR-05. In addition, paddle shifters began seeing use in 2008, further developing and evolving this generation of Dallaras. Chassis bearing both the IR-03 and the IR-05 designations saw use through the end of the 2011 season.
For the 2006 season, over 80% of the field began the season with a Dallara, a possible symptom of Panoz (manufacturer of the G-Force chassis)'s perceived lack of interest. This was around the time Panoz began delivering the DP01 chassis to the rival Champ Car series. From 2007 to 2011 all IndyCar teams used the Dallara IR-05 chassis, although a few teams entered a Panoz/G-Force chassis into the 2007 Indianapolis 500 singly. Some smaller teams continued to utilize the slightly older IR-03 designated chassis, particularly at Indianapolis, with update kits affixed to make it on equally competitive ground with the newer-assembled IR-05. Due to IndyCar IR-05 chassis and Honda Indy V8 engine development freeze for reason of focusing on 2012 new car from the start of the 2009 season, Dallara did not build new IndyCar chassis until the 2011 season.
Starting in 2012, Dallara began providing the common monocoque and suspension parts for the new IndyCar formulae – known as the IndyCar Safety Cell – with the intent that the bodywork and aero parts can and will be provided by other manufacturers. The cars will be branded by the make who provides the "Aero Kit." Dallara rolled out the chassis with its own optional spec aero kit. The aero kit concept was temporarily shelved due to cost concerns, making the Dallara kit the universal spec for 2012-2014. Unique aero kits (manufactured by Chevrolet and Honda, respectively) were introduced for 2015-2017, and Dallara ceased support and production of their own. Beginning in 2018, the third generation of aero kits will be introduced for the DW-12, again returning to a universal spec kit for all entries. On 18 October, Dallara confirmed that the 2012 series car would be named after the late IndyCar driver Dan Wheldon (DW12) in honour of his work testing the car before his death two days prior at Las Vegas, with the new bumper/nerf bar section being featured, it was designed to prevent many similar single-seater crashes such as the one that killed Wheldon.
In 2002, Dallara became the exclusive supplier for World Series by Nissan, a move that allowed them to gain the contract for the World Series by Renault in 2004. Dallara was also appointed by the FIA to be the sole supplier of the FIA Formula 2 Championship (formerly GP2 Series) and the new GP3 Series, giving them a near-monopoly of every motorsport series used as a direct entry point into F1.
In 2007 Dallara created a new car model, known as "formulino", in order to fill the gap between karts and Formula Three. The first series to use the new concept was the ADAC Formel Masters in 2008, and the MRF Challenge also adopted the car.
Dallara has provided the spec chassis to the Indy Lights series, formerly the Infiniti/Indy Pro Series since 2002. For the 2015 Indy Lights season, the car was replaced by the new generation Dallara IL-15, powered by a 2.0L turbocharged MZR-R four cylinder engine.
In the early 1980s, Dallara was responsible for the construction of the Lancia LC1 Group 6 prototype as well as the later LC2 Group C car, along with Lancia's partner Abarth. It would not be until 1993 that Dallara returned to endurance racing, although very few chassis would take their name. The first project was the Ferrari 333 SP, made for the new WSC regulations in the IMSA GT Championship. The 333 SP, manufactured at Michelotto, won a great number of races both in North America and Europe. Ferrari also hired Dallara to develop the racing version of the Ferrari F50, financed by French racing driver Fabien Giroix, but the project was aborted before it got off the ground, in 1998.
As a consequence, the company secured other contracts and built chassis for Toyota (GT-One), Audi (various incarnations of the R8) and Chrysler (the Oreca-run Chrysler LMP). Later, the Chrysler LMP would become Dallara's customer car available to privateers, known as the Dallara SP1, which has also served as a test mule for Nissan's aborted return to the 24 Hours of Le Mans. All these cars were competitive in prototype sports car racing, with the Audi R8 in particular becoming the most dominant chassis in modern times at the 24 Hours and the American Le Mans Series. In 2002, they built the GC21 for use in the Fuji Grand Champion Series; the car was based on the company's F3 cars.
In 2017, Dallara showed its first road car, "Dallara Stradale", on the occasion of Gian Paolo Dallara’s 81 birthday.
(key) (results in bold indicate pole position)
|1988||BMS Scuderia Italia||3087
|Ford DFR 3.5 V8||G||BRA||SMR||MON||MEX||CAN||DET||FRA||GBR||GER||HUN||BEL||ITA||POR||ESP||JPN||AUS||0||NC|
|1989||BMS Scuderia Italia||F189||Ford DFR 3.5 V8||P||BRA||SMR||MON||MEX||USA||CAN||FRA||GBR||GER||HUN||BEL||ITA||POR||ESP||JPN||AUS||8||8th|
|Andrea de Cesaris||13||10||13||Ret||8||3||DNQ||Ret||7||Ret||11||Ret||Ret||7||10||Ret|
|1990||BMS Scuderia Italia||F190||Ford DFR 3.5 V8||P||USA||BRA||SMR||MON||CAN||MEX||FRA||GBR||GER||HUN||BEL||ITA||POR||ESP||JPN||AUS||0||NC|
|Andrea de Cesaris||Ret||Ret||Ret||Ret||Ret||13||DSQ||Ret||DNQ||Ret||Ret||10||Ret||Ret||Ret||Ret|
|1991||BMS Scuderia Italia||F191||Judd GV 3.5 V10||P||USA||BRA||SMR||MON||CAN||MEX||FRA||GBR||GER||HUN||BEL||ITA||POR||ESP||JPN||AUS||5||8th|
|1992||BMS Scuderia Italia||F192||Ferrari
037 3.5 V12
The 2002 Indy Racing League (IRL) was one of transition, with many CART teams participating in a partial IRL schedule while retaining "lame duck" status in their original series with their CART engine suppliers Toyota and Honda. On the IRL front, the Infiniti engine was in its own "lame duck" year and the General Motors engine was now branded as a Chevrolet rather than an Oldsmobile as that marque was being phased out. Sam Hornish Jr. won 5 races on his way to his second straight championship ahead of Penske Racing juggernaut Hélio Castroneves who won three races, including a second straight Indy 500, on his way to second in the championship.2008 Detroit Indy Grand Prix
The 2008 Detroit Indy Grand Prix presented by Firestone was an IndyCar Series race that was held on August 31, 2008 on the Raceway on Belle Isle in Detroit, Michigan. It was the sixteenth race of the 2008 IndyCar Series season. Originally scheduled to run over 90 laps, it was shortened to 87 laps due to 2-hour limit. The race was won by Justin Wilson for the Newman/Haas/Lanigan Racing team. Hélio Castroneves finished second, and Tony Kanaan clinched third. Wilson dedicated his win to actor Paul Newman, the ailing joint-owner of his team; Newman died less than a month later.Scott Dixon claimed pole position for the race, and led through the first lap. Dixon and Castroneves, who had qualified second, pulled away from the pack, until the seventeenth lap, when a full-track caution was issued after an incident between Dan Wheldon and Jamie Camara. Dixon pitted under the yellow, but did so alone, granting the lead to Castroneves. The Brazilian led the race until lap 72, other than a single lap during which Oriol Servià was leading during pit stops. Late in the race, Wilson was challenging for the lead, and Castroneves was judged to have blocked the other driver, resulting in a penalty which allowed Wilson to take the lead. Despite a late push by Castroneves to pass Wilson, the rookie British driver maintained his position to claim victory.There were four cautions, totalling 11 laps during the race. It was Wilson's first career IndyCar win. Of the 25 drivers that started, 18 completed the race, three retired after contact, one retired with handling problems and three retired due to mechanical issues.A. J. Foyt Enterprises
A. J. Foyt Enterprises is an American racing team in the IndyCar Series and formerly NASCAR. It is owned by four-time Indianapolis 500 winner, 1972 Daytona 500 winner, 1967 24 Hours of Le Mans winner and two-time 24 Hours of Daytona winner A. J. Foyt. A. J. won two of his four Indianapolis 500s driving for the team. The team also won the 1999 Indianapolis 500 and the IRL championship in 1996 and 1998.ART Grand Prix
ART Grand Prix is a French motor racing team that competes in formula single-seaters in Europe. In 2012, it competed in the GP2 Series and GP3 Series as Lotus GP to reflect sponsorship from British sports and racing car manufacturer Lotus. The team competed as Lotus ART in 2011.
Notable ART drivers include Sebastian Vettel, Lewis Hamilton, Nico Rosberg, Valtteri Bottas, Nico Hülkenberg, Romain Grosjean, Esteban Ocon, Charles Leclerc, Stoffel Vandoorne, Lucas di Grassi, Jamie Green, Olivier Pla, Adrian Sutil, Paul di Resta, Jules Bianchi, Esteban Gutiérrez and Jack Harvey.Carlin Motorsport
Carlin, formerly Carlin Motorsport, is a motor racing team based in the United Kingdom. It currently competes in two professional championships: the NTT IndyCar Series and European Le Mans Series, as well as five junior championships: FIA Formula 2 Championship, FIA Formula 3 Championship, F4 British Championship, BRDC British Formula 3, and Euroformula Open Championship.
Originally found in 1996 by Trevor Carlin and Martin Stone, Carlin has competed in Porsche Supercup, Nissan World Series, Formula BMW UK, World Series by Renault, F3 Euro Series, British F3, FIA European F3 Championship, FIA Formula E, GP3 Series, GP2 Series and Indy Lights all with race winning success.
In 2009, Carlin Motorsport was reborn as Carlin, part of the Capsicum Motorsport Group headed up by Grahame Chilton and Rupert Swallow.
Carlin has provided a well-trodden staircase to F1. Over 200 drivers have passed through the doors of the team, many on their way to the highest echelons of the sport, including F1 drivers Sebastian Vettel, Nico Rosberg, Robert Kubica, Takuma Sato, Anthony Davidson, Jaime Alguersuari, Daniel Ricciardo, Max Chilton, Jean-Éric Vergne, Kevin Magnussen, Felipe Nasr, Narain Karthikeyan, Rio Haryanto and Lando Norris. Other notable Carlin drivers are Josef Newgarden, Jamie Green, Oliver Jarvis, Oliver Turvey, Álvaro Parente, Charlie Kimball, Robert Wickens and Ed Jones.Chip Ganassi Racing
Chip Ganassi Racing With Felix Sabates, Inc., doing business as Chip Ganassi Racing Teams or simply Chip Ganassi Racing (CGR), is an American auto racing organization with teams competing in the NTT IndyCar Series, Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, and the IMSA WeatherTech SportsCar Championship. It was founded in 1990 by businessman and former race driver Chip Ganassi, from the assets of Patrick Racing to compete in the CART IndyCar World Series.
After winning four consecutive CART championships from 1996–1999 with drivers Jimmy Vasser, Alex Zanardi and Juan Pablo Montoya, in 2000 Ganassi became the first CART organization to return to the Indianapolis 500 after the open wheel "Split" between CART and the Indy Racing League in 1996. A dominant victory with Montoya would foresee the teams permanent switch to the IRL (now IndyCar Series), where further championships would be won with Scott Dixon and Dario Franchitti, including another four straight from 2008–2011. The team fields the Nos. 9 and 10 Dallara-Hondas for Dixon and Felix Rosenqvist.
In 2001, Ganassi bought a majority stake in Felix Sabates' Team SABCO NASCAR team, which had operated since 1989, marking his entry into that championship and inheriting that organizations history, while also partnering to compete in the Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series. In 2009, Ganassi partnered with Dale Earnhardt, Inc. owner Teresa Earnhardt to merge their NASCAR operations into Ganassi's shop and run independently as Earnhardt Ganassi Racing with Felix Sabates. The NASCAR team dropped the Earnhardt name in 2014, and Ganassi revealed that Teresa was never truly involved with the team. Rob Kauffman, chairman of the Race Team Alliance, purchased a stake in the team in 2015. The NASCAR program has fielded full-time entries for notable drivers including Kyle Petty, Joe Nemechek, Sterling Marlin, Jimmy Spencer, Juan Pablo Montoya and Jamie McMurray. They currently run the Nos. 1 and 42 Chevrolet Camaro ZL1s for Kurt Busch and Kyle Larson in a technical alliance with Hendrick Motorsports.
Together, they have won 12 Open Wheel titles (4 in CART, 8 in IndyCar), 5 Grand-Am Road Racing championships, and wins in the Indianapolis 500 (Four times), Daytona 500, Brickyard 400, 24 Hours of Daytona, 12 Hours of Sebring and a 24 Hours of Le Mans class win. Their class victory in the 2018 24 Hours of Daytona marked their 200th professional racing victory.Dallara DW12
The Dallara DW12 (officially named the Dallara IR12) is an open-wheel formula racing car developed and produced by Italian manufacturer Dallara for use in the IndyCar Series. It was developed for use in the 2012 IndyCar Series season, replacing the aging Dallara IR-05 chassis, and is planned to be used until 2021 or 2022. The chassis is named after Dan Wheldon, who was the car's test driver, and who was killed at Las Vegas Motor Speedway on October 16, 2011, the final race of the previous IR-05.Starting in 2012 the series moved to using a common chassis supplied by Dallara. Using a single supplier to supply chassis was introduced as a cost control method, and IndyCar has negotiated a fixed cost of $349,000 per chassis. The new specification of chassis also improved safety, the most obvious feature being the partial enclosure around the rear wheels.
This chassis is intended to support multiple aerodynamic kits, but the introduction of these was delayed until 2015, with Honda and Chevrolet supplying the alternatives to the Dallara package.On October 18, 2011, Italian manufacturer Dallara confirmed that the 2012 series car would be named after the late IndyCar driver Dan Wheldon (DW12) in honour of his work testing the car before his death two days prior at Las Vegas, with the new bumper/nerf bar section being featured, it was designed to prevent many similar single-seater crashes such as the one that killed Wheldon. The nomenclature is similar to that of the old Formula One team Ligier, whose cars were labeled JSxx in memory of French F1 driver Jo Schlesser after his death at the 1968 French Grand Prix.Firestone Grand Prix of St. Petersburg
The Firestone Grand Prix of St. Petersburg is an IndyCar Series race held in St. Petersburg, Florida. Since 2009, the race has served as the season opener, with the exception of 2010, when it was the second race of the season (but the first on U.S. soil). The race is held annually in the spring, currently in March.
The race takes place on a temporary course, utilizing downtown streets, and one runway of Albert Whitted Airport. The event dates back to 1985, with IndyCars first competing in 2003.Fortec Motorsport
Fortec Motorsport Ltd. is a motor-racing team that races in the Formula Renault 3.5 Series, the British Formula 3 Championship, and several junior formulae categories at a British and pan-European level. The team was bought in 1995 by current owner Richard Dutton.Past drivers for the team include Juan Pablo Montoya, Gianmaria Bruni, Danny Watts, Jamie Green, James Rossiter, Mike Conway, Fabio Carbone and Heikki Kovalainen.Gian Paolo Dallara
Gian Paolo Dallara (born 16 November 1936) is an Italian businessman and motorsports engineer. He is the owner of Dallara Motorsports, a company that develops racing cars.Honda RA099
The Honda RA099 was a prototype Formula One racecar, commissioned by Honda, designed by ex-Ferrari and Tyrrell designer Harvey Postlethwaite and built by Dallara in 1999. Its purpose was similar to the one surrounding the Toyota TF101 of 2001, in that it was supposed to be a working test car used in preparation for a full-scale assault on Grand Prix racing in the following years.Indy Lights
Indy Lights is an American developmental automobile racing series sanctioned by IndyCar, currently known as Indy Lights Presented by Cooper Tires for sponsorship reasons. Indy Lights is the highest step on the Road to Indy, a program of racing series leading up to the IndyCar Series. The Indy Lights series has been promoted by Anderson Promotions since 2014, which also manages the Road to Indy program.
A similar series named Indy Lights filled the developmental role for the CART series, and ran from 1986 to 1993 as the American Racing Series and Dayton Indy Lights from 1991 to 2001. The current IndyCar sanctioned series was founded in 2002 as the Infiniti Pro Series as a way to introduce new talent to IndyCar, with the moniker Indy Lights returning in 2008 when CART and IndyCar unified. The Indy Lights champion is awarded a $1M scholarship toward the IndyCar Series, and guaranteed three races including the Indianapolis 500.Iowa 300
The Iowa 300 is an IndyCar Series race held at the Iowa Speedway in Newton, Iowa. The first event was held in 2007. From 2007-2013, it was a 250-lap (218.75 miles) race; beginning in 2014, the race was increased to 300 laps (262.5 miles).Italian Formula Three Championship
The Italian Formula Three Championship was the Formula Three racing competition in Italy.Prema Powerteam
Prema Powerteam (competing as Pertamina Prema Theodore Racing in the FIA Formula 2 Championship) is a motorsport team from Italy. It mainly operates in the FIA Formula 3 European Championship (FIA Formula 3 Championship since 2019) as well as various junior championships. The team was founded in 1984. Also this team was a part of Toyota Driver Programme. Currently the team has strong ties with Mercedes and Ferrari, running many of the current Ferrari Driver Academy drivers. Its most recent success is winning the GP2 Drivers' title with Pierre Gasly and 2017 Formula 2 Championship Drivers' Championship with Charles Leclerc Teams' championship.Rockingham Motor Speedway
Rockingham Motor Speedway is a former motorsport venue in the United Kingdom, that hosted corporate driving days, driver training, conferencing and exhibitions, vehicle manufacturing events, track days, testing, driving experiences and motor racing. It claims to be Europe's fastest racing circuit, and was the first banked oval constructed in Britain since the closure of Brooklands in 1939. The venue hosted its last day of racing in November 2018 after being sold by its owners and will be redeveloped to become a logistics hub for the car industry.Scott Sharp
Scott Sharp (born February 14, 1968) is an American professional racing driver in the United SportsCar Championship. He is the son of six-time SCCA champion Bob Sharp. Sharp is best known for his years as a competitor in the Indy Racing League.Stadio Renato Dall'Ara
Stadio Renato Dall'Ara is a multi-purpose stadium in Bologna, Italy. It is currently used mostly for football matches and the home of Bologna F.C. 1909. The stadium was built in 1927 and holds 38,279. It has also been named Stadio Littoriale. It replaced the Stadio Sterlino. The stadium is named after Renato Dall'Ara, a former president of Bologna for thirty years.
The stadium hosted matches in both the 1934 FIFA World Cup and the 1990 FIFA World Cup. The last match of the tournament played there was the England vs Belgium match in the Round of 16 which ended 1–0 courtesy of an extra-time goal scored by David Platt in the 119th minute.Located in the Saragozza district, about 6 km from the center of the city, it regularly hosts Bologna's home matches.
With around 36,000 seats it is the eleventh Italian stadium for capacity, which can increase up to 55,000 for concerts.
It is considered one of the best fields in Italy and in Europe, together with the Artemio Franchi stadium in Florence, due to the extraordinary draining quality and compactness of the turf.Texas Motor Speedway
Texas Motor Speedway is a speedway located in the northernmost portion of the U.S. city of Fort Worth, Texas – the portion located in Denton County, Texas. The reconfigured track measures 1.44 miles (2.32 km) with banked 20° in turns 1 and 2 and banked 24° in turns 3 and 4. Texas Motor Speedway is a quad-oval design, where the front straightaway juts outward slightly. The track layout is similar to Atlanta Motor Speedway and Charlotte Motor Speedway. The track is owned by Speedway Motorsports, Inc., the same company that owns Atlanta and Charlotte Motor Speedways, as well as the short-track Bristol Motor Speedway.
Although World Championship races held in 1952 and 1953 were run to Formula Two regulations, constructors who only participated during this period are included herein to maintain Championship continuity.
Constructors whose only participation in the World Championship was in the Indianapolis 500 races between 1950 and 1960 are not listed.