Daksha

According to Hindu mythology, Dakṣha (Sanskrit: दक्ष, lit. "able, dexterous, or honest one"[1]) is one of the sons of Lord Brahma, who, after creating the ten Manas Putras, created Daksha, Dharma, Kamadeva and Agni from his right thumb, chest, heart and eyebrows respectively.[2]Daksa was a great kshatriya king. Pictures show him as a rotund and obese man with a stocky body, protruding belly, and muscular with the head of an ibex-like creature with spiral horns.

Daksha
God of Kings
Daksha
Ram-faced Daksha (right) with Virabhadra
Personal information
ConsortPrasuti
ChildrenAditi, Diti, Sati, Svaha, Swadha, Rohini, Revati, Rati and Khyati
ParentsBrahma
SiblingsFour Kumaras and Narada

Daughters

Daksha was angry with Inter galactic traveller Narada, just because he taught good things to his sons. Narada travels o different galaxies with his thought power
Daksha was angry with Inter galactic traveller Narada, just because he taught good things to his sons. Narada travels o different galaxies with his thought power

According to Vishnu Purana and Padma Purana, Daksha and his wife Prasuti had 24 daughters. The names of these 24 daughters are:

  1. Sraddha (Faith)
  2. Bhakti (Worship)
  3. Dhriti (Steadiness)
  4. Thushti (Resignation)
  5. Pushti (Thriving)
  6. Medha (Intelligence)
  7. Kriya (Action, Devotion)
  8. Buddhika (Intellect)
  9. Lajja Gauri (Modesty)
  10. Vapu (Body)
  11. Santi (Expiation)
  12. Siddhika (Perfection)
  13. Kirtti (Fame)
  14. Khyati (Celebrity)
  15. Sati (Truth)
  16. Sambhuti (Fitness)
  17. Smriti (Memory)
  18. Priti (Affection)
  19. Kshama (Forgiveness)
  20. Sannati (Humility)
  21. Anasuya (lit. without jealousy)
  22. Urjja (Energy)
  23. Swaha (Offering)
  24. Swadha (Oblation).[3]

Of these, the 13 married to Dharma are:

  1. Sraddha,
  2. Bhakti,
  3. Dhriti,
  4. Thushti,
  5. Pushti,
  6. Medha,
  7. Kriya,
  8. Buddhi,
  9. Lajja,
  10. Vapu,
  11. Santi,
  12. Siddhi,
  13. Kirtti.

The other 11 are:

  1. Khyati married to Bhrigu
  2. Sati to Shiva,
  3. Sambhuti to Marichi,
  4. Smriti to Angiras,
  5. Priti to Pulastya,
  6. Kshama to Pulaha,
  7. Sannati to Kratu,
  8. Anasuya to Atri,
  9. Urjja to Vasishtha,
  10. Swaha to Agni
  11. Swadha to Pitris.[4]

According to Matsya Purana, Daksha and his wife Panchajani (Virani) had 62 daughters, not one of whom resembled their father:

  1. 10 of those daughters were married to Dharma,
  2. 13 to sage Kashyapa,
  3. 27 to Chandra,
  4. 4 to Arishtanemi,
  5. 1 to Kama,
  6. 1 to lord Shiva,
  7. 2 to sons of sage Bhrigu,
  8. 2 to sage Angiras,
  9. 2 to Krisasva.[5][6]

According to Padma Purana, when Daksha felt the number of women are still not sufficient, he decided to have 60 more daughters. Sati was the daughter married to Shiva.[7]

The 10 daughters married to Dharma are:

  1. Maruvati,
  2. Vasu,
  3. Jami
  4. Lamba,
  5. Bhanu,
  6. Urjja,
  7. Sankalp,
  8. Mahurath,
  9. Sadhya, and
  10. Vishva.[5][8]

The 13 daughters married to sage Kashyapa are:

  1. Aditi,
  2. Diti,
  3. Danu
  4. Arishta,
  5. Sursa,
  6. Surabhi,
  7. Vinata,
  8. Tamra,
  9. Krodhvasha,
  10. Ira,
  11. Kadru,
  12. Vishva,
  13. Muni.[9][10]

The 27 daughters married to Chandra are:

  1. Kṛttikā (the Pleiades),
  2. Rohinī,
  3. Mrigashīrsha,
  4. Ārdrā,
  5. Punarvasu,
  6. Purbabhadrapada,
  7. Pushya,
  8. Asleshā,
  9. Maghā,
  10. Svāti (Arcturus),
  11. Chitrā (Spica),
  12. Purvaphalguni,
  13. Hasta,
  14. Rādha,
  15. Vishākhā,
  16. Anurādhā,
  17. Jyeshthā,
  18. Mūla,
  19. Purbashādha,
  20. Uttarashara,
  21. Sravana,
  22. Uttarphalguni,
  23. Satabhisha,
  24. Uttarbhadrapada,
  25. Revati,
  26. Ashwini,
  27. Bharani. These 27 wives of Chandra are 27 Nakshatras (the constellations) which are on the Moon's orbit.

Story of Sati and Shiva

One of the daughters of Daksha (often said to be the youngest) was Sati (Dakshayani), who had always wished to marry Shiva. Daksha forbade it, but Sati disobeyed him and did so anyway, finding in Shiva a doting and loving husband.

Daksha Yagna

Daksha criticizing Rudra for insulting him in the Satrayaga
Daksha criticizing Rudra for insulting him in the Satrayaga

Daksha Yagna was an important turning point in the creation and development of sects in Hinduism It is the story behind the 'Stala Purana' (Origin story of Temples) of Shakti Peethas. There are 51 (some say 108) Shakti Peethas shrines all over South Asia. The story replaced goddess Sati by Shree Parvati as Shiva's consort, and lead to the story of Lord Ganesha and Lord Kartikeya.

Dakshayani
Shiva carrying the corpse of his consort Sati

Daksha organised a huge yaga and intentionally avoided Shiva and Sati. Even though discouraged by Shiva, who told her not to go to a ceremony performed by Daksha where she and her husband were not invited; the parental bond made Sati ignore social etiquette and her husband's wishes. Sati went to the ceremony alone. She was snubbed by Daksha and insulted by him in front of the guests. Sati, unable to bear further insult, ran into the Sacrificial fire and immolated herself. Shiva, upon learning about the terrible incident, in his wrath invoked Virabhadra and Bhadrakali by plucking a lock of hair and thrashing it on the ground. Virabhadra and Bhoota ganas marched south and destroyed all the premises. Daksha was decapitated and the yagnja shaala was devastated in the rampage. The Bhutaganas' celebrated victory by plucking the beard of 'Presiding Master' of the yagnja, Sage Bhrigu as a war souvenir.

Daksha was later forgiven and given life by fixing a ram's (male goat's) head and the yagna was allowed to complete, in all the divinities' presence.

The story continues with the act of Vishnu pacifying Shiva, who was in deep grief in seeing the half burned corpse of his beloved wife. Vishnu embraced Shiva to pacify him. Shiva unable to part with Sati took her corpse and wandered. Vishnu helped him get rid of this attachment by severing the corpse with his divine discus. The body parts of the corpse of Sati Devi fell in the places Shiva travelled. The places where the body parts Sati Devi's corpse fell came to be known as Shakti Peethas.[11][12]

See also

References

  1. ^ Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
  2. ^ The Matsya Puranam P-I (B.D. Basu) English Translation Ch #3, Page 10
  3. ^ Vishnu Purana, Vol-I, H.H. Willson. Book-I,Ch-#7, Page 109
  4. ^ Vishnu Purana, Vol-I, H.H. Willson. Book-I,Ch-#7, Page 109-11
  5. ^ a b The Matsya Puranam P-I (B.D. Basu) English Translation Ch #5, Page 17
  6. ^ Matsya Purana (Sanskrit) Ch #5, Sloka 10-12
  7. ^ Wilkins, W.J. (2003). Hindu Mythology. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld (P) Limited. p. 373. ISBN 81-246-0234-4.
  8. ^ Matsya Purana (Sanskrit) Ch #5, Sloka 15-16
  9. ^ The Matsya Puranam P-I (B.D. Basu) English Translation Ch #5, Page 18
  10. ^ Matsya Purana (Sanskrit) Ch #6, Sloka 1-2
  11. ^ the Horse-sacrifice of the Prajapati Daksha The Mahabharata translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1883–1896), Book 12: Santi Parva: Mokshadharma Parva: Section CCLXXXIV. p. 317. “I am known by the name of Virabhadra’’ and I have sprung from the wrath of Rudra. This lady (who is my companion), and who is called Bhadrakali, hath sprung from the wrath of the goddess.”
  12. ^ http://www.hindu.com/2006/06/17/stories/2006061708850500.htm
  • Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend (ISBN 0-500-51088-1) by Anna Dhallapiccola

External links

Aditi

In the Vedas, Aditi (Sanskrit: अदिति "limitless" or Boundless”) is mother of the gods specially Sun.(devamata)or the "Mother of Sun"and all twelve zodiacal spirits from whose cosmic matrix, the heavenly bodies were born. As celestial mother of every existing form and being, the synthesis of all things, she is associated with space (akasa) and with mystic speech (Vāc). She may be seen as a feminized form of Brahma and associated with the primal substance (mulaprakriti) in Vedanta. She is mentioned nearly 80 times in the Rigveda: the verse "Daksha sprang from Aditi and Aditi from Daksha" is seen by Theosophists as a reference to "the eternal cyclic re-birth of the same divine Essence" and divine wisdom.

Anupa Kingdom

Anupa is a kingdom mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. It lay to the north west of Vidarbha, in what is now Maharashtra . It was founded by the races from the western kingdoms like Madra and Kamboja

Bhrigu

Maharishi Bhrigu (Sanskrit: Bhṛgu) was one of the seven great sages, the Saptarshis, one of the many Prajapatis (the facilitators of Creation) created by Brahma. He was born in Ballia. The first compiler of predictive astrology, and also the author of Bhrigu Samhita, the astrological (Jyotish) classic, Bhrigu is considered a Manasa Putra ("mind-born-son") of Brahma. The adjectival form of the name, Bhargava, is used to refer to the descendants and the school of Bhrigu. According to Manusmriti, Bhrigu was a compatriot of and lived during the time of Manu, the Hindu progenitor of humanity. Bhrigu had his Ashram (Hermitage) on the Vadhusar River, a tributary of the Drishadwati River near Dhosi Hill in the Vedic state of Brahmavarta, presently on the border of Haryana and Rajasthan in India. Along with Manu, Bhrigu had made important contributions to Manusmriti, which was constituted out of a sermon to a congregation of saints in the state of Brahmavarta, after the great floods in this area, nearly 10,000 years ago.

As per Skanda Purana, Bhrigu migrated to Bhrigukutch, modern Bharuch on the banks of Narmada river in Gujarat, leaving his son Chyavana at Dhosi Hill.

He was married to Khyati, a daughter of Daksha. They had two sons and one daughter, named Dhata and Vidhata. Their daughter Lakshmi married Vishnu (Narayana). He had one more son with Kavyamata (Usana), who is better known than Bhrigu himself – Shukra, learned sage and guru of the asuras. The sage Chyavana is also said to be his son with Puloma. [Maha:1.5] One of his descendants was sage Jamadagni, who in turn was the father of sage Parashurama, considered an avatar of Vishnu.

College of Engineering Karunagappally

The Government College of Engineering Karunagappally (CEK) is a public institute of engineering and technology in Karunagappally, in the north-west of Kollam district, Kerala, India. Established in 1999 by the Government of Kerala, it is the second engineering college in Kollam district the fourth engineering college under the aegis of the state government's Institute of Human Resources Development in Electronics. The institute is affiliated to the A P J Abdul Kalam Technological University. It is the second engineering College in the Kerala Section to win the prestigious IEEE Region 10(Asia - Pacific) Exemplary Student Branch Award, Which was declared on 31st August 2018 in the IEEE Region 10 Student Young Professional Women in Engineering Life Members Congress at Bali, Indonesia.

The college offers four undergraduate programmes and two postgraduate programmes in the field of engineering and technology. Since 2012 it has been aided by the World Bank under the Government of India's TEQIP Programme

Daksha yajna

In Hindu mythology, Daksha-Yajna(m) (Daksha-Yagna(m)) or Daksha-Yaga is an important event, which is narrated in various Hindu scriptures. It refers to a yajna (sacrifice) organized by Daksha, where his daughter Sati immolated herself. The wrath of god Shiva, Sati's husband, thereafter destroyed the sacrifice. The tale is also called Daksha-Yajna-Nasha ("destruction of Daksha's sacrifice). The story forms the basis of the establishment of the Shakti Peethas, temples of the Hindu Divine Mother. It is also becomes a prelude to the story of Parvati, Sati's reincarnation who later marries Shiva.

The mythology is mainly told in the Vayu Purana. It is also mentioned in the Kasi Kanda of the Skanda Purana, the Kurma Purana, Harivamsa Purana and Padma Purana. Linga Purana, Shiva Purana, and Matsya Purana also detail the incident.

Daksheswara Mahadev Temple

Daksheswara Mahadev (Hindi: दक्षेश्‍वर महादेव मन्दिर) or Daksha Mahadev temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva, located in the town of Kankhal, about 4 km from Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India. It is named after King Daksha Prajapati, the father of Sati. Daksha is one of the fourteen Prajapatis, creator deities, who preside over procreation and are the protector of life in Hindu mythology.

The present temple was built by Queen Dhankaur in 1810 and rebuilt in 1962. It is a place of pilgrimage for Shaivaite devotees on Maha Shivaratri.

Danava (Hinduism)

In Hindu mythology, the Danavas (Balinese Hinduism Dewi Danu) were a race descending from Daksha.

The Danavas were the sons of Danu, who in turn was a daughter of Daksha. Danu is connected with the waters of heavens and she is probably associated with the formless, primordial waters that existed prior to the creation. The name is connected with the PIE root *danu, "river" or "any flowing liquid" and is associated with the Danu (Asura). Under the leadership of Bali and others, the Danavas revolted against the Devatas (Devas). Despite initial successes, the Danava were defeated by the god Vamana who in dwarf form deceived their leader Bali. The Danavas were not universally considered to be evil, individual Danava could be classified as good or bad.

Danu (Asura)

Danu, a Hindu primordial goddess, is mentioned in the Rigveda, mother of the Danavas. The word Danu described the primeval waters which this deity perhaps embodied. In the Rigveda (I.32.9), she is identified as the mother of Vritra, the demonic serpent slain by Indra. In later Hinduism, she becomes the daughter of the god Daksha and the consort of the sage Kashyapa.

Draksharama

Draksharama is a town in East Godavari district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The Bhimeswara Swamy temple in this town is one of the five temples of Shiva known as Pancharama Kshetras. The Manikyamba temple in this town is one of the eighteen temples of Maha Shakti Pithas in India.

Hariharapura

Hariharapura is a village located in the Koppa Taluk, Chikkamagaluru district in the state of Karnataka, India. The place has a Matt(Hindu Temple) of goddess Sharadamba on the banks of the River Tunga. The place is serene amidst forest, Arecanut farms and rice fields and surrounded by small hills. It is believed that Daksha performed "yagna" here.

Kankole

Kankol is a village in Kerala, Kannur district India.

Kankol village is a part of Kankol Alapadamba Grama Panchayath, which had won the Swaraj Trophy (1999–2000) for the best grama panchayath in Kerala state. Post office and village office representing Kankol are situated in the place named Kundayamkovval.

Kratu

Kratu (Sanskrit: क्रतु) (Sanskrit for "strength") was a rishi who appeared in two different ages. In the Swayanbhuva Manvantara, Kratu was a Prajapati and a very dear son of Lord Brahma. He was also the son-in-law of Prajapati Daksha. His wife was named Santhati. It is said that he had 60,000 children. They were named as included in the Valakhilyas. Kratu also had 2 sisters, Punya and Satyavati.

Kṛttikā

The star cluster Kṛttikā (Tamil: கிருத்திகை) (Sanskrit: कृत्तिका, pronounced [kr̩ttikaː], popularly transliterated Krittika), sometimes known as Kārtikā, corresponds to the open star cluster called Pleiades in western astronomy; it is one of the clusters which makes up the constellation Taurus. In Indian astronomy and Jyotiṣa (Hindu astrology) the name literally translates to "the cutters". It is also the name of its goddess-personification, who is a daughter of Daksha and a half-sister to goddess Khyati.

In Hindu astrology, Kṛttikā is the third of the 27 nakṣatras. It is ruled by Sun.

Under the traditional Hindu principle of naming individuals according to their Ascendant/Lagna nakṣatra, the following Sanskrit syllables correspond with this nakṣatra, and would belong at the beginning of the first name of an individual born under it: A (अ), I (ई), U (उ) and E (ए).

Nakshatra

Nakshatra (Sanskrit: नक्षत्र, IAST: Nakṣatra) is the term for lunar mansion in Hindu astrology and Indian Astronomy. A nakshatra is one of 28 (sometimes also 27) sectors along the ecliptic. Their names are related to the most prominent asterisms in the respective sectors.

The starting point for the nakshatras according to Vedas is "Krittika" (it has been argued because the Pleiades may have started the year at the time the Vedas were compiled, presumably at the vernal equinox), but, in more recent compilations, the start of the nakshatras list is the point on the ecliptic directly opposite to the star Spica called Chitrā in Sanskrit, which would be Ashvinī, an asterism that is part of the modern constellation Aries, and these compilations therefore may have been compiled during the centuries when the sun was passing through the area of the constellation Aries at the time of the vernal equinox. This version may have been called Meshādi or the "start of Aries".The first astronomical text that lists them is the Vedanga Jyotisha.In classical Hindu scriptures (Mahabharata, Harivamsa), the creation of the nakshatras is attributed to Daksha. They are personified as daughters of Daksha and as wives of Chandra known as the Moon God (who reluctantly married the 26 other nakshatra's on Daksha's request even though he was only interested to marry Rohini), or alternatively the daughters of Kashyapa, the brother of Daksha.

Rigvedic deities

There are 1000 hymns in the Rigveda, most of them dedicated to specific deities.

Indra, a heroic god, slayer of Vritra and destroyer of the Vala, liberator of the cows and the rivers; Agni the sacrificial fire and messenger of the gods; and Soma, the ritual drink dedicated to Indra, are the most prominent deities.

Invoked in groups are the Vishvedevas (the "all-gods"), the Maruts, violent storm gods in Indra's train and the Ashvins, the twin horsemen.

There are two major groups of gods: the Devas and the Asuras. Unlike in later Vedic texts and in Hinduism, the Asuras are not yet demonized, Mitra and Varuna being their most prominent members.

Aditi is the mother both of Agni and of the Adityas or Asuras, led by Mitra and Varuna, with Aryaman, Bhaga, Ansa and Daksha.

Surya is the personification of the Sun, but Savitr, Vivasvant, the Ashvins and the Rbhus, semi-divine craftsmen, also have aspects of solar deities. Other natural phenomena deified include Vayu, (the wind), Dyaus and Prithivi (Heaven and Earth), Dyaus continuing Dyeus, the chief god of the Proto-Indo-European religion, and Ushas (the dawn), the most prominent goddess of the Rigveda, and Apas (the waters).

Rivers play an important role, deified as goddesses, most prominently the Sapta Sindhu and the Sarasvati River.

Yama is the first ancestor, also worshipped as a deity, and the god of the underworld and death.

Vishnu and Rudra, the prominent deities of later Hinduism (Rudra being an early form of Shiva), are present as marginal gods.

The names of Indra, Mitra, Varuna and the Nasatyas have also attested in a Mitanni treaty, suggesting that some of the religion of the Mitannis was very close to that of the Rigveda.

Sati (Hindu goddess)

Satī (ˈsʌti:) (Sanskrit: सती), is also known as Dākṣāyaṇī (Sanskrit: दाक्षायणी, lit. daughter of Daksha). In the Tamil tradition, Sati is called Tamil: தாட்சாயிணி Tāṭcāyiṇi, and in Telugu tradition she is known as Perantalu. Sati is the goddess of marital felicity and longevity in Hinduism. An aspect of Adi Parashakti, Dakshayani is the first consort of Shiva, the second being Parvati who is the reincarnation of Sati.

In Hindu legend, both Sati and Parvati, successively play the role of bringing Shiva away from ascetic isolation into creative participation with the world.

Veeragase

Veeragase ವೀರಗಾಸೆ is a dance form prevalent in the state of Karnataka, India. It is a vigorous dance based on Hindu mythology and involves very intense energy-sapping dance movements performed by Jangama. Veeragase is one of the dances demonstrated in the Dasara procession held in Mysore. This dance is performed during festivals and mainly in the Hindu months of Shravana and Karthika. It is performed at all important functions of Lingayat household.

Virabhadra

Vīrabhadra (Sanskrit: वीरभद्र, lit. distinguished hero), also known as Veerabathira, Veerabathiran, Veeraputhiran is an extremely fierce and fearsome form of the Hindu god Shiva. He was created by the wrath of Shiva and destroyed the Yagna (fire sacrifice) of Daksha, after Daksha's daughter and Shiva's consort Sati self-immolated in the sacrificial fire. He is described as a warrior who eventually blinded Bhaga, subdued Indra and broke, among many other countless gods, Pushan's teeth. Other gods fled the battlefield unable to sustain his power.

Vishākhā

Vishakha is a nakshatra in Indian astronomy spread in Tula or Libra (The 7th House of Natural Vedic Astrology). In Hindu mythology, Vishaka is a daughter of king Daksha. She was one of the twenty-seven daughters of Daksha who married the moon-God Chandra. Vishaka is the sixteenth nakshatra of the Hindu zodiac, ruled by the planet Jupiter Brihaspati or Guru, It is also the birth star of the Hindu deity Lord Murugan.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.