Daily Mirror

The Daily Mirror is a British national daily tabloid newspaper founded in 1903. It is owned by parent company Reach plc. From 1985 to 1987, and from 1997 to 2002, the title on its masthead was simply The Mirror. It had an average daily print circulation of 716,923 in December 2016, dropping markedly to 587,803 the following year.[2] Its Sunday sister paper is the Sunday Mirror. Unlike other major British tabloids such as The Sun and the Daily Mail, the Mirror has no separate Scottish edition; this function is performed by the Daily Record and Sunday Mail, which incorporate certain stories from the Mirror that are of Scottish significance.

Originally pitched to the middle-class reader, it was converted into a working-class newspaper after 1934, in order to reach a larger audience. The Mirror has had a number of owners. It was founded by Alfred Harmsworth, who sold it to his brother Harold Harmsworth (from 1914 Lord Rothermere) in 1913. In 1963 a restructuring of the media interests of the Harmsworth family led to the Mirror becoming a part of International Publishing Corporation. During the mid 1960s, daily sales exceeded 5 million copies, a feat never repeated by it or any other daily (non-Sunday) British newspaper since.[3] The Mirror was owned by Robert Maxwell between 1984 and 1991. The paper went through a protracted period of crisis after his death before merging with the regional newspaper group Trinity in 1999 to form Trinity Mirror.

During the 1930s the paper was editorially sympathetic to Oswald Mosley and the British Union of Fascists.[4] The paper has consistently supported the Labour Party since the 1945 general election.[5]

Daily Mirror
DailyMirror
Front page on 9 March 2017
TypeDaily newspaper
FormatRed top
Owner(s)Reach plc
EditorAlison Phillips
Founded2 November 1903
Political alignmentLabour
HeadquartersOne Canada Square, London, United Kingdom
Circulation587,803 Daily (as of November 2017)[1]
OCLC number223228477
Websitewww.mirror.co.uk

History

1903–95

Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe - Project Gutenberg eText 15305
Alfred Harmsworth (later Lord Northcliffe), founder of the Daily Mirror

The Daily Mirror was launched on 2 November 1903 by Alfred Harmsworth (later Lord Northcliffe) as a newspaper for women, run by women.[6] Hence the name: he said, "I intend it to be really a mirror of feminine life as well on its grave as on its lighter sides ... to be entertaining without being frivolous, and serious without being dull".[7] It cost one penny (equivalent to 44p in 2018).

It was not an immediate success and in 1904 Harmsworth decided to turn it into a pictorial newspaper with a broader focus. Harmsworth appointed Hamilton Fyfe as editor and all of the paper's female journalists were fired. The masthead was changed to The Daily Illustrated Mirror, which ran from 26 January to 27 April 1904 (issues 72 to 150), when it reverted to The Daily Mirror.[8] The first issue of the relaunched paper did not have advertisements on the front page as previously, but instead news text and engraved pictures (of a traitor and an actress), with the promise of photographs inside.[9] Two days later, the price was dropped to one halfpenny and to the masthead was added: "A paper for men and women".[10] This combination was more successful: by issue 92, the guaranteed circulation was 120,000 copies[11] and by issue 269, it had grown to 200,000:[12] by then the name had reverted and the front page was mainly photographs. Circulation grew to 466,000 making it the second-largest morning newspaper.[13]

Alfred Harmsworth sold the newspaper to his brother Harold Harmsworth (from 1914 Lord Rothermere) in 1913. In 1917, the price was increased to one penny.[14] Circulation continued to grow: in 1919, some issues sold more than a million copies a day, making it the largest daily picture paper.[15] In 1924 the newspaper sponsored the 1924 Women's Olympiad held at Stamford Bridge in London.

Lord Rothermere was a friend of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, and directed the Mirror's editorial stance towards them in the early 1930s.[16][17] On Monday, 22 January, 1934 the Daily Mirror ran the headline "Give the Blackshirts a helping hand" urging readers to join Sir Mosley's British Union of Fascists, and giving the address to which to send membership applications. [18]By the mid-1930s, the Mirror was struggling – it and the Mail were the main casualties of the early 1930s circulation war that saw the Daily Herald and the Daily Express establish circulations of more than two million, and Rothermere decided to sell his shares in it.

In 1935 Rothermere sold the paper to H. G. Bartholomew and Hugh Cudlipp.[19] With Cecil King (Rothermere's nephew) in charge of the paper's finances and Guy Bartholomew as editor, during the late 1930s the Mirror was transformed from a conservative, middle class newspaper into a left-wing paper for the working class.[20] Partly on the advice of the American advertising agency J. Walter Thompson, the Mirror became the first British paper to adopt the appearance of the New York tabloids. The headlines became bigger, the stories shorter and the illustrations more abundant.[21] By 1939, the publication was selling 1.4 million copies a day. In 1937, Hugh McClelland introduced his wild Western comic strip Beelzebub Jones in the Daily Mirror. After taking over as cartoon chief at the Mirror in 1945,[22] he dropped Beelzebub Jones and moved on to a variety of new strips.

During the Second World War the Mirror positioned itself as the paper of the ordinary soldier and civilian, and was critical of the political leadership and the established parties. At one stage, the paper was threatened with closure following the publication of a Philip Zec cartoon (captioned by William Connor), which was misinterpreted by Winston Churchill and Herbert Morrison.[23] In the 1945 general election the paper strongly supported the Labour Party in its eventual landslide victory. In doing so, the paper supported Herbert Morrison, who co-ordinated Labour's campaign, and recruited his former antagonist Philip Zec to reproduce, on the front page, a popular VE Day cartoon on the morning of the election, suggesting that Labour were the only party who could maintain peace in post-war Britain.[24] By the late 1940s, it was selling 4.5 million copies a day, outstripping the Express; for some 30 years afterwards, it dominated the British daily newspaper market, selling more than 5 million copies a day at its peak in the mid-1960s.

The Mirror was an influential model for German tabloid Bild, which was founded in 1952 and became Europe's biggest-selling newspaper.[25]

Daily Mirror 20130413 052
Daily Mirror Building (1957-1960) in Langham Place, London

In 1955, the Mirror and its stablemate the Sunday Pictorial (later to become the Sunday Mirror) began printing a northern edition in Manchester. In 1957 it introduced the Andy Capp cartoon, created by Reg Smythe from Hartlepool, in the northern editions.

The Mirror's mass working class readership had made it the United Kingdom's best-selling daily tabloid newspaper. In 1960, it acquired the Daily Herald (the popular daily of the labour movement) when it bought Odhams, in one of a series of takeovers which created the International Publishing Corporation (IPC). The Mirror management did not want the Herald competing with the Mirror for readers, and in 1964, relaunched it as a mid-market paper, now named The Sun. When it failed to win readers, the Sun was sold to Rupert Murdoch – who immediately relaunched it as a more populist and sensationalist tabloid and a direct competitor to the Mirror.

In an attempt to cater to a different kind of reader, the Mirror launched the "Mirrorscope" pull-out section on 30 January 1968. The Press Gazette commented: "The Daily Mirror launched its revolutionary four-page supplement "Mirrorscope". The ambitious brief for the supplement, which ran on Wednesdays and Fridays, was to deal with international affairs, politics, industry, science, the arts and business".[26] The British Journalism Review said in 2002 that "Mirrorscope" was "a game attempt to provide serious analysis in the rough and tumble of the tabloids".[27] It failed to attract significant numbers of new readers, and the pull-out section was abandoned, its final issue appearing on 27 August 1974.

In 1978, The Sun overtook the Mirror in circulation, and in 1984 the Mirror was sold to Robert Maxwell. After Maxwell's death in 1991, David Montgomery became Mirror Group's CEO, and a period of cost-cutting and production changes ensued. The Mirror went through a protracted period of crisis before merging with the regional newspaper group Trinity to form Trinity Mirror in 1999. Printing of the Daily and Sunday Mirror moved to Trinity Mirror's facilities in Watford and Oldham.

1995–2004

Daily Mirror front page 24 June 1996
Front page of the Mirror 24 June 1996, with headline "ACHTUNG! SURRENDER For you Fritz, ze Euro 96 Championship is over", and accompanying contribution from the editor, "Mirror declares football war on Germany"

Under the editorship of Piers Morgan (from October 1995 to May 2004) the paper saw a number of controversies.[28] Morgan was widely criticised and forced to apologise for the headline "ACHTUNG! SURRENDER For you Fritz, ze Euro 96 Championship is over" a day before England met Germany in a semi-final of the Euro 96 football championships.[29]

In 2000, Morgan was the subject of an investigation after Suzy Jagger wrote a story in The Daily Telegraph revealing that he had bought £20,000 worth of shares in the computer company Viglen soon before the Mirror 's 'City Slickers' column tipped Viglen as a good buy.[30] Morgan was found by the Press Complaints Commission to have breached the Code of Conduct on financial journalism, but kept his job. The 'City Slickers' columnists, Anil Bhoyrul and James Hipwell, were both found to have committed further breaches of the Code, and were sacked before the inquiry. In 2004, further enquiry by the Department of Trade and Industry cleared Morgan from any charges.[31] On 7 December 2005 Bhoyrul and Hipwell were convicted of conspiracy to breach the Financial Services Act. During the trial it emerged that Morgan had bought £67,000 worth of Viglen shares, emptying his bank account and investing under his wife's name too.[32]

In 2002, the Mirror attempted to move mid-market, claiming to eschew the more trivial stories of show-business and gossip. The paper changed its masthead logo from red to black (and occasionally blue), in an attempt to dissociate itself from the term "red top", a term for a sensationalist mass-market tabloid. (On 6 April 2005, the red top came back.) Under then-editor Piers Morgan, the newspaper's editorial stance opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and ran many front pages critical of the war. It also gave financial support to the 15 February 2003 anti-war protest, paying for a large screen and providing thousands of placards. Morgan re-hired John Pilger, who had been sacked during Robert Maxwell's ownership of the Mirror titles. Despite such changes, Morgan was unable to halt the paper's decline in circulation, a decline shared by its direct tabloid rivals The Sun and the Daily Star.

Morgan was fired from the Mirror on 14 May 2004 after authorising the newspaper's publication of photographs allegedly showing Iraqi prisoners being abused by British Army soldiers from the Queen's Lancashire Regiment.[33] Within days the photographs were shown to be fakes. Under the headline "SORRY.. WE WERE HOAXED", the Mirror responded that it had fallen victim to a "calculated and malicious hoax" and apologised for the publication of the photographs.[34]

2004–present

The Mirror's front page on 4 November 2004, after the re-election of George W. Bush as U.S. President, read "How can 59,054,087 people be so DUMB?". It provided a list of states and their alleged average IQ, showing the Bush states all below average intelligence (except for Virginia), and all John Kerry states at or above average intelligence. The source for this table was The Economist,[35] though it was a hoax.[36] Richard Wallace became editor in 2004.

On 30 May 2012, Trinity Mirror announced the merger of the Daily Mirror and Sunday Mirror into a single seven-day-a-week title.[37] Richard Wallace and Tina Weaver, the respective editors of the Daily Mirror and Sunday Mirror, were simultaneously dismissed and Lloyd Embley, editor of The People, appointed as editor of the combined title with immediate effect.[38][39] In 2018, Reach plc acquired the Northern & Shell titles, including the Daily Express, which led to a number of editor moves across the stable. Lloyd Embley was then promoted to editor-in-chief across the entire group, and Alison Phillips (previously deputy editor-in-chief for the Trinity Mirror titles) was appointed editor of the Daily Mirror.

Political allegiance

The Daily Mirror has traditionally backed the Labour Party at general elections.

On 3 May 1979, the day of the general election, the Daily Mirror urged its readers to vote for the governing Labour Party led by James Callaghan.[40] As widely predicted by the opinion polls, Labour lost this election, which was won by the Conservative Party and saw Margaret Thatcher become Prime Minister.[40] The Mirror's continued support of the Labour government was in spite of its falling popularity over the previous few months which had been the result of the Winter of Discontent, where the country was crippled by numerous public sector strikes.[41]

By the time of the 1983 general election, Labour support was at a postwar low, partly due to the strong challenge by the recently formed SDP-Liberal Alliance. Despite this, the Daily Mirror remained loyal to Labour and urged its readers to vote for the party (now led by Michael Foot), condemning the Thatcher-led Tory government for its "waste of our nation",[40] condemning the rise in unemployment that Thatcher's Conservative government had seen in its first term in power largely due to monetarist economic policies to reduce inflation, though the government's previously low popularity had dramatically improved since the success of the Falklands conflict a year earlier.[42] However, the Tories were re-elected and Labour suffered its worst postwar general election result, only narrowly bettering the SDP-Liberal Alliance in terms of votes, though winning considerably more seats.[40]

At the 1987 general election, the Daily Mirror remained loyal to Labour (now led by Neil Kinnock) and urged its readers "You know he's right, chuck her out".[40] By this stage, unemployment was falling and inflation had remained low for several years.[43] However, the Tories were re-elected for a third successive term, although Labour did cut the Tory majority slightly.[40]

For the 1992 general election, the Daily Mirror continued to support Labour, still led by Neil Kinnock. By this stage Margaret Thatcher had stepped down and the Tory government was now led by John Major.[40] The election was won by the Tories, although Labour managed to significantly cut the Tory majority to 21 seats compared to the triple-digit figure of the previous two elections, which led to a difficult term for Major. The outcome of this election had been far less predictable than any of the previous three elections, as opinion polls over the previous three years had shown both parties in the lead, although any Labour lead in the polls had been relatively narrow since the Conservative government's change of leader from Thatcher to Major in November 1990, in spite of the onset of a recession in 1990 which had pushed unemployment up again after several years of decline. Labour's credibility was helped by plans including extra NHS funding and moving away from firm commitments on re-nationalisation to reverse the Conservative policy of privatisation, but its decision to be up-front about tax increases was seen as a key factor in its failure to win.[44]

By the time of the 1997 general election, support for the Labour Party, now led by Tony Blair, in the opinion polls had exceeded that of support for the Tory government (still led by John Major) since late 1992, the government's reduced popularity largely blamed on the failings of Black Wednesday in September of that year and it had failed to recover popularity in spite of a strong economic recovery and fall in unemployment. A reinvented "New Labour" had further improved its credibility under Blair by promising traditional Labour essentials including more funding for healthcare and education, but also promising not to increase income tax and ending its commitment to the nationalisation of leading industries.[45] The Daily Mirror urged its readers that their country needed Tony Blair, and to vote Labour.[40] The election produced a Labour landslide and ended the party's 18-year exile from power.

On 4 May 2010, the newspaper printed a picture of Conservative leader David Cameron with a giant red cross through his face. The headline read "How to stop him" in reference to the general election two days later, thus confirming the Daily Mirror's Labour allegiance. The election ended in Britain's first hung parliament since 1974, but Cameron still became prime minister of the country within days as the Conservatives formed a coalition with the Liberal Democrats. The Daily Mirror was the only leading national newspaper to remain loyal to Labour and Gordon Brown at a time when opinion polls showed the party on course for their worst election result since 1983.[46]

The newspaper was critical of the Liberal Democrats for forming the coalition which enabled the Conservatives to form a new government in 2010, and branded leader Nick Clegg as Pinickio (alluding to the lying fictional character Pinocchio)[47] for going back on numerous pre-election pledges. It has frequently referred to the party as the "Fib Dems"[48] or "Lib Dumbs".[49] The Daily Mirror endorsed Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the run-up for the 2016 U.S. presidential election.[50] In 2016 the newspapers asked for Jeremy Corbyn's resignation "for the good of Labour and of the country".

Despite this critical position, in 2017 election the Daily Mirror endorsed the Labour Party.[51]

Famous features

  • Cartoon strips "Pip, Squeak and Wilfred" (1919–56), "Jane" (1932–59), "Garth" (1943–97, reprints 2011), "Just Jake" (1938–52), "Andy Capp" (1957–), and "The Perishers" (1955–2006 and later reprints).
  • "The Old Codgers", a fictional pair who commented on the letters page from 1935 to 1990.[52]
  • Chalky White, who would wander around various British seaside resorts waiting to be recognised by Mirror readers (an obscured photo of him having been published in that day's paper). Anyone who recognised him would have to repeat some phrase along the lines of "To my delight, it's Chalky White" to win £5. The name continues to be used on the cartoons page, as Andy Capp's best friend.
  • "Shock issues" intended to highlight a particular news story.
  • The columnist Cassandra (1935–67).
  • "Dear Marje", a problem page by agony aunt Marjorie Proops.
  • Investigative reporting by Paul Foot and John Pilger (including the latter's exposé of the atrocities of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia).
  • "The Shopping Basket". Starting in the mid-1970s, the paper monitored the cost of a £5 basket of shopping to see how it increased in price over the years.

Blue issue

On 2 April 1996, the Daily Mirror was printed entirely on blue paper. This was done as a marketing exercise with Pepsi-Cola, who on the same day had decided to relaunch their cans with a blue design instead of the traditional red and white logo.

Libel, contempt of court, errors and criticism

The Daily Mirror - Sorry We Were Hoaxed
Front page of the Daily Mirror after publishing faked photographs.
  • In the 1959 Liberace v Daily Mirror case, Liberace sued the Mirror for libel. William Connor had written a pseudonymous column hinting that the American entertainer was a homosexual; homosexuality was illegal in Britain at the time. The jury found in Liberace's favour and he received £8,000 in damage (estimated at around £500,000 in 2009).[53]
  • In December 1992, Scottish politician George Galloway won libel damages from the Daily Mirror and its Scottish sister the Daily Record, who had falsely accused him of making malicious allegations about their foreign editor Nicholas Davies. Galloway had used parliamentary privilege to call for an independent investigation into allegations about Davies made in the book The Samson Option.[54]
  • In May 2004, the Daily Mirror published what it claimed were photos of British soldiers abusing Iraqi prisoners at an unspecified location in Iraq. The decision to publish the photos, subsequently shown to be hoaxes, led to Morgan's sacking as editor on 14 May 2004. The Daily Mirror then stated that it was the subject of a "calculated and malicious hoax".[55] The newspaper issued a statement apologising for the printing of the pictures. The paper's deputy editor, Des Kelly, took over as acting editor during the crisis. The tabloid's rival, The Sun, offered a £50,000 reward for the arrest and conviction of those accused of faking the Mirror photographs.
  • In June 2004, American model Caprice Bourret won a libel case against the Daily Mirror for an article in April that year which falsely claimed that her acting career had failed.[56]
  • In November 2007, the Daily Mirror paid damages to Sir Andrew Green after having likened him and his group MigrationWatch UK to the Ku Klux Klan and Nazi Party in September of that year. The newspaper admitted that such allegations were "untrue".[57]
  • In February 2008 both the Daily and the Sunday Mirror implied that TV presenter Kate Garraway was having an affair. She sued for libel, receiving an apology and compensation payment in April 2008.[58]
  • On 18 September 2008, David Anderson, a British sports journalist writing for the Mirror, repeated a claim deriving from vandalism on Wikipedia's entry for Cypriot football team AC Omonia, which asserted that their fans were called "The Zany Ones" and liked to wear hats made from discarded shoes. The claim was part of Anderson's match preview ahead of AC Omonia's game with Manchester City, which appeared in the web and print versions of the Mirror, with the nickname also quoted in subsequent editions on 19 September.[59][60] The episode was featured in Private Eye.
  • In November 2009, the Mirror paid "substantial libel damages" to Portuguese footballer Cristiano Ronaldo after it admitted that a story about him becoming highly intoxicated in a Hollywood nightclub was untrue.[61]
  • On 12 May 2011, the High Court of England and Wales granted the Attorney General permission to bring a case for contempt against The Sun and the Daily Mirror for the way they had reported on the arrest of a person of interest in the Murder of Joanna Yeates.[62][63] On 29 July, the Court ruled that both newspapers had been in contempt of court, fining the Daily Mirror £50,000 and The Sun £18,000.[64]
  • In October 2013, a defamation case brought by the Irish airline Ryanair against the Daily Mirror was settled out of court. The Mirror had repeated allegations about the airline's safety from a Channel 4 documentary which were not reflected by its most recent evaluation by the Irish Aviation Authority.[65]
  • On 19 July 2011 the Mirror published an article labelling comedian Frankie Boyle as a racist. He later sued for defamation and libel, winning £54,650 in damages and a further £4,250 for a claim about his departure from Mock the Week. The Mirror had argued he was "forced to quit" but this was found to be libellous by the court.[66][67]
  • On 20 March 2017 the Mirror painted the traditional Russian pancake celebration Maslenitsa as a Hooligan training ground. One of the centuries-old tradition in this Russian festival is “wall-to-wall” (‘stenka na stenku’, Ru) which is sparring between men dressed in traditional folk clothes. This tradition was wrongly represented by the Mirror in the pictures and text, labelled as violent acts and living in fear without giving context or any information about this Russian traditional festival at all. The Mirror article was titled “Russia's Ultra yobs infiltrated amid warnings England fans could be KILLED at World Cup.”, and received negative receptions from Russian media, also being described as fake news.[68][69][70][71] The organisers of the traditional Russian folk festival event are looking to sue the Daily Mirror, it is reported later.[72] Representatives of the Daily Mirror acknowledged that the original material of the publication about Russian Hooligans was incorrectly illustrated with images of the traditional festival. In the updated version of the article the newspaper continues to insist that the photographed people were hooligans in the pictures, but gives no evidence of their participation in the festival.[73]

Significant staff members

Editors

1903 to 1904: Mary Howarth
1904 to 1907: Hamilton Fyfe
1907 to 1915: Alexander Kenealy
1915 to 1916: Ed Flynn
1916 to 1929: Alexander Campbell
1929 to 1931: Cameron Hogg
1931 to 1934: Leigh Brownlee
1934 to 1948: Cecil Thomas
1948 to 1953: Silvester Bolam
1953 to 1961: Jack Nener
1961 to 1971: Lee Howard
1971 to 1974: Tony Miles
1974 to 1975: Michael Christiansen
1975 to 1985: Mike Molloy
1985 to 1990: Richard Stott
1990 to 1991: Roy Greenslade
1991 to 1992: Richard Stott
1992 to 1994: David Banks
1994 to 1996: Colin Myler
1996 to 2004: Piers Morgan
2004 to 2012: Richard Wallace
2012 to date: Lloyd Embley

Source: Tabloid Nation[24]

Notable columnists

Notable former and current columnists of the Daily Mirror include:

Awards

The Daily Mirror won "Newspaper of the Year" in 2002 at the British Press Awards. It won "Scoop of the Year" in 2003 ("3am", 'Sven and Ulrika'), 2004 (Ryan Parry, 'Intruder at the Palace'), 2006 and 2007 (both Stephen Moyes).[74] The Mirror won "Team of the Year" in 2001 ('Railtrack'), 2002 ('War on the World: World against Terrorism'), 2003 ('Soham'), and 2006 ('London bombings'); and "Front Page of the Year" in 2007.[74] The Mirror also won the "Cudlipp Award" in 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2010.[74]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "ABCs: Increased bulks help Telegraph become only UK newspaper to increase circulation in November". Press Gazette. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
  2. ^ "Print ABCs: Seven UK national newspapers losing print sales at more than 10 per cent year on year". Press Gazette. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  3. ^ United Newspapers PLC and Fleet Holdings PLC, Monopolies and Mergers Commission (1985), pp.5–16
  4. ^ "Revealed: the fascist past of the Daily Mirror"
  5. ^ "Newspaper support in UK general elections", The Guardian, 4 May 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  6. ^ "The Mirror | British newspaper". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  7. ^ Daily Mirror No. 1 (2 November 1903) page 3
  8. ^ Albion (1973) Vol 5, 2-page 150
  9. ^ Daily Mirror issue 72, 26 January 1904
  10. ^ Daily Illustrated Mirror issue 74, 28 January 1904
  11. ^ Daily Illustrated Mirror issue 92, 18 February 1904
  12. ^ Daily Mirror issue 269, 13 September 1904
  13. ^ Daily Mirror issue 1335, 8 February 1908
  14. ^ Daily Mirror issue 4163, 26 February 1917
  15. ^ Daily Mirror issue 4856, 19 May 1919
  16. ^ Griffiths, Richard (1980). Fellow Travellers of the Right: British Enthusiasts for Nazi Germany, 1933-9. London: Constable. ISBN 0-09-463460-2"."
  17. ^ Roy Greenslade, Don't damn the Daily Mail for its fascist flirtation 80 years ago, theguardian.com (7 December 2011)
  18. ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/media/revealed-the-fascist-past-of-the-daily-mirror-77871.html
  19. ^ McKibbin, Ross. Classes and Cultures: England 1918-1951. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 406.
  20. ^ Adrian Bingham, and Martin Conboy, "The Daily Mirror and the Creation of a Commercial Popular Language," Journalism Studies (2009) 19#5 pp 639-654.
  21. ^ McKibbin, Ross. Classes and Cultures: England 1918-1951. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 506.
  22. ^ Horn, Maurice (1983). The World encyclopedia of comics. Chelsea House. ISBN 9780877543237.
  23. ^ Connor, Robert (1969). Cassandra: Reflections in a Mirror. London: Cassell. ISBN 978-0-304-93341-9.
  24. ^ a b Horrie, Chris (2003). Tabloid Nation: From the Birth of the Mirror to the Death of the Tabloid Newspaper. André Deutsch. p. 248. ISBN 978-0-233-00012-1.
  25. ^ Sex, Smut and Shock: Bild Zeitung Rules Germany Spiegel Online 25 April 2006
  26. ^ "Back Issues 23.01.03". Press Gazette. 23 March 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
  27. ^ "Attacking the devil". British Journalism Review. 13 (4): 6–14. 2002.
  28. ^ "Piers Morgan | British journalist and television personality". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  29. ^ Thomsen, Ian (26 June 1996). "Oh, Sorry: Tabloids Lose the Soccer War". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
  30. ^ Jagger, Suzy (2 February 2000). "Mirror editor saw his shares soar after paper tipped company". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 22 November 2002.
  31. ^ "Morgan cleared after shares probe". BBC News. 10 June 2004.
  32. ^ Tryhorn, Chris (23 November 2005). "Mirror editor 'bought £67,000 of shares before they were tipped'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
  33. ^ "Daily Mirror statement in full". CNN. 13 May 2004. Archived from the original on 25 November 2004. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
  34. ^ "Fake abuse photos: Editor quits". CNN London. 15 May 2004. Archived from the original on 12 October 2004.
  35. ^ Sutherland, John (11 November 2004). "The Axis of Stupidity". The Guardian. London.
  36. ^ "Fool Me Twice". Snopes. 12 November 2004. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
  37. ^ Sweney, Mark (30 May 2012). "Richard Wallace and Tina Weaver depart as Mirror titles go seven-day". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
  38. ^ Alleyne, Richard (30 May 2012). "Daily Mirror to merge with Sunday Mirror as both editors sacked". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
  39. ^ "Daily Mirror and Sunday Mirror to merge: full statement". The Daily Telegraph. London. 30 May 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h "A century of Daily Mirror front pages". Daily Mirror. London. 20 April 2010.
  41. ^ "Politics 97". BBC News. 3 May 1979.
  42. ^ "1983: Thatcher triumphs again". BBC News. 5 April 2005.
  43. ^ "1987: Thatcher's third victory". BBC News. 5 April 2005.
  44. ^ "1992: Tories win again against odds". BBC News. 5 April 2005.
  45. ^ "1997: Labour landslide ends Tory rule". BBC News. 15 April 2005.
  46. ^ "Which political parties do the newspapers support?". Supanet.
  47. ^ "Clegg Nose Day – Join our campaign to shame 'Pinickio' Nick Clegg". Daily Mirror. London. 13 January 2011.
  48. ^ Routledge, Paul (4 March 2011). "Security bill for Nick Clegg's Lib Dem conference is more than just coppers". Daily Mirror. London.
  49. ^ "PMQs shows up the Lib Dumbs". Daily Mirror. London. 19 May 2010.
  50. ^ "Americans must vote Hillary Clinton for their own sake". Daily Mirror. November 7, 2016. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
  51. ^ "Help Corbyn kick the Tories into touch - Voice of the Mirror". Daily Mirror. London. 22 April 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  52. ^ Bamber Gascoigne (1993) Encyclopedia of Britain (Macmillan)
  53. ^ Greenslade, Roy (26 May 2009). "The meaning of 'fruit': how the Daily Mirror libelled Liberace". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 September 2018.
  54. ^ "Scottish MP wins libel damages". The Herald. 22 December 1992. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  55. ^ "Fake abuse photos: Editor quits". CNN. 15 May 2004. Archived from the original on 12 October 2004.
  56. ^ "Caprice wins libel case over acting claims". The Daily Telegraph. 16 June 2004. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  57. ^ "Sir Andrew Green - an apology". Daily Mirror. 26 November 2007.
  58. ^ "GMTV Kate wins 'affair' libel award". Sunday Express. London. 10 April 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
  59. ^ Gripper, Ann (18 September 2008). "New-look Manchester City side begin their UEFA Cup campaign in earnest". Daily Mirror. London. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
  60. ^ Yates, David (19 August 2008). "Omonia Nicosia 1–2 Manchester City: Goals start to flow for Jo". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
  61. ^ "Cristiano Ronaldo wins libel damages against Daily Mirror". The Daily Telegraph. 9 November 2009. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  62. ^ "Sun and Mirror in contempt case over Jo Yeates stories". BBC News. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  63. ^ "Sun and Mirror accused of Jo Yeates contempt". BBC News. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
  64. ^ Halliday, Josh (29 July 2011). "Sun and Mirror fined for contempt of court in Christopher Jefferies articles". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  65. ^ "Ryanair settles defamation action against Daily Mirror out of court". RTÉ. 25 October 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  66. ^ "BBC News on Frankie Boyle lawsuit". BBC News. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  67. ^ Preece, Rob (22 October 2012). "Comedian Frankie Boyle wins £54,000 libel payout after being branded a racist by the Daily Mirror". Daily Mail. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  68. ^ "Brits scared about pancake battles Gazeta.ru". Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  69. ^ "Fake news del Mirror, il Carnevale russo diventa allenamento per uccidere". Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  70. ^ "UK tabloid distorts traditional Russian pancake festival into 'Ultra' football thug fights". Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  71. ^ "Daily Mirror misleads with wrong pictures for article on football 'Ultras' in Russia". Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  72. ^ "'We're looking to sue Daily Mirror' – Russian pancake festival fight organizers on hooligan claims". Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  73. ^ "Daily Mirror acknowledged incorrectly illustrated text about world Cup fans". Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  74. ^ a b c Press Gazette, Roll of Honour Archived 16 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 24 July 2011

References

External links

15th Parliament of Sri Lanka

The 15th Parliament of Sri Lanka is the current Parliament of Sri Lanka, with the membership determined by the results of the 2015 parliamentary election held on 17 August 2015. The parliament met for the first time on 1 September 2015. According to the Constitution of Sri Lanka the maximum legislative term of the parliament is 5 years from the first meeting.

1955 United Kingdom general election

The 1955 United Kingdom general election was held on 26 May 1955, four years after the previous general election. It resulted in a substantially increased majority of 60 for the Conservative government under new leader and prime minister Sir Anthony Eden against the Labour Party, then in its twentieth year of leadership by Clement Attlee.

This general election has since been described by many as one of the "dullest" post-war elections, because there was little change in the country, with Labour steadily losing ground owing to infighting between the left (Bevanites) and the right (Gaitskellites). This resulted in an unclear election message from the Labour Party. It was the fifth and last general election fought by Labour leader Clement Attlee, who by this time was 72. Eden had only become leader of the Conservative Party a few weeks before the election, after the retirement of Winston Churchill, but he had long been considered the heir apparent to the Conservative leadership. The Conservatives were hoping to take advantage of the end of food rationing and the good mood created by the coronation of Queen Elizabeth in 1953. Eden himself was telegenic, although not a great public speaker, and gradual economic growth benefited the party greatly (BBC News 2005).

The 1955 election remains the last time the Conservative Party won the most seats in Scotland, and was also the last time it won the most Scottish seats of any unionist party until the 2017 election. After 1959, Labour established itself as the dominant party in Scotland at UK general elections, a position it maintained until the rise of the pro-independence Scottish National Party at the 2015 election.

For the first time, television took a prominent role in the campaign; this is the earliest UK general election of which television coverage survives (the 1950 and 1951 election nights were not recorded). Only three hours of the coverage, presented by Richard Dimbleby, was kept; this was rebroadcast on BBC Parliament on the 50th and 60th anniversaries of the date of the election.

On election day, the Daily Mirror had printed the front-page headline "Don't Let The Tories Cheat Our Children", urging its readers to elect Labour on the basis that it had "built a better Britain for us all" (Daily Mirror 2012).

2015 Sri Lankan parliamentary election

The 2015 Sri Lankan parliamentary election was held on 17 August 2015, ten months ahead of schedule, to elect 225 members to Sri Lanka's 15th Parliament.The incumbent United National Party (UNP) led United National Front for Good Governance (UNFGG) won 106 seats, an increase of 46 since the 2010 election, but failed to secure a majority in Parliament. The main opposition United People's Freedom Alliance (UPFA) won 95 seats, a decline of 49. The Tamil National Alliance (TNA), the largest party representing Sri Lankan Tamils, won 16 seats, an increase of two from 2010. The remaining eight seats were won by Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (6), Sri Lanka Muslim Congress (1) and Eelam People's Democratic Party (1). Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe, leader of the UNFGG and UNP, was able to form a national government with the support of UPFA MPs loyal to President Maithripala Sirisena.

2015 Sri Lankan presidential election

Presidential elections were held in Sri Lanka on 8 January 2015, two years ahead of schedule. The incumbent President Mahinda Rajapaksa was the United People's Freedom Alliance's candidate, seeking a third term in office. The United National Party (UNP)-led opposition coalition chose to field Maithripala Sirisena, the former Minister of Health in Rajapaksa's government and general secretary of the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) – the main constituent party of the UPFA – as its common candidate.Sirisena was declared the winner after receiving 51.28% of all votes cast compared to Rajapaksa's 47.58%. The result was generally seen as a shock. When Rajapaksa called the election in November 2014 he had looked certain to win. On 11 January 2015 the new government announced a special investigation into allegations of an attempted coup by Rajapaksa.

Ceylon Daily Mirror

The Ceylon Daily Mirror was an English language daily newspaper in Ceylon published by Times of Ceylon Limited (TOCL). Modelled on the British Daily Mirror, it was founded in 1961 and was published from Colombo. In 1966 it had an average net sales of 17,705. It had an average circulation of 17,217 in 1970, 15,995 in 1973 and 8,500 in 1976. It was renamed Daily Mirror in the mid 1970s. It ceased publication in 1979.TOCL was nationalised by the Sri Lankan government in August 1977. The state-run TOCL faced financial and labour problems and on 31 January 1985 it and its various publications closed down. Ranjith Wijewardena, chairman of Associated Newspapers of Ceylon Limited (ANCL) before it was nationalised in July 1973, bought the trade names and library of the TOCL publications in 1986. Wijewardena's company, Wijeya Newspapers, subsequently started various newspapers using the names of former TOCL publications. The Midweek Mirror, later renamed The Daily Mirror, started publishing in 1995.

Colin Myler

Colin Myler is a US-based British journalist.

Daily FT

The Daily FT or the Daily Financial Times is a daily English-language newspaper published in Colombo, Sri Lanka, by Wijeya Newspapers.

Its sister newspaper The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka) and its Sunday counterpart Sunday Times are among the important newspapers in Sri Lanka.

Daily Sketch

The Daily Sketch was a British national tabloid newspaper, founded in Manchester in 1909 by Sir Edward Hulton.

It was bought in 1920 by Lord Rothermere's Daily Mirror Newspapers, but in 1925 Rothermere sold it to William and Gomer Berry (later Viscount Camrose and Viscount Kemsley).

It was owned by a subsidiary of the Berrys' Allied Newspapers from 1928 (renamed Kemsley Newspapers in 1937 when Camrose withdrew to concentrate his efforts on The Daily Telegraph). In 1946, it was merged with the Daily Graphic. In 1952, Kemsley decided to sell the paper to Associated Newspapers, the owner of the Daily Mail, who promptly revived the Daily Sketch name in 1953. The paper struggled through the 1950s and 1960s, never managing to compete successfully with the Daily Mirror, and in 1971 it was closed and merged with the Daily Mail.The Sketch was Conservative in its politics and populist in its tone during its existence through all its changes of ownership. In some ways, much of the more populist element of today's Daily Mail was inherited from the Sketch: before the merger, the more serious Mail, previously a broadsheet, was also right-wing. The Sketch notably launched a moral panic over Daniel Farson's 1960 television documentary Living for Kicks, a portrait of British teenage life at the time, which led to a war of words between the Sketch and the Daily Mirror. It also participated in the press campaign against the screening of the BBC film The War Game.

David Jensen

David Alan "Kid" Jensen (born 4 July 1950) is a Canadian-born British radio DJ.

Joanna Hartman

Joanna Evans (also Hartman) is a fictional character from the Australian soap opera Neighbours, played by Emma Harrison. Joanna was introduced as the younger half-sister of established character, Annalise Hartman (Kimberley Davies). She made her first on screen appearance on 26 May 1995. Following Davies' departure from Neighbours in 1996, rumours began that Harrison's character would be written out of the show. However, the actress signed a new long-term contract with Neighbours a few months later. In February 1997, producers decided to write Joanna out of the show. A reporter for the Daily Mirror said Harrison was written out due to rows with the producers over her poor acting. Joanna departed on screen on 15 April 1997. In 2005, Harrison was invited to return to Neighbours for the 20th anniversary episode, but she did not appear.

Joanna comes to Erinsborough to meet Annalise and introduce her to their father, Tony (Michael Carman). The sisters display different personalities; Annalise is high maintenance, while Joanna is uncomplicated and down to earth. The author of Neighbours: the first 10 years said Joanna was vacuous and branded her as bright as a glowworm. Writers for the Daily Mirror called her glamorous and said she was as just as stunning as her sister. Joanna and Annalise set up their own public relations company, but their first client turns out to be a con man. Joanna's next job was as an aerobics instructor. She followed this with a stint as co-owner of the Chez Chez bar. Joanna has a brief relationship with her sister's ex-fiancé, Mark Gottlieb (Bruce Samazan), before marrying Rob Evans (Graham Harvey). Joanna splits from Rob for a short time when she realises their marriage is loveless, but she decides to leave Erinsborough to reunite with him.

Kate Thornton

Kate Thornton (born 7 February 1973) is an English journalist and television presenter, best known as the first presenter of The X Factor (2004–2006) and for presenting daytime shows including Loose Women (2009–2011, 2018–) and This Morning (2009–2012). In 2010, she co-presented the first series of 71 Degrees North alongside Gethin Jones.

Early in her career, she wrote for the Daily Mirror, and was editor of Smash Hits magazine.

Keith Waterhouse

Keith Spencer Waterhouse (6 February 1929 – 4 September 2009) was a British novelist and newspaper columnist, and the writer of many television series.

Mid-Ulster Football League

The Daily Mirror Mid-Ulster Football League, or simply referred to as the Mid-Ulster League, is an association football league in Northern Ireland. It contains 12 divisions. These comprise two intermediate sections: the Intermediate A and Intermediate B divisions; four junior sections: Division 1, Division 2, Division 3 and Division 4;Reserve Championship and four reserve sections: Reserve 1, Reserve 2 and Reserve 3 and Reserve 4

New York Daily Mirror

The New York Daily Mirror was an American morning tabloid newspaper first published on June 24, 1924, in New York City by the William Randolph Hearst organization as a contrast to their mainstream broadsheets, the Evening Journal and New York American, later consolidated into the New York Journal American. It was created to compete with the New York Daily News which was then a sensationalist tabloid and the most widely circulated newspaper in the United States. Hearst preferred the broadsheet format and sold the Mirror to an associate in 1928, only to buy it back in 1932.

Early on, several bright young writers and photographic journalists joined the Daily Mirror, such as Ring Lardner, Jr., Hy Peskin and the political commentator Drew Pearson. The poet-songwriter Nick Kenny was the paper's radio editor, and Edward Zeltner contributed a column. The gossip columnist Walter Winchell was hired away from the New York Evening Graphic, given his own radio show and syndicated, in his prime—the 1940s and early 1950s—in more than 2000 daily papers. In 1927, the paper devoted substantial resources to the exploitation of scandal with repeated stories on such events as the divorce trial of real estate tycoon Edward West "Daddy" Browning who at age 51 had married 16-year-old Frances Belle "Peaches" Heenan. Management of the Mirror estimated that its content was 10% news and 90% entertainment.

By the 1930s, the Daily Mirror was one of the Hearst Corporation's largest papers in terms of circulation. However, the paper never became a significantly profitable property as its earnings were mostly destined to support the company's faltering afternoon papers, and in its later years it declined substantially despite numerous efforts to turn things around.

Despite having the second-highest daily circulation of an American newspaper at the time, the Daily Mirror closed on October 16, 1963, after the 114-day 1962–63 New York City newspaper strike. The Daily Mirror name rights were at that point acquired by its rival the Daily News.On January 4, 1971, publisher Robert W. Farrell revived the New York Daily Mirror in name only, as a tabloid, published in Long Island City, Queens. Operating on a shoestring budget, the paper faced obstruction from the Daily News (from whom it had acquired the Daily Mirror name rights after the Daily News let them lapse). This new iteration of the Daily Mirror ceased publication on February 28, 1972.

Piers Morgan

Piers Stefan Pughe-Morgan (; né O'Meara; born 30 March 1965) is an English journalist, writer, television presenter and former talent show judge currently working on the ITV Breakfast programme Good Morning Britain.

Morgan began his career in Fleet Street as a writer and editor for several tabloid papers, including The Sun, News of the World, and the Daily Mirror. In 1994, aged 29, he was appointed editor of the News of the World by Rupert Murdoch, which made him the youngest editor of a British national newspaper in more than half a century. On television, he hosted Piers Morgan Live on CNN from 2011 to 2014, replacing Larry King Live in the timeslot following King's retirement. He was a judge on America's Got Talent and Britain's Got Talent. In 2008, Morgan won the seventh season of the US Celebrity Apprentice. In the UK, he has presented Piers Morgan's Life Stories since 2009, and Good Morning Britain since 2015. Morgan has written eight books, including four volumes of memoirs.

While working at Daily Mirror, he was in charge during the period that the paper was implicated in the phone hacking scandal. In 2011 Morgan denied having ever hacked a phone or "to my knowledge published any story obtained from the hacking of a phone". In 2012 he was criticised in the findings of the Leveson Inquiry by chair Brian Leveson who stated that comments made in Morgan's testimony about phone hacking were "utterly unpersuasive" and "that he was aware that it was taking place in the press as a whole and that he was sufficiently unembarrassed by what was criminal behaviour that he was prepared to joke about it".

Poppy Meadow

Poppy Meadow is a fictional character from the BBC soap opera EastEnders, played by Rachel Bright. She was introduced by executive producer Bryan Kirkwood on 11 January 2011 as the best friend of established character Jodie Gold (Kylie Babbington) in scenes filling in for those cut from a controversial baby-swap storyline. Poppy returned to the series in June 2011 as a supporting character and comedy element, in a move that was generally welcomed by the tabloid press; her storylines focused on her friendship with Jodie and their intertwined love lives. Both Jodie and Poppy left the series on 14 November 2011, but the possibility was left open for Poppy to return in the future. In June 2012 Bright reprised her role as Poppy, moving into Walford and resuming her employment at the local beauty salon, this time as a regular character. Poppy's storylines became more prominent, her sister Tansy (Daisy Wood-Davis) was introduced, along with the development of a romantic relationship with Fatboy (Ricky Norwood). The character was axed in September 2013 by new executive producer Dominic Treadwell-Collins, and Poppy departed on 30 January 2014.Poppy was introduced into the series in what critics described as "bizarre and utterly irrelevant" and "pointless" scenes, which substituted for cut scenes of the dead baby's parents at the graveside. The Guardian critic Stuart Heritage considered Poppy to be "perhaps the greatest television bit-part character of the modern age" and several Daily Mirror writers gave Poppy positive reviews upon both of her returns.

The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka)

The Daily Mirror is a daily English-language newspaper published in Colombo, Sri Lanka, by Wijeya Newspapers. Its Sunday counterpart is the Sunday Times. Its sister newspaper on financial issues is the Daily FT.

The Daily Mirror (Sydney)

The Daily Mirror was an afternoon paper established by Ezra Norton in Sydney, Australia in 1941, gaining a licence from the Minister for Trade and Customs, Eric Harrison, despite wartime paper rationing. In October 1958, Norton and his partners sold his newspapers to the Fairfax Group, which immediately sold it to Rupert Murdoch's News Limited. It was merged with its morning sister paper The Daily Telegraph on 8 October 1990 to form The Daily Telegraph-Mirror, which in 1996 reverted to The Daily Telegraph, in the process removing the last vestige of the old Daily Mirror.

Frank McGuinness, father of journalist P. P. McGuinness, also played a role in launching the newspaper.

Charles Buttrose, father of Ita Buttrose (launch editor of Cleo magazine and subsequently editor of The Australian Women's Weekly), was a journalist on, and then the editor of, The Daily Mirror.

The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka)

The Sunday Times is a weekly Sri Lankan broadsheet initially published by the now defunct Times Group, until 1991, when it was taken over by Wijeya Newspapers. The paper features articles of journalists such as defence columnist Iqbal Athas and Ameen Izzadeen. The daily counterpart of the Sri Lankan Sunday Times is the Daily Mirror.

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