Dai Li

Lieutenant General Dai Li (Tai Li; Chinese: 戴笠; pinyin: Dài Lì; Wade–Giles: Tai4 Li4; May 28, 1897 - March 17, 1946) was a Chinese spymaster. Born Dai Chunfeng (Tai Chun-feng; 戴春風) with the courtesy name of Yunong (Yu-nung; 雨農) in Bao'an, Jiangshan of Qing Dynasty China's Zhejiang province, he studied at the Whampoa Military Academy, where Chiang Kai-shek served as Chief Commandant, and later became head of Chiang's Military Intelligence Service.

Dai Li
Dai Li6
Native name
戴笠
Nickname(s)Himmler of China
BornMay 28, 1897
Jiangshan, Zhejiang, Qing Dynasty
DiedMarch 17, 1946 (aged 48)
Nanjing, Republic of China
AllegianceRepublic of China
Years of service1927–1946
RankLieutenant General
Commands heldInvestigation and Statistics Bureau
Battles/warsSecond Sino-Japanese War
Chinese Civil War
AwardsOrder of Blue Sky and White Sun

Early life

Born Dai Chunfeng, he was just four years old when his father died, leaving his mother to raise him. By age six, Dai was enrolled in a private academy to begin studying Chinese Classics, and later graduated valedictorian from Wenxi County Elementary School. His mother could not afford to send him to university, so at 16 he was forced to leave home and find his own way in the world. With neither secure income nor any guidance, he began living the rough life of the streets of Shanghai. Dai Chunfeng soon became a skilled gambler who could often be found in one of Shanghai's many casinos, trying to win enough money to make ends meet. It was in a Shanghai casino that he met Du Yuesheng, head of the criminal Green Gang. Through Du Yuesheng he later met Chiang Kai-shek. It is unclear when Chiang and Dai first met, but it was likely around 1921. He later lost all of his money and was forced to return home to Bao'an. In 1927, Dai met his elementary school friend Mao Renfeng who suggested that he enroll in the Whampoa Military Academy in Guangzhou, where Chiang was then Superintendent-Commandant. Dai took the suggestion, obtained a letter of recommendation from Du Yuesheng and set off for Guangzhou. Dai enlisted in the 1st Student Regiment of the sixth class of the KMT Officer Training Academy. It was then that he changed his name to Dai Li which in Chinese refers to an assassin's hooded veil, reflecting the clandestine nature of his planned future career.[1] Chiang soon made him a student informant within the academy to spy on Communist activities, where he played an instrumental role in the Zhongshan Warship Incident.

Role in the KMT

As the Chief of the Kuomintang (KMT) Army secret service in China, Dai Li helped to develop China's modern intelligence organization in 1928, "Clandestine Investigation Section" directly under the Northern Expeditionary Army's Headquarters with the aims of an early victory of the war to quell the nationwide unrest and minimize the loss of life by making the most of military and political intelligence. By the end of the Second Sino-Japanese war, this small section would evolve to the very complex and controversial Investigation and Statistics Bureau of Chinese National Military Council, which is the predecessor of the Military Intelligence Bureau under the Chief of General Staff, ROC Ministry of National Defense in Taiwan.

The benign title of The Investigation and Statistics Bureau belied the true nature of its secret police work, making Dai one of the most powerful men in China, and earning him the nickname "the Himmler of China". Dai was also the head of the Blue Shirts Society, a fascist organization that did security and intelligence work for Chiang. In 1930s and 1940s, his agents from Military-Statistics Bureau were very successful at penetrating the Chinese Communist Party and Imperial Japanese puppet organizations.

Dai worked with the United States during World War II and was taught new methods of espionage, and his guerrilla force grew to 70,000 men. In return for this partnership, he made available maps of the South China coast, intelligence on Japanese maneuvers and a safe haven for downed Allied aircrew. After the signing of the SACO Treaty in 1942, Dai was placed as head of Sino-American intelligence activities.

While he avoided public entertainments and remained a mysterious figure to his countrymen, Dai was privately known for his wild drinking parties.

Death

Dai died in a plane crash on March 17, 1946, possibly arranged by his counterpart and rival in the Communist Party of China (CPC), the notorious CPC security and intelligence chief Kang Sheng. There are rumours it was arranged by the American Office of Strategic Services,[2] because it happened aboard an American plane.

Popular culture

  • In the Nickelodeon animated TV series Avatar: The Last Airbender, the Dai Li is the intelligence service and secret police of the Earth Kingdom capital city, Ba Sing Se.

References

  1. ^ "搜狐视频大视野:军统江山帮的覆灭第1集:江山如梦". 搜狐视频. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
  2. ^ Lovell 1964, pp. 48-50.
1920 in China

Events in the year 1920 in China.

Anna rakkaudelle tilaisuus

"Anna rakkaudelle tilaisuus" ("Give love a chance") was the Finnish entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 1978, performed in Finnish by Seija Simola.

The song was performed fourth on the night, following Italy's Ricchi e Poveri with "Questo amore" and preceding Portugal's Gemini with "Dai li dou". At the close of voting, it had received two points, placing 18th in a field of twenty.

The song is sung to a boy growing up. Simola tells him that, while everything in the world seems new and exciting at the moment, it will soon seem not so. Thus, he must learn to "give love a chance" in order to remain positive. Simola also recorded the song in English under that title; "Give Love a Chance".

It was succeeded as Finnish representative at the 1979 Contest by Katri Helena with "Katson sineen taivaan".

Blue Shirts Society

The Blue Shirts Society, also known as the Society of Practice of the Three Principles of the People (Chinese: 三民主義力行社, commonly abbreviated as SPTPP), the Spirit Encouragement Society (勵志社, SES) and the China Reconstruction Society (中華復興社, CRS), was a secret fascist clique in the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party).

Although in its early stage the society's most important members came from the Whampoa Military Academy, and constituted elements of the KMT's Whampoa Clique, by the 1930s its influence extended into the military and political spheres, and had influence upon China's economy and society. The rise and fall of the Blue Shirt Society was rapid, but obscure, and was seldom mentioned again by either the KMT or the Communist Party of China after the establishment of the People's Republic of China and the following KMT domination on Taiwan.

Bureau of Investigation and Statistics

The National Bureau of Investigation and Statistics (Military Commission), (NBIS or BIS) (Chinese: 國民政府軍事委員會調查統計局; pinyin: guómín zhèngfǔ jūnshì wěiyuánhuì diàochá tǒngjìjú), commonly known as Juntong (traditional Chinese: 軍統; simplified Chinese: 军统; pinyin: Jūntǒng), was the military intelligence agency of the Republic of China before 1946. It was devoted to intelligence gathering and covert spying operation for purposes of national security and defense. It was originally headed by Dai Li, and after 1946 he was succeeded by Mao Renfeng. This bureau was largely superseded by the Military Intelligence Bureau under Ministry of National Defense in Taiwan today.

The NBIS had a great influence amongst the Nationalist Government's military, police, administration, and transportation agencies, as well as embassies and consulates abroad during the Political Tutelage period (1928-1946) of Republic of China. It was often criticized by the political dissidents as a "secret police" involving in covert and espionage operation, including surveillance, kidnapping, assassinations, elimination and house-arrest against Chinese communists, Japanese spies as well as political dissidents.

During the Sino-Japanese War, the NBIS was involved in a number of counter-intelligence and covert espionage warfare against the Japanese invaders. There were NBIS agents who defected to Japanese, and many of the secret police in Wang Jingwei's Japanese-occupied areas were former NBIS agents.

From a historical perspective, NBIS played an important role in Second Sino-Japanese War. Under the leadership of Dai Li, the Nationalist Government had a body of 100,000 active spies involving in espionage warfare against Japanese, as well as against the Wang Jingwei-led puppet Nationalist Government of the Japanese-occupied areas.

Central Bureau of Investigation and Statistics

The Central Bureau of Investigation and Statistics (CBIS) Chinese: 中國國民黨中央執行委員會調查統計局; pinyin: zhōngguó guómíndǎng zhōngyāng zhíxíng wěiyuánhuì diàochá tǒngjì jú), commonly known as "Zhongtong" (Chinese: 中統局), was an intelligence unit under the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang. It was one of Chiang Kai-shek's two police and military intelligence agencies, the other being the Military Bureau of Investigation and Statistics headed by Dai Li from 1929 until his death in 1946. This bureau was largely superseded by the Ministry of Justice Investigation Bureau in Taiwan after 1949.

Dai Sheng

Dai Sheng (simplified Chinese: 戴圣; traditional Chinese: 戴聖; pinyin: Dài Shèng), also known as Xiao Dai, (Chinese: 小戴; literally: 'Little Dai'), birth and death unknown, was the Scholar of Rituals to Emperor Xuan of the Former Han Dynasty. He was the son of Dai Ren (戴仁) and the nephew of Dai De. He was a native of Liang (now Shangqiu, Henan) and a founder of the Former Han Dynasty Jinwen Jingxue (今文经学, School of Confucianism).

He helped compile the Book of Rites (Li Ji), whittling the 85 books of Dai De's version down to 46. To this were added three books, giving the 49 that have come down to us today. Dai Sheng's version is known as Xiao Dai Li Ji 小戴礼记.

Dai li dou

Dai li dou, or alternatively Dai-li-dou as it is listed in the official Eurovision website, was the Portuguese entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 1978, performed in Portuguese by Gemini.

The song is a moderately up-tempo number, with the band describing the freedom of a kite flying above them. They sing about their own desires for freedom, which they describe as being reflected in the kite.

The song was performed fifth on the night, following Finland's Seija Simola with "Anna rakkaudelle tilaisuus" and preceding France's Joël Prévost with "Il y aura toujours des violons". At the close of voting, it had received 5 points, placing 17th in a field of 20.

It was succeeded as Portuguese representative at the 1979 contest by Manuela Bravo with "Sobe, sobe, balão sobe".

Gemini (Portuguese band)

Gemini was a Portuguese band from the 1970s. The members were Fatima Padinha, Teresa Miguel, Tozé Brito and Mike Sergeant.

In 1977 they participated in the Portuguese national final in order to represent the country in the Eurovision Song Contest with the song "Portugal no coração". The song won. However, every song was sung by two performers, and the audience preferred Os Amigos over Gemini. Toze Brito and Mike Sergeant had previously been in the grupo Quarteto IIII in the Portuguese National Finals.

They won the national final in 1978 with the song "Dai li dou". However, they only reached the 17th position.

Teresa and Fatima would represent Portugal once more in 1982 in the band Doce.

Il y aura toujours des violons

"Il y aura toujours des violons" ("There Will Always Be Violins") was the French entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 1978, performed in French by Joël Prévost.

The song was performed sixth on the night, following Portugal's Gemini with "Dai li dou" and preceding Spain's José Vélez with "Bailemos un vals". At the close of voting it had received 119 points, coming third in a field of twenty.

The song is a ballad, with Prévost singing that, while many things about life can be changed (one's home, one's appearance, and so on), "there will always be violins to play love songs". Prévost also recorded an English language version of the song, entitled "Somewhere, Sometime".

The song was succeeded as French representative at the 1979 Contest by Anne-Marie David with "Je suis l'enfant soleil".

Lyle H. Miller

Lyle Holcombe Miller (March 10, 1889 – March 11, 1973) was an officer of the United States Marine Corps, who reached the rank of brigadier general. He is most noted for his service as chief of staff of Samoa Defense Force during World War II. He disgraced his good service record by incident with Dai Li, Chiang Kai-shek's Military Intelligence Service Chief, in late 1944.

Manuela Bravo

Maria Manuela de Oliveira Moreira Bravo, (known as Manuela Bravo) was born in Queluz (Sintra) on December 7, 1957. Her father Loubet Bravo is a great singer of fado in Coimbra.

Bravo made her first public apperarence when she was only 5 years old in Cinema Éden (which is now closed). When she was 15 years old, she released her first single with two songs composed by José Cid, "Nova Geração" and "Another Time", where she appeared with the band Quarteto 1111. In 1975, Bravo released a new single, with arrangements and orchestrations by Jorge Palma, being the two songs "Tínhamos Vinte Anos" and "Soldado-Escravo" (the last entitled the single) composed by Tozé Brito.

In 1979 Manuela Bravo won the Festival da Canção with the song "Sobe, sobe, balão sobe", composed by Nóbrega e Sousa, and represented Portugal in the Eurovision Song Contest 1979 and ended the contest in 9th place.

Mao Renfeng

Mao Renfeng (Chinese: 毛人鳳; Wade–Giles: Mao Jen-feng; 5 January 1898 – 11 December 1956) was a Republic of China general and spymaster who headed the Bureau of Investigation and Statistics (also known as the Counterintelligence Bureau and after 1955 the Intelligence Bureau) from 1946 until his death, succeeding his childhood friend Dai Li who died in a plane crash in 1946. Between 1946 and 1949, his spy agency played a prominent role in the Chinese Civil War. In 1949 he along with the rest of the Nationalist government fled to Taiwan where he died 7 years later.

His son Robert Yu-Lang Mao is currently the chairman of Hewlett-Packard China.

Os Amigos

Os Amigos was a Portuguese band from the seventies.

The band members were Fernanda Piçarra, Luísa Basto, Edmundo Silva, Ana Bola, Fernando Tordo and Paulo de Carvalho. Tordo represented Portugal in the Eurovision Song Contest 1973 where he reached the 10th place while de Carvalho represented Portugal one year later and reached the 14th place. Ana Bola would go on to be a backing singer for Carlos Paiao at the 1981 Eurovision Song Contest with the song "Playback"

With the song Portugal no coração they won the Portuguese national final in 1977 and went on to represent the country in the Eurovision Song Contest where they reached the 14th place. In the national final every song was sung by 2 performers, the public chose Os Amigos over Gemini who went on to represent the country in 1978.

Portugal no coração

"Portugal no coração" ("Portugal in my heart") was the Portuguese entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 1977, performed in Portuguese by Os Amigos.

The song is a ballad in praise of Portugal itself. The song is about freedom, brotherhood and hope.

Many of the verses of the lyrics are acclamations of the end of the Estado Novo dictatorship that lasted for 48 years, and the end of the wars that the Portuguese people had been forced to fight on the African colonies by that regime.

It's also a love hymn from Portuguese people to their ex-colonies people, whom they had fought.

The song was performed eighth on the night, following Luxembourg's Anne-Marie B. with "Frère Jacques" and preceding the United Kingdom's Lynsey de Paul & Mike Moran with "Rock Bottom". At the close of voting, it had received 18 points, placing 14th in a field of 18.

It was succeeded as Portuguese representative at the 1978 Contest by Gemini with "Dai li dou".

Sobe, sobe, balão sobe

"Sobe, sobe, balão sobe" ("Rise, rise, balloon rise") was the Portuguese entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 1979, performed in Portuguese by Manuela Bravo.

The song is a moderately up-tempo number, with Bravo describing her life as being carefree. She explains that she is sending a balloon skyward in the hope that she will find a place to live with her lover. The English language recording of the song was entitled "Flying Up with My Balloon".

The song was performed first on the night, preceding Italy's Matia Bazar with "Raggio di luna". At the close of voting, it had received 64 points, placing 9th in a field of 19 - Portugal's best result since 1972.

It was succeeded as Portuguese representative at the 1980 Contest by José Cid with "Um grande, grande amor".

Spymaster

A spymaster is the person that leads a spy ring, or a secret service (such as an intelligence agency).

Wang Puchen

Major General Wang Puchen (Chinese: 王蒲臣; pinyin: Wang Puchen; July 12, 1902 - 2006) was born in Jiangshan of Qing Dynasty China's Zhejiang province. He was the Director of the Bureau of Investigation and Statistics for northern China stationed in Beijing. He reported directly to National Intelligence Director Dai Li.

Yao He

Yao He (Chinese: 姚合) was a Chinese poet of the middle Tang dynasty. He was a great-grandson of chancellor Yao Chong. He was often called Yao Wugong (姚武功), and his poetry style was called "Wugong Style". Yao was very famous at his time. He knew Liu Yuxi, Li Shen, Zhang Ji, Wang Jian, Yang Juyuan, Ma Dai, Li Qunyu well, and was a close friend of Jia Dao. His style was very similar to Jia Dao, but was more tame and superficial.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.