|Dadoxylon fossil trunks from the Bumi Hills area of Zimbabwe|
Dadoxylon were large trees that bore long strap-like leaves and trunks with small, narrow rays.
Dadoxylon is common in many parts of the world, found in sites of both Gondwanaland and Laurasia and reported from southern Africa, central Asia, eastern Europe, South America and North America.
Several Dadoxylon species, such as D. brandlingii and D. saxonicum have been identified as Araucarites.
This article records new taxa of plants that are were described during the year 2014, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to paleobotany that occurred in the year 2014.Abrahamskraal Formation
The Abrahamskraal Formation is a geological formation and is found in numerous localities in the Northern Cape, Western Cape, and the Eastern Cape of South Africa. It is the lowermost formation of the Adelaide Subgroup of the Beaufort Group, a major geological group that forms part of the greater Karoo Supergroup. It represents the first fully terrestrial geological deposits of the Karoo Basin. Outcrops of the Abrahamskraal Formation are found from the small town Middelpos in its westernmost localities, then around Sutherland, the Moordenaarskaroo north of Laingsburg, Williston, Fraserburg, Leeu-Gamka, Loxton, and Victoria West in the Western Cape and Northern Cape. In the Eastern Cape outcrops are known from Rietbron, north of Klipplaat and Grahamstown, and also southwest of East London.Angwa Sandstone
The Angwa Sandstone is a geological formation of the mid-Triassic, consisting mainly of sandstone.Cynognathus Assemblage Zone
The Cynognathus Assemblage Zone is a tetrapod assemblage zone or biozone which correlates to the Burgersdorp Formation of the Beaufort Group, a fossiliferous and geologically important geological Group of the Karoo Supergroup in the Karoo Basin of South Africa. The thickest outcrops of this biozone, reaching approximately 600 metres (2,000 ft), occur between Queenstown and Lady Frere in the Eastern Cape. Outcrops then thin out to between 200 and 100 metres (660 and 330 ft) around Aliwal North, Burgersdorp, Steynsburg, and Rouxville. Thin outcrops are also found in areas in the Free State that border Lesotho. The Cynognathus Assemblage Zone is the eighth and youngest of the eight biozones found in the Beaufort Group, and is considered to be early Middle Triassic (around 247 Ma).
The name of the biozone refers to Cynognathus crateronotus, a large and carnivorous cynodont therapsid. The biozone is characterized by the first appearance of Cynognathus, Diademondon tetragonus, and Trirachodon.Dwyka Group
The Dwyka Group is one of four geological groups that compose the Karoo Supergroup. It is the lowermost geological group and heralds the commencement of sedimentation of the Karoo Supergroup. Based on stratigraphic position, lithostratigraphic correlation and palynological analyses, these lowermost Karoo strata range between the Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) to Early Permian in age.Flora of the Indian epic period
Flora of the Indian epic period can be a tool to study the antiquity of Indian epics as these do not record time scales of the incident mentioned in these. The flora of an area or of time period, refers to all plant life occurring in an area or time period, especially the naturally occurring or indigenous plant life.
The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, also termed Itihāsa (History) or Mahākāvya ("Great Compositions"), refer to forest and plant life at various places. The language of these texts is the "Epic Sanskrit". The importance of forests in Indian epics can be understood from the fact that each epic devotes one book to the forests. In Mahabharata it is the Aranyaka Parva (also Vana Parva, Aranya Parva) (The Book of the Forest) which mentions the period of twelve years spent by Pandavas in exile in the forest (aranya). The divisions of Ramayana into Kandas (Books) also includes one Kanda known as Aranya Kanda – Book of the Forest. In Ramayana Kishkindha Kanda – Book of Kishkindha also discusses the geography and forestry of the region.Hwange National Park
Hwange National Park (formerly Wankie Game Reserve) is the largest natural reserve in Zimbabwe. The park lies in the west, on the main road between Bulawayo and the Victoria Falls and near to Dete.Kaokoxylon
Kaokoxylon is an extinct Gondwanan genus of gymnosperms from the Permian and Triassic. Fossils assigned to the genus or its type species, Kaokoxylon zalesskyi, have been found in South America (Brazil, Argentina), India (Bengal), and Antarctica.
In Brazil fossil regions have been found in the region of the Brazilian paleopark, Paleorrota, in the city of Faxinal do Soturno on Linha São Luiz. This outcrop is located in Caturrita Formation.List of the Paleozoic life of New York (state)
This list of the Paleozoic life of New York contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of New York and are between 541 and 252.17 million years of age.List of the Paleozoic life of Texas
This list of the Paleozoic life of Texas contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Texas and are between 541 and 252.17 million years of age.List of the prehistoric life of New York (state)
This list of the prehistoric life of New York contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of New York.List of the prehistoric life of Texas
This list of the prehistoric life of Texas contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Texas.Pebbly Arkose Formation
The Pebbly Arkose Formation is a Late Triassic geologic formation found in southern Africa.Sommerxylon
Sommerxylon is a genus described from petrified trunks of Gymnosperms that lived in the Triassic, found in the Caturrita Formation on Linha São Luiz in the municipality of Faxinal do Soturno in the region of Paleorrota. It is named in honor of Dr. Margot Guerra Sommer.Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone
The Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone is a tetrapod assemblage zone or biozone which correlates to the middle Abrahamskraal Formation, Adelaide Subgroup of the Beaufort Group, a fossiliferous and geologically important geological Group of the Karoo Supergroup in South Africa. The thickest outcrops, reaching approximately 2,000 metres (6,600 ft), occur from Merweville and Leeu-Gamka in its southernmost exposures, from Sutherland through to Beaufort West where outcrops start to only be found in the south-east, north of Oudshoorn and Willowmore, reaching up to areas south of Graaff-Reinet. Its northernmost exposures occur around the towns Fraserburg and Victoria West. The Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone is the second biozone of the Beaufort Group.The name of the biozone refers to Tapinocephalus atherstonei, a large herbivorous tapinocephalid dinocephalian therapsid. It is characterised by the presence of this dinocephalian species along with the appearance of other advanced tapinocephalid dinocephalians, and the large pareiasaur Bradysaurus baini. It is also the first biozone of the series where the dicynodont, Diictodon feliceps, species first appear.Tietea singularis
Tietea singularis was a Marattialean tree fern from the Late Carboniferous to Permian which grew up to 12 metres (39 ft) in height. It is estimated to represent close to 90% of some fossil assemblages in Brazil.Tietea singularis stems usually are less than 20 centimetres (7.9 in) in diameter, bearing four orthostichies of leaves in a decussate arrangement. The stem is surrounded by a continuous ring of sclerenchyma that separates it from the root mantle. T. singularis stem transverse sections have the same basic structure as Psaronius, but are composed of central vascular bundles having smaller, O- and C-shaped forms, or wavy segments having a short, rounded or fat configuration. Leaf traces are polymeristelic in Tietea, while they are monomeristelic in Psaronius. The Tietea root mantle is composed of polyarch roots embedded in a parenchymatous tissue that is produced both by the stem and the roots.The preserved examples from Pedra do Fogo Formation, in the Maranhão Basin (northeastern Brazil, near Araguaína) exhibit remarkable cell preservation and exquisite coloration. Much of the recovered wood material from this formation is of the tree ferns Psaronius and T. singularis, with fewer examples of the fossilized stems being of Calamites. Conifers such as Dadoxylon are also found.
Tietea singularis is also seen abundantly in the Motuca Formation, Parnaíba Basin in Filadélfia, Tocantins. In 2000, the área of the Motuca formation was transformed into a Natural monument, the Monumento Natural das Árvores Fossilizadas-MONAF (Tocantins Fossil Trees Natural Monument).Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone
The Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone is a tetrapod assemblage zone or biozone which correlates to the lower Teekloof Formation, Adelaide Subgroup of the Beaufort Group, a fossiliferous and geologically important geological Group of the Karoo Supergroup in South Africa. The thickest outcrops, reaching approximately 240 metres (790 ft), occur from east of Sutherland through to Beaufort West and Victoria West, to areas south of Graaff-Reinet. Its northernmost exposures occur west/north-west of Colesberg. The Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone is the fourth biozone of the Beaufort Group.The name of the biozone refers to Tropidostoma microtrema, a herbivorous dicynodont therapsid. This biozone is characterized by the presence of this species in association with another dicynodont species, Endothiodon uniseries.Wessex Formation
The Wessex Formation is a fossil-rich English geological formation that dates from the Berriasian to Barremian stages (about 145–125 million years ago) of the Early Cretaceous. It forms part of the Wealden Group and underlies the younger Vectis Formation and overlies the Durlston Formation. The dominant lithology of this unit is mudstone with some interbedded sandstones.