Dacia

In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia ([ˈdaːkja]; English /ˈdeɪʃiə, -ʃə/) was the land inhabited by the Dacians. The Greeks referred to them as the Getae (east of Dacia) and the Romans called them Daci.

Dacia was bounded in the south approximately by the Danubius river (Danube), in Greek sources the Istros, or at its greatest extent, by the Haemus Mons. Moesia (Dobruja), a region south-east of the Danube, was a core area where the Getae lived and interacted with the Ancient Greeks. In the east it was bounded by the Pontus Euxinus (Black Sea) and the river Danastris (Dniester), in Greek sources the Tyras. But several Dacian settlements are recorded between the rivers Dniester and Hypanis (Southern Bug), and the Tisia (Tisza) to the west.

At times Dacia included areas between the Tisa and the Middle Danube. The Carpathian Mountains are located in the middle of Dacia. It thus corresponds to the present-day countries of Romania and Moldova, as well as smaller parts of Bulgaria, Serbia, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine.

A Dacian Kingdom of variable size existed between 82 BC until the Roman conquest in AD 106. The capital of Dacia, Sarmizegetusa, located in modern Romania, was destroyed by the Romans, but its name was added to that of the new city (Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa) built by the latter to serve as the capital of the Roman province of Dacia.

Dacian Kingdom

168 BC–106 AD
Flag of Dacia
Dacia during the reign of Burebista, 82 BC.
Dacia during the reign of Burebista, 82 BC.
CapitalSarmizegetusa Regia
Common languagesDacian, Greek, Latin
Religion
Zamolxism
GovernmentNon-hereditary[1] monarchy
King 
• beginning of the 2nd century BC
Rubobostes
• first half of the 2nd century BC
Oroles
• 82-44 BC
Burebista
• 44–27 BC
Cotiso
• 27–29 BC/AD
Comosicus[2]
• 29–69 AD
Scorilo
• 69–87 AD
Duras
• 87–106 AD
Decebalus
High Priest 
Aristocracy 
Historical eraClassical antiquity
• Established
168 BC
84–88 AD
101–106 AD
• Disestablished
106 AD
CurrencyKoson, Denarius.
Succeeded by
Roman Dacia
Free Dacians
Today part of Romania
 Moldova
 Bulgaria
 Serbia
 Ukraine
 Hungary
 Slovakia
 Poland

Nomenclature

Classical era

The Dacians are first mentioned in the writings of the Ancient Greeks, in Herodotus (Histories Book IV XCIII: "[Getae] the noblest as well as the most just of all the Thracian tribes") and Thucydides (Peloponnesian Wars, Book II: "[Getae] border on the Scythians and are armed in the same manner, being all mounted archers").[4]

Geography

Central and Eastern Europe at the time of Augustus 6 AD
Dacia cf. Strabo (c. 20 AD) [5]
Harta Dacia Brue Adrien Hubert
The map of Dacia by Brue Adrien Hubert (1826)
Sarmizegetusa Regia 2011 2
View of the sanctuary from Dacians' capital Sarmizegetusa Regia
Ptolemy Cosmographia Dacia+Danube
Dacia map cf. Ptolemy (2nd century AD)
Teritoriul onomastic al elementului dava - Sorin Olteanu
Onomastic range of the Dacian towns with the dava ending, covering Dacia, Moesia, Thrace and Dalmatia

The extent and location of Dacia varied in its three distinct historical periods (see below):

Periods

1st century BC

The Dacia of King Burebista (82–44 BC), stretched from the Black Sea to the source of the river Tisa and from the Balkan Mountains to Bohemia.[6] During that period, the Geto-Dacians conquered a wider territory and Dacia extended from the Middle Danube to the Black Sea littoral (between Apollonia and Olbia) and from present-day Slovakia's mountains to the Balkan mountains.[7] In 53 BC, Julius Caesar stated that the lands of the Dacians started on the eastern edge of the Hercynian Forest (Black Forest).[8] After Burebista's death, his kingdom split in four states, later five.

1st century AD

Strabo, in his Geography written around AD 20, says:[9]

″As for the southern part of Germany beyond the Albis, the portion which is just contiguous to that river is occupied by the Suevi; then immediately adjoining this is the land of the Getae, which, though narrow at first, stretching as it does along the Ister on its southern side and on the opposite side along the mountain-side of the Hercynian Forest (for the land of the Getae also embraces a part of the mountains), afterwards broadens out towards the north as far as the Tyregetae; but I cannot tell the precise boundaries″

On this basis, Lengyel and Radan (1980), Hoddinott (1981) and Mountain (1998) consider that the Geto-Dacians inhabited both sides of the Tisza river prior to the rise of the Celtic Boii, and again after the latter were defeated by the Dacians.[10] The hold of the Dacians between the Danube and Tisza was tenuous.[11] However, the archaeologist Parducz argued a Dacian presence west of the Tisa dating from the time of Burebista.[12] According to Tacitus (AD 56 – AD 117) Dacians bordered Germania in the south-east, while Sarmatians bordered it in the east.[13]

In the 1st century AD, the Iazyges settled West of Dacia, on the plain between the Danube and the Tisa rivers, according to the scholars' interpretation of Pliny's text: "The higher parts between the Danube and the Hercynian Forest (Black Forest) as far as the winter quarters of Pannonia at Carnutum and the plains and level country of the German frontiers there are occupied by the Sarmatian Iazyges, while the Dacians whom they have driven out hold the mountains and forests as far as the river Theiss".[14][15][16][17]

2nd century AD

Written a few decades after the Roman conquest of parts of Dacia in AD 105–106,[18] Ptolemy's Geographia included the boundaries of Dacia. According to the scholars' interpretation of Ptolemy (Hrushevskyi 1997, Bunbury 1879, Mocsy 1974, Barbulescu and Nagler 2005) Dacia was the region between the rivers Tisza, Danube, upper Dniester, and Siret.[19][20][21][22] Mainstream historians accept this interpretation: Avery (1972) Berenger (1994) Fol (1996) Mountain (1998), Waldman Mason (2006).[23][8][24][25][26]

Ptolemy also provided a couple of Dacian toponyms in south Poland in the Upper Vistula (Polish: Wisla) river basin: Susudava and Setidava (with a manuscript variant Getidava).[27][28][29][30] This could have been an "echo" of Burebista's expansion.[28] It seems that this northern expansion of the Dacian language, as far as the Vistula river, lasted until AD 170–180 when the migration of the Vandal Hasdingi pushed out this northern Dacian group.[31][32] This Dacian group, possibly the Costoboci/Lipiţa culture, is associated by Gudmund Schütte with towns having the specific Dacian language ending "dava" i.e. Setidava.[29]

The Roman province Dacia Traiana, established by the victors of the Dacian Wars during AD 101–106, initially comprised only the regions known today as Banat, Oltenia, Transylvania, and was subsequently gradually extended to southern parts of Moldavia, while Dobruja and Budjak belonged the Roman province of Moesia.

In the 2nd century AD, after the Roman conquest, Ptolemy puts the eastern boundary of Dacia Traiana (the Roman province) as far east as the Hierasus (Siret) river, in the middle of modern Romania. Roman rule extended to the south-western area of the Dacian Kingdom (but not to what later became known as Maramureş), to parts of the later Principality of Moldavia east of the Siret and north of the Upper Trajan Wall, and to areas in modern Muntenia and Ukraine, except the Black Sea shore.

After the Marcomannic Wars (AD 166–180), Dacian groups from outside Roman Dacia had been set in motion. So were the 12,000 Dacians 'from the neighbourhood of Roman Dacia sent away from their own country'. Their native country could have been the Upper Tisa region, but other places cannot be excluded.[33]

The later Roman province Dacia Aureliana, was organized inside former Moesia Superior after the retreat of the Roman army from Dacia, during the reign of emperor Aurelian during AD 271–275. It was reorganized as Dacia Ripensis (as a military province) and Dacia Mediterranea (as a civil province).[34]

Cities

Ptolemy gives a list of 43 names of towns in Dacia, out of which arguably 33 were of Dacian origin. Most of the latter included the added suffix ‘dava’ (meaning settlement, village). But, other Dacian names from his list lack the suffix (e.g. Zarmisegethusa regia = Zermizirga) In addition, nine other names of Dacian origin seem to have been Latinised.[35]

The cities of the Dacians were known as -dava, -deva, -δαυα ("-dawa" or "-dava", Anc. Gk.), -δεβα ("-deva", Byz. Gk.) or -δαβα ("-dava", Byz. Gk.), etc. .

  1. In Dacia: Acidava, Argedava, Buridava, Dokidava, Carsidava, Clepidava, Cumidava, Marcodava, Netindava, Patridava, Pelendava, *Perburidava, Petrodaua, Piroboridaua, Rhamidaua, Rusidava, Sacidava, Sangidava, Setidava, Singidava, Tamasidava, Utidava, Zargidava, Ziridava, Sucidava—26 names altogether.
  2. In Lower Moesia (the present Northern Bulgaria) and Scythia minor (Dobrudja): Aedeba, *Buteridava, *Giridava, Dausadava, Kapidaua, Murideba, Sacidava, Scaidava (Skedeba), Sagadava, Sukidaua (Sucidava)—10 names in total.
  3. In Upper Moesia (the districts of Nish, Sofia, and partly Kjustendil): Aiadaba, Bregedaba, Danedebai, Desudaba, Itadeba, Kuimedaba, Zisnudeba—seven names in total.

Gil-doba, a village in Thracia, of unknown location.

Thermi-daua, a town in Dalmatia. Probably a Grecized form of *Germidava.

Pulpu-deva, (Phillipopolis) today Plovdiv in Bulgaria.

Political entities

Rubobostes

Geto-Dacians inhabited both sides of the Tisa river prior to the rise of the Celtic Boii and again after the latter were defeated by the Dacians under the king Burebista.[10] It seems likely that the Dacian state arose as a tribal confederacy, which was united only by charismatic leadership in both military-political and ideological-religious domains.[10] At the beginning of the 2nd century BC, under the rule of Rubobostes, a Dacian king in present-day Transylvania, the Dacians' power in the Carpathian basin increased after they defeated the Celts, who previously held power in the region.

Oroles

A kingdom of Dacia also existed as early as the first half of the 2nd century BC under King Oroles. Conflicts with the Bastarnae and the Romans (112–109 BC, 74 BC), against whom they had assisted the Scordisci and Dardani, greatly weakened the resources of the Dacians.

Burebista

Burebista (Boerebista), a contemporary of Julius Caesar, ruled Geto-Dacian tribes between 82 BC and 44 BC. He thoroughly reorganised the army and attempted to raise the moral standard and obedience of the people by persuading them to cut their vines and give up drinking wine.[36] During his reign, the limits of the Dacian Kingdom were extended to their maximum. The Bastarnae and Boii were conquered, and even the Greek towns of Olbia and Apollonia on the Black Sea (Pontus Euxinus) recognized Burebista's authority. In 53 BC, Caesar stated that the Dacian territory was on the eastern border of the Hercynian Forest.[8]

Burebista suppressed the indigenous minting of coinages by four major tribal groups, adopting imported or copied Roman denarii as a monetary standard[10] During his reign, Burebista transferred Geto-Dacians capital from Argedava to Sarmizegetusa Regia.[37][38] For at least one and a half centuries, Sarmizegetusa was the Dacians' capital and reached its peak under King Decebalus. The Dacians appeared so formidable that Caesar contemplated an expedition against them, which his death in 44 BC prevented. In the same year Burebista was murdered, and the kingdom was divided into four (later five) parts under separate rulers.

Cotiso

One of these entities was Cotiso's state, to whom Augustus betrothed his own five-year-old daughter Julia. He is well known from the line in Horace (Occidit Daci Cotisonis agmen, Odes, III. 8. 18).

The Dacians are often mentioned under Augustus, according to whom they were compelled to recognize Roman supremacy. However they were by no means subdued, and in later times to maintain their independence they seized every opportunity to cross the frozen Danube during the winter and ravaging the Roman cities in the province of Moesia, which was under Roman occupation.

Strabo testified: "although the Getae and Daci once attained to very great power, so that they actually could send forth an expedition of two hundred thousand men, they now find themselves reduced to as few as forty thousand, and they have come close to the point of yielding obedience to the Romans, though as yet they are not absolutely submissive, because of the hopes which they base on the Germans, who are enemies to the Romans."[9]

In fact, this occurred because Burebista's empire split after his death into four and later five smaller states, as Strabo explains, "only recently, when Augustus Caesar sent an expedition against them, the number of parts into which the empire had been divided was five, though at the time of the insurrection it had been four. Such divisions, to be sure, are only temporary and vary with the times".

Decebalus

Decebalus ruled the Dacians between AD 87 and 106. The frontiers of Decebal's Dacia were marked by the Tisa River to the west, by the trans-Carpathians to the north and by the Dniester River to the east.[39] His name translates into "strong as ten men".

Roman conquest

032 Conrad Cichorius, Die Reliefs der Traianssäule, Tafel XXXII
Fiery battle scene between the Roman and Dacian armies, Trajan's Column, Rome

When Trajan turned his attention to Dacia, it had been on the Roman agenda since before the days of Julius Caesar[40][41] when a Roman army had been beaten at the Battle of Histria.[42]

From AD 85 to 89, the Dacians under Decebalus were engaged in two wars with the Romans.

In AD 85, the Dacians had swarmed over the Danube and pillaged Moesia.[43][44] In AD 87, the Roman troops sent by the Emperor Domitian against them under Cornelius Fuscus, were defeated and Cornelius Fuscus was killed by the Dacians by authority of their ruler, Diurpaneus.[45] After this victory, Diurpaneus took the name of Decebalus, but the Romans were victorious in the Battle of Tapae in AD 88 and a truce was drawn up .[46] The next year, AD 88, new Roman troops under Tettius Julianus, gained a significant advantage, but were obligated to make peace following the defeat of Domitian by the Marcomanni, leaving the Dacians effectively independent. Decebalus was given the status of "king client to Rome", receiving military instructors, craftsmen and money from Rome.

To increase the glory of his reign, restore the finances of Rome, and end a treaty perceived as humiliating, Trajan resolved on the conquest of Dacia, the capture of the famous Treasure of Decebalus, and control over the Dacian gold mines of Transylvania. The result of his first campaign (101–102) was the siege of the Dacian capital Sarmizegethusa and the occupation of part of the country. Emperor Trajan recommenced hostilities against Dacia and, following an uncertain number of battles,[47] and with Trajan's troops pressing towards the Dacian capital Sarmizegethusa, Decebalus once more sought terms.[48]

Decebalus rebuilt his power over the following years and attacked Roman garrisons again in AD 105. In response Trajan again marched into Dacia,[49] attacking the Dacian capital in the Siege of Sarmizegethusa, and razing it to the ground;[50] the defeated Dacian king Decebalus committed suicide to avoid capture.[51] With part of Dacia quelled as the Roman province Dacia Traiana.[52] Trajan subsequently invaded the Parthian empire to the east. His conquests brought the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. Rome's borders in the east were governed indirectly in this period, through a system of client states, which led to less direct campaigning than in the west.[53]

The history of the war is given by Cassius Dio, but the best commentary upon it is the famous Column of Trajan in Rome.

Roman provinces of Illyricum, Macedonia, Dacia, Moesia, Pannonia and Thracia
Dacia and environs

Although the Romans conquered and destroyed the ancient Kingdom of Dacia, a large remainder of the land remained outside of Roman Imperial authority. Additionally, the conquest changed the balance of power in the region and was the catalyst for a renewed alliance of Germanic and Celtic tribes and kingdoms against the Roman Empire. However, the material advantages of the Roman Imperial system was attractive to the surviving aristocracy. Afterwards, many of the Dacians became Romanised (see also Origin of Romanians). In AD 183, war broke out in Dacia: few details are available, but it appears two future contenders for the throne of emperor Commodus, Clodius Albinus and Pescennius Niger, both distinguished themselves in the campaign.

According to Lactantius,[54] the Roman emperor Decius (AD 249–251) had to restore Roman Dacia from the Carpo-Dacians of Zosimus "having undertaken an expedition against the Carpi, who had then possessed themselves of Dacia and Moesia".

Rome-JA1
Tarabostes on the Arch of Constantine

Even so, the Germanic and Celtic kingdoms, particularly the Gothic tribes, slowly moved toward the Dacian borders, and within a generation were making assaults on the province. Ultimately, the Goths succeeded in dislodging the Romans and restoring the "independence" of Dacia following Emperor Aurelian's withdrawal, in 275.

In AD 268–269, at Naissus, Claudius II (Gothicus Maximus) obtained a decisive victory over the Goths. Since at that time Romans were still occupying Roman Dacia it is assumed that the Goths didn't cross the Danube from the Roman province. The Goths who survived their defeat didn't even attempt to escape through Dacia, but through Thrace.[55] At the boundaries of Roman Dacia, Carpi (Free Dacians) were still strong enough to sustain five battles in eight years against the Romans from AD 301–308. Roman Dacia was left in AD 275 by the Romans, to the Carpi again, and not to the Goths. There were still Dacians in AD 336, against whom Constantine the Great fought.

The province was abandoned by Roman troops, and, according to the Breviarium historiae Romanae by Eutropius, Roman citizens "from the towns and lands of Dacia" were resettled to the interior of Moesia.[56] Under Diocletian, c. AD 296, in order to defend the Roman border, fortifications were erected by the Romans on both banks of the Danube.[34]

The reconquest of Dacia by Constantine the Great

Limes Orientalis 337 AD png
Dacia during Constantine the Great

In 328 the emperor Constantine the Great inaugurated the Constantine's Bridge (Danube) at Sucidava, (today Celei in Romania)[57] in hopes of reconquering Dacia, a province that had been abandoned under Aurelian. In the late winter of 332, Constantine campaigned with the Sarmatians against the Goths. The weather and lack of food cost the Goths dearly: reportedly, nearly one hundred thousand died before they submitted to Rome. In 334, after Sarmatian commoners had overthrown their leaders, Constantine led a campaign against the tribe. He won a victory in the war and extended his control over the region, as remains of camps and fortifications in the region indicate.[58] Constantine resettled some Sarmatian exiles as farmers in Illyrian and Roman districts, and conscripted the rest into the army. The new frontier in Dacia was along the Brazda lui Novac line supported by Castra of Hinova, Rusidava and Castra of Pietroasele[59] The limes passed to the north of Castra of Tirighina-Bărboși and ended at Sasyk Lagoon near Dniester river[60] Constantine took the title Dacicus maximus in 336.[61] Some Roman territories North of Danube resisted until Justinian.

Roman Empire as the Dacian Empire

According to Lactantius, emperor Galerius (c. 260 – April or May 311) affirmed his Dacian identity and avowed himself the enemy of the Roman name once made emperor, even proposing that the empire should be called, not the Roman, but the Dacian Empire, much to the horror of the patricians and senators. He exhibited anti-Roman attitude as soon as he had attained the highest power, treating the Roman citizens with ruthless cruelty, like the conquerors treated the conquered, all in the name of the same treatment that the victorious Trajan had applied to the part of conquered Dacians, forefathers of Galerius, two centuries before.[62] [63]

Dacia after the Romans

Victohali, Taifals and Thervingians are tribes mentioned for inhabiting Dacia in 350, after the Romans left. Archeological evidence suggests that Gepids were disputing Transylvania with Taifals and Tervingians. Taifals, once independent from Gothia became federati of the Romans, from whom they obtained the right to settle Oltenia.

In 376 the region was conquered by Huns, who kept it until the death of Attila in 453. The Gepid tribe, ruled by Ardaric, used it as their base, until in 566 it was destroyed by Lombards. Lombards abandoned the country and the Avars (second half of the 6th century) dominated the region for 230 years, until their kingdom was destroyed by Charlemagne in 791. At the same time Slavic people arrived.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ (in Romanian) http://www.historia.ro/exclusiv_web/general/articol/intemeiat-burebista-primul-stat-dacic
  2. ^ (in Romanian) http://www.dacia.co.ro/di.html
  3. ^ (in Romanian) http://enciclopediaromaniei.ro/wiki/Statul_geto-dac_%C3%AEn_timpul_lui_Burebista
  4. ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, pp. 145-146.
  5. ^ Müller 1877, tabulae XV.
  6. ^ "History of Romania – Antiquity – The Dacians". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  7. ^ Murray 2001, p. 1120.
  8. ^ a b c Mountain 1998, p. 59.
  9. ^ a b Strabo, Geography
  10. ^ a b c d Taylor 2001, p. 215.
  11. ^ Lengyel & Radan 1980, p. 87: "No matter where the Boii first settled after they left Italia, however, when they arrived at the Danube they had to fight the Dacians who held the entire territory — or at least part of it. Strabo tells us that later animosity between the Dacians and the Boii stemmed from the fact that the Dacians demanded the land from the latter which the Dacians pretended to have possessed earlier."
  12. ^ Ehrich 1970, p. 228.
  13. ^ Gruen 2011, p. 204: Germany as a whole is separated from the Gauls and from the Raetians and Pannonians by the rivers Rhine and Danube, from the Sarmatians and Dacians by mutual fear or mountains; the ocean surrounds the rest of it
  14. ^ Hrushevskyi 1997, p. 93.
  15. ^ Bosworth 1980, p. 60.
  16. ^ Carnap-Bornheim 2003, p. 228.
  17. ^ Scott Shelley 1997, p. 10.
  18. ^ Mattern 2002, p. 61.
  19. ^ Hrushevskyi 1997, p. 97: "Dacia, as described by Ptolemy, occupied the region between the Tisa, Danube, upper Dnister, and Seret, while the Black Sea coast — namely, the Greek colonies of Tyras, Olbia, and others — were included in Lower Moesia."
  20. ^ Bunbury 1979, p. 517.
  21. ^ Mocsy 1974, p. 21.
  22. ^ Barbulescu & Nägler 2005, p. 71.
  23. ^ Berenger 1994, p. 25.
  24. ^ Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 205.
  25. ^ Avery 1972, p. 113.
  26. ^ Fol 1996, p. 223.
  27. ^ Dobiás 1964, p. 70.
  28. ^ a b Berindei & Candea 2001, p. 429.
  29. ^ a b Shutte 1952, p. 270.
  30. ^ Giurescu C & Giurescu D 1974, p. 31.
  31. ^ Gordon Childe 1930, p. 245.
  32. ^ Shutte 1917, p. 109 & 143.
  33. ^ Opreanu 1997, p. 249.
  34. ^ a b Odahl 2003.
  35. ^ Oltean 2007, p. 114.
  36. ^ Strabo, Geography, VII:3.11
  37. ^ MacKendrick 1975, p. 48.
  38. ^ Goodman & Sherwood 2002, p. 227.
  39. ^ Vico, Pinton & 2001 325.
  40. ^ Goldsworthy 2004, p. 322.
  41. ^ Matyszak 2004, p. 213.
  42. ^ Matyszak 2004, p. 215.
  43. ^ Matyszak 2004, p. 216.
  44. ^ Luttwak 1976, p. 53.
  45. ^ Matyszak 2004, p. 217.
  46. ^ "De Imperatoribus Romanis" (Assorted Imperial Battle Descriptions). An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. Retrieved 2007-11-08. Battle of Sarmizegetusa (Sarmizegetuza), AD 105. During Trajan's reign Rome achieved victory over the Dacians. The first important confrontation between the Romans and the Dacians took place in the year AD 87 and was initiated by Domitian. The praetorian prefect Cornelius led five or six legions across the Danube on a bridge of ships and advanced towards Banat (in Romania). The Romans were surprised by a Dacian attack at Tapae (near the village of Bucova, in Romania). Legion V Alaude was crushed and Cornelius Fuscus was killed. The victorious general was originally known as Diurpaneus (see Manea, p.109), but after this victory he was called Decebalus (the brave one).
  47. ^ Matyszak 2004, p. 219.
  48. ^ Goldsworthy 2004, p. 329.
  49. ^ Matyszak 2004, p. 222.
  50. ^ Matyszak 2004, p. 223.
  51. ^ Luttwak 1976, p. 54.
  52. ^ Stoica 1919, p. 52.
  53. ^ Luttwak 1976, p. 39.
  54. ^ "Of the Manner in which the persecutors died" by Lactantius (early Christian author AD 240–320)
  55. ^ Battle of Naissus and Cladius Gothicus. Beside Zosimuss account there is also Historia Augusta, The Life of Claudius.
  56. ^ EUTROPIUS. "Eutropius, Abridgment of Roman History (Historiae Romanae Breviarium)". www.ccel.org.
  57. ^ Madgearu, Alexandru (2008). Istoria Militară a Daciei Post Romane 275-376. Cetatea de Scaun. ISBN 978-973-8966-70-3, p.64 -126
  58. ^ Barnes, Timothy D. (1981). Constantine and Eusebius. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-16531-1. p 250.
  59. ^ Madgearu, Alexandru(2008). Istoria Militară a Daciei Post Romane 275-376. Cetatea de Scaun. ISBN 978-973-8966-70-3, p.64-126
  60. ^ Costin Croitoru, (Romanian) Sudul Moldovei in cadrul sistemului defensiv roman. Contributii la cunosterea valurilor de pamant. Acta terrae septencastrensis, Editura Economica, Sibiu 2002, ISSN 1583-1817, p.111.
  61. ^ Odahl, Charles Matson. Constantine and the Christian Empire. New York: Routledge, 2004. Hardcover ISBN 0-415-17485-6 Paperback ISBN 0-415-38655-1, p.261.
  62. ^ Lactantius 1871, p. 190: "And thus did he, once a Roman emperor, but now the ravager of Italy, retire into his own territories, after having afflicted all men indiscriminately with the calamities of war. Long ago, indeed, and at the very time of his obtaining sovereign power, he had avowed himself the enemy of the Roman name; and he proposed that the empire should be called, not the Roman, but the Dacian empire."
  63. ^ Lactantius, De Mortibus Persecutorum, CHAP. XXIII: But that which gave rise to public and universal calamity, was the tax imposed at once on each province and city. Surveyors having been spread abroad, and occupied in a general and severe scrutiny, horrible scenes were exhibited, like the outrages of victorious enemies, and the wretched state of captives. Each spot of ground was measured, vines and fruit-trees numbered, lists taken of animals of every kind, and a capi- tation-roll made up. In cities, the common people, whether residing within or without the walls, were assembled, the market-places filled with crowds of families, all attended with their children and slaves, the noise of torture and scourges resounded, sons were hung on the rack to force discovery of the effects of their fathers, the most trusty slaves compelled by pain to bear witness against their masters, and wives to bear witness against their husbands, In default of all other evidence, men were tortured to speak against themselves; and no sooner did agony oblige them to acknowledge what they had not, but those imaginary effects were noted down in the lists. Neither youth, nor old age, nor sickness, afforded any exemption. The diseased and the infirm were carried in; the age of each was estimated; and, that the capitation -tax might be enlarged, years were added to the young and struck off from the old. General lamentation and sorrow prevailed. Whatever, by the laws of war, conquerors had done to the conquered, the like did this man presume to perpetrate against Romans and the subjects of Rome, because his forefathers had been made liable to a like tax imposed by the victorious Trajan, as a penalty on the Dacians for their frequent rebellions. After this, money was levied for each head, as if a price had been paid for liberty to exist; yet full trust was not reposed on the same set of surveyors, but others and others still were sent round to make further discoveries; and thus the tributes were redoubled, not because the new surveyors made any fresh discoveries, but because they added at pleasure to the former rates, lest they should seem to have been employed to no purpose. Meanwhile the number of animals decreased, and men died; nevertheless taxes were paid even for the dead, so that no one could either live or cease to live without being subject to impositions. There remained mendicants alone, from whom nothing could be exacted, and whom their misery and wretchedness secured from ill- treatment. But this pious man had compassion on them, and determining that they should remain no longer in indigence, he caused them all to be assembled, put on board vessels, and sunk in the sea. So merciful was he in making provision that under his administration no man should want! And thus, while he took effectual measures that none, under the reigned pretext of poverty, should elude the tax, he put to death a multitude of real wretches, in violation of every law of humanity. [...] So the parts of Italy through which that pestilent band took its course were wasted, all things pillaged, matrons forced, virgins violated, parents and husbands compelled by torture to disclose where they had concealed their goods, and their wives and daughters; flocks and herds of cattle were driven off like spoils taken from barbarians. And thus did he, once a Roman emperor, but now the ravager of Italy, retire into his own territories, after having afflicted all men indiscriminately with the calamities of war. Long ago, indeed, and at the very time of his obtaining sovereign power, he had avowed himself the enemy of the Roman name; and he proposed that the empire should be called, not the Roman, but the Dacian empire.

References

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External links

Preceded by
Prehistory of the Balkans
History of Romania Succeeded by
Roman Dacia
ACS Dacia Unirea Brăila

Asociația Club Sportiv Dacia Unirea Brăila, commonly known as Dacia Unirea Brăila, is a Romanian professional football club from Brăila, founded in 1919. The club currently plays in the Liga II, currently their 50th season at this level. Their home is the 18,256-seat Stadionul Municipal stadium, where they have played since 1974.Among the club's best performances are one Romanian Cup final in the 1992–93 season and a 6th-place finish in the top division of the Romanian football league system in the 1991–92 season.

Automobile Dacia

Automobile Dacia S.A.

(Romanian pronunciation: [ˈdat͡ʃi.a] (listen)) is a Romanian car manufacturer that takes its name from the historic region that constitutes the present-day Romania. The company was founded in 1966, and has been a subsidiary of the French car manufacturer Renault since 1999. It is Romania's top company by revenue and the largest exporter, constituting 7.3% of the country's total exports in 2014.

CS Mioveni

Clubul Sportiv Mioveni (Romanian pronunciation: [ˌklubul sporˈtiv mi.oˈvenʲ]; Mioveni Sports Club), commonly known as CS Mioveni, or simply as Mioveni, is a Romanian professional football club based in Mioveni, Argeș County, currently playing in the Liga II.

They were founded in 2000 as AS Mioveni 2000 and play their home matches at the Stadionul Orășenesc, which has a capacity of 10,000.

Dacia Aureliana

Dacia Aureliana was a province in the eastern half of the Roman Empire established by Roman Emperor Aurelian in the territory of former Moesia Superior after his evacuation of Dacia Traiana beyond the Danube in 271. Between 271/275 and 285, it occupied most of what is today northwestern Bulgaria and eastern Serbia. Its capital was in Serdica (modern Sofia).

This province was populated with the former inhabitants of Dacia Traiana. It is written in Eutropius' work: Abrigdment of Roman History (9:15):

"He surrounded the city of Rome with stronger walls. He built a temple to the Sun, in which he put a vast quantity of gold and precious stones. The province of Dacia, which Trajan had formed beyond the Danube, he gave up, despairing, after all Illyricum and Moesia had been depopulated, of being able to retain it. The Roman citizens, removed from the towns and lands of Dacia, he settled in the interior of Moesia, calling that Dacia which now divides the two Moesiae, and which is on the right hand of the Danube as it runs to the sea, whereas Dacia was previously on the left."

("Urbem Romam muris firmioribus cinxit. Templum Soli aedificavit, in quo infinitum auri gemmarumque constituit. Provinciam Daciam, quam Traianus ultra Danubium fecerat, intermisit, vastato omni Illyrico et Moesia, desperans eam posse retinere, abductosque Romanos ex urbibus et agris Daciae in media Moesia collocavit appellavitque eam Daciam, quae nunc duas Moesias dividit et est in dextra Danubio in mare fluenti, cum antea fuerit in laeva.")

The Emperor Diocletian's tetrarchy reorganization of the empire divided Dacia Aureliana in two provinces, both part of the civil diocese of Moesia(e), under the eastern Caesar (junior emperor), whose 'quarter' became the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum. :

Dacia Mediterranea, with its capital at Serdica

Dacia Ripensis, with its capital at Ratiaria

In the fourth century reform (also splitting Italy in two while separating Egypt from Oriens and Macedonia from Moeasiae as new dioceses), these two “Dacias” along with Dardania, Moesia Prima, and Prevalitana constituted the Civil diocese of Dacia.

Dacia Duster

The Dacia Duster is a compact sport utility vehicle (SUV) produced jointly by the French manufacturer Renault and its Romanian subsidiary Dacia since 2010. It is currently at its second generation, that was launched in the autumn of 2017, and it has also been marketed as the Renault Duster in certain markets, such as India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, Mexico, Egypt, South Africa, Ukraine, the UAE and in South America. Its first generation was also rebadged as the Nissan Terrano in Russia and India. It is the third model of the Dacia brand based on the Logan platform, after the Sandero.

A four-door double cab pick-up was launched at the end of 2015 in South America, marketed as the Renault Duster Oroch.

Dacia Logan

The Dacia Logan is a small family car produced jointly by the French manufacturer Renault and its Romanian subsidiary Dacia since 2004. It is currently in its second generation and it has been produced as a sedan, station wagon, notchback or pick-up. It has been manufactured at Dacia's automobile plant in Mioveni, Romania, and at Renault's (or its partners') plants in Morocco, Brazil, Argentina, Turkey, Russia, Colombia, Iran and India. The pick-up was also produced at Nissan's plant in Rosslyn, South Africa.

It has also been marketed as the Renault Logan, Nissan Aprio, Mahindra Verito, Renault Tondar 90, Lada Largus (the MCV), Nissan NP200 (the pick-up) or Renault Symbol (as the third generation model), depending on the existing presence or positioning of the Renault brand.

Since its launch, the Dacia Logan is estimated to have reached over 4 million sales worldwide.

Dacia Mediterranea

Dacia Mediterranea (Mediterranean Dacia; Greek: Επαρχία Δακίας Μεσογείου, Eparchia Dakias Mesogeiou) was a late Roman province, split off from the former Dacia Aureliana by Roman emperor Diocletian (284-305). Serdica (or Sardica; later Sradetz or Sredets, now Sofia) was the province capital.

Scholars have different opinions regarding the date and circumstances of the foundation of Dacia Mediterranea as a separate province.

Dacia Ripensis

Dacia Ripensis (Greek: Δακία Παραποτάμια, Dakia Parapotamia, English translation: "Dacia from the banks of the river [Danube]") was the name of a Roman province (part of Dacia Aureliana) first established by Aurelian c. AD 283, south of the Danube, after he withdrew from Dacia Traiana.

Dacia Sandero

The Dacia Sandero is a subcompact car produced jointly by the French manufacturer Renault and its Romanian subsidiary Dacia since 2007, currently at its second generation. It is also marketed as the Renault Sandero in certain markets, such as Russia, Egypt, South Africa, Mexico, and South America. It was introduced in September 2007, and is based on the Logan platform.

It is also produced in Iran by Pars Khodro and marketed as Renault Sandero.

Dacians

The Dacians (; Latin: Daci; Greek: Δάκοι, Δάοι, Δάκαι) were a Thracian people who were the ancient inhabitants of the cultural region of Dacia, located in the area near the Carpathian Mountains and west of the Black Sea. This area includes the present-day countries of Romania and Moldova, as well as parts of Ukraine, Eastern Serbia, Northern Bulgaria, Slovakia, Hungary and Southern Poland. The Dacians spoke the Dacian language, a sub-group of Thracian, but were somewhat culturally influenced by the neighbouring Scythians and by the Celtic invaders of the 4th century BC.

Diocese of Dacia

The Diocese of Dacia (Latin: Dioecesis Daciae) was a diocese of the later Roman Empire, in the area of modern western Bulgaria, central Serbia, Montenegro, northern Albania and northern Republic of Macedonia. It was subordinate to the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum. Its capital was at Serdica (modern Sofia).

FC Dacia Chișinău

Fotbal Club Dacia Chișinău, commonly known as Dacia Chișinău or simply Dacia, was a Moldovan football club based in Chișinău, which last played in the village of Speia, Anenii Noi. They participated in the Divizia Națională, the top division in Moldovan football.

The club's name came from Dacia, an ancient civilization which covered parts of modern Moldova. Established in 1999, it entered the Moldovan "A" Division in 2000 and was promoted to the first division two years later. They won their first league title in the 2010–11 season, thereby qualifying for the preliminaries of the UEFA Champions League. The team has also taken part in the Europa League on five occasions, but never reached the group stage. The club was disbanded after the 2017 Moldovan National Division season.

Limes Alutanus

Limes Alutanus was a fortified line consisting of a vallum, built in the North-South direction, on the eastern side of the Olt river and seven Roman castra, as is remembered by Tabula Peutingeriana. Limes Alutanus was the eastern border of the Roman province of Dacia.The fortification was ordered by the Roman emperor Hadrian, in order to stop invasions and raids from the east.The following seven castra positions were assumed by Romanian archeologist Vasile Pârvan, and later confirmed by archeological research. They are:

Pons Vetus (Câineni, Vâlcea)

Praetorium (Racovița, Vâlcea)

Arutela ("Poiana Bivolari" point, near Călimăneşti town)

Castra Traiana (Sânbotin, Vâlcea)

Buridava (Stolniceni, Vâlcea)

Pons Aluti (Ioneştii Govorei)

Rusidava (Drăgăşani)Historian Adrian Bejan also adds these castra in his work, Dacia Felix:

Acidava (Enoşeşti)

Romula (Reşca)

Râul Vadului

CopăceniOn the Olt river at least other three castra exists:

(Cincșor) (Cincșor, Sibiu)

(Feldioara) (Feldioara, Sibiu)

Caput Stenarum (Boiţa, Sibiu)

List of ancient tribes in Thrace and Dacia

This is a list of ancient tribes in Thrace and Dacia (Ancient Greek: Θρᾴκη, Δακία) including possibly or partly Thracian or Dacian tribes, and non-Thracian or non-Dacian tribes that inhabited the lands known as Thrace and Dacia. A great number of Ancient Greek tribes lived in these regions as well, albeit in the Greek colonies.

List of castra by province

Castra (Latin, singular castrum) were military forts of various sizes used by the Roman army throughout the Empire in various places of Europe, Asia and Africa.

The largest castra were permanent legionary fortresses.

List of rulers of Thrace and Dacia

This article lists rulers of Thrace and Dacia, and includes Thracian, Paeonian, Celtic, Dacian, Scythian, Persian or Ancient Greek up to the point of its

fall to the Roman empire, with a few figures from Greek mythology.

Roman Dacia

Roman Dacia (also Dacia Traiana "Trajan Dacia" or Dacia Felix "Fertile/Happy Dacia") was a province of the Roman Empire from 106 to 274–275 AD. Its territory consisted of eastern and south-eastern Transylvania, the Banat and Oltenia (regions of modern Romania). It was from the very beginning organized as an imperial province, fitting a border area, and remained so throughout the Roman occupation. Historians' estimates of the population of Roman Dacia range from 650,000 to 1,200,000.The conquest of Dacia was completed by Emperor Trajan (98–117) after two major campaigns against Decebalus' Dacian Kingdom. The Romans did not occupy the entirety of the old Dacian kingdom, as the greater part of Moldavia, together with Maramureș and Crișana, was ruled by Free Dacians even after the Roman conquest. In 119, the Roman province was divided into two departments: Dacia Superior (Upper Dacia) and Dacia Inferior (Lower Dacia; later named Dacia Malvensis). In 124 (or around 158), Dacia Superior was divided into two provinces: Dacia Apulensis and Dacia Porolissensis. During the Marcomannic Wars the military and judicial administration was unified under the command of one governor, with another two senators (the legati legionis) as his subordinates; the province was called tres Daciae (Three Dacias) or simply Dacia.

The Roman authorities undertook a massive and organized colonization of Dacia. New mines were opened and ore extraction intensified, while agriculture, stock breeding, and commerce flourished in the province. Dacia began to supply grain not only to the military personnel stationed in the province but also to the rest of the Balkan area. It became an urban province, with about ten cities known, eight of which held the highest rank of colonia, though the number of cities was fewer than in the region's other provinces. All the cities developed from old military camps. Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, the seat of the imperial procurator (finance officer) for all the three subdivisions, was the financial, religious, and legislative center of the province. Apulum, where the military governor of the three subdivisions had his headquarters, was not simply the greatest city within the province, but one of the biggest across the whole Danubian frontier.

There were military and political threats from the beginning of Roman Dacia's existence. Free Dacians who bordered the province were the first adversary, who, after allying themselves with the Sarmatians, hammered the province during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Following a calmer period covering the reigns of Commodus through to Caracalla (180–217 AD), the province was once again beset by invaders, this time the Carpi, a Dacian tribe in league with the newly arrived Goths, who in time became a serious difficulty for the empire. Finding it increasingly difficult to retain Dacia, the emperors were forced to abandon the province by the 270s, making it the first of Rome's long-term possessions to be abandoned. Dacia was devastated by the Germanic tribes (Goths, Taifali, Bastarns) together with the Carpi in 248–250, by the Carpi and Goths in 258 and 263, and by the Goths and Heruli in 267 and 269. Ancient sources implied that Dacia was virtually lost during the reign of Gallienus (253–268), but they also report that it was Aurelian (270–275) who relinquished Dacia Traiana. He evacuated his troops and civilian administration from Dacia, and founded Dacia Aureliana with its capital at Serdica in Lower Moesia.

The fate of the Romanized population of the former province of Dacia Traiana has become subject of spirited controversy. One theory holds that the Latin language spoken in ancient Dacia, where Romania was to be formed in the future, gradually turned into Romanian; in parallel, a new people—the Romanians—were formed from the Daco-Romans (the Romanized population of Dacia Traiana). The opposing theory argues that the Romanians descended from the Romanized population of the Roman provinces of the Balkan Peninsula.

Stadio Friuli

The Stadio Friuli (known for sponsorship reasons as Dacia Arena) is an all-seater football stadium in the Udine, Italy, and the home of Serie A club Udinese. The stadium was built in 1976 and has a capacity of 25,144. It is sponsored by car manufacturer Dacia.

Trajan's Dacian Wars

The Dacian Wars (101–102, 105–106) were two military campaigns fought between the Roman Empire and Dacia during Emperor Trajan's rule. The conflicts were triggered by the constant Dacian threat on the Danubian province of Moesia and also by the increasing need for resources of the economy of the Empire.

Trajan turned his attention to Dacia, an area north of Macedon and Greece and east of the Danube that had been on the Roman agenda since before the days of Caesar when the Dacians defeated a Roman army at the Battle of Histria. In AD 85, the Dacians swarmed over the Danube and pillaged Moesia and initially defeated the army that Emperor Domitian sent against them. The Romans were defeated in the Battle of Tapae in 88 and a truce was established.Emperor Trajan recommenced hostilities against Dacia and, following an uncertain number of battles, defeated the Dacian king Decebalus in the Second Battle of Tapae in 101. With Trajan's troops pressing towards the Dacian capital Sarmizegetusa Regia, Decebalus once more sought terms. Decebalus rebuilt his power over the following years and attacked Roman garrisons again in 105. In response Trajan again marched into Dacia, besieging the Dacian capital in the Siege of Sarmizegetusa, and razing it. With Dacia quelled, Trajan subsequently invaded the Parthian empire to the east, his conquests expanding the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. Rome's borders in the east were indirectly governed through a system of client states for some time, leading to less direct campaigning than in the west in this period.

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