D with stroke

Đ (lowercase: đ, Latin alphabet), known as crossed D or dyet, is a letter formed from the base character D/d overlaid with a crossbar. Crossing was used to create eth (ð), but eth has an uncial as its base whereas đ is based on the straight-backed roman d. Crossed d is a letter in the alphabets of several languages and is used in linguistics as a phonetic symbol.

Latin alphabet Đđ


Barred d, with crossbar through the bowl.

In the lowercase, the crossbar is usually drawn through the ascender, but when used as a phonetic symbol it may be preferred to draw it through the bowl, in which case it is known as a barred d.[1] In some African languages' orthographies, such as that of Moro, the barred d is preferred.[2]

In the uppercase, the crossbar normally crosses just the left stem, but in Vietnamese and Moro it may sometimes cross the entire letter.[3]

Spanish de ligature
Ligature DE.

The DE ligature should not be confused with the Đ. That ligature was used stylistically in pre-19th century Spanish as a contraction for de, as a D with an E superimposed. For example, Universidad DE Guadalajara.

Uses by language

A 9th century Latin manuscript. The abbreviation ſcđo (secundo, "second") occurs on the third line.

African languages

A lowercase đ appeared alongside a lowercase retroflex D in a 1982 revision of the African reference alphabet. This revision of the alphabet eliminated uppercase forms, so there was no conflict between ɖ and đ.


Đ was used in Medieval Latin to mark abbreviations of words containing the letter d. For example, hđum could stand for heredum "of the heirs". Similar crossbars were added to other letters to form abbreviations.[4]

South Slavic languages

The crossed d was introduced by Serbian philologist Đuro Daničić in 1878 for use in Serbo-Croatian in his Dictionary of the Croatian or Serbian Language, replacing the older digraphs dj and gj.[5] Daničić modeled the letter after the Icelandic or Anglo-Saxon letter eth, albeit representing a different sound, the affricate [].[5] In 1892 it was officially introduced in Croatian and Slavonian schools (in the Habsburg Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia where the Croatian language was official) and so definitively added to Gaj’s Latin alphabet.[5] The letter thereafter gradually entered daily use,[5] spreading throughout Serbo-Croatian and then to Macedonian (its Latin transliterations heavily influenced by Serbo-Croatian from the Yugoslav period).

The crossed d is today considered a distinct letter, and is placed between and E in alphabetical order. Its Cyrillic equivalent is Ђ ђ.[5] Its partial equivalent in Macedonian is Ѓ ѓ (because only some dialects contain the /dʑ/ sound). When a true đ is not available or desired, it is transcribed as dj in modern Serbo-Croatian, and as gj in Macedonian. The use of dj in place of đ used to be more common in Serbo-Croatian texts, but is now considered obsolete and discouraged by style guides.

Wright germanic spirants
An example of đ being used for a voiced dental fricative in the phonetic transcription of early Germanic languages, alongside ƀ for bilabial and ʒ for velar, from Joseph Wright's Old High German Primer (1906).

Sami languages

In the present-day orthographies of Northern Sami, Inari Sami and Skolt Sami, đ represents the fricative [ð]. It is considered a distinct letter and placed between D and E in alphabetical order.


Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum.pdf&page=95
A page from the đ section of de Rhodes's Dictioniarum Annamiticum, a 1651 Vietnamese-Portuguese-Latin dictionary. As with the B with flourish, Đ only appears in lowercase in de Rhodes's works.

Đ is the seventh letter of the Vietnamese alphabet, after D and before E.[6] Traditionally, digraphs and trigraphs like CH and NGH were considered letters as well, making Đ the eighth letter.[7] Đ is a letter in its own right, rather than a ligature or letter-diacritic combination; therefore, đá would come after in any alphabetical listing.

Đ represents a voiced alveolar implosive (/ɗ/) or, according to Thompson (1959), a preglottalized voiced alveolar stop (/ʔd/).[8] Whereas D is pronounced as some sort of dental or alveolar stop in most Latin alphabets, an unadorned D in Vietnamese represents either /z/ (Hanoian) or /j/ (Saigonese).

The Vietnamese alphabet was formally described for the first time in the 17th-century text Manuductio ad Linguam Tunckinensem, attributed to a Portuguese Jesuit missionary, possibly Francisco de Pina[9] or Filipe Sibin.[10] This passage about the letter Đ was later incorporated into Alexandre de Rhodes' seminal Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum:[11]

Another letter written with the symbol đ is completely different than our own and is pronounced by raising the tip of the tongue to the palate of the mouth, immediately removing it, without in any way touching the teeth, for example đa đa: partridge. And this letter is very commonly used at the beginning of a word.

— Manuductio ad Linguam Tunckinensem[note 1]

On older typewriters, Đ was located where Z would be in the French AZERTY layout.[13] Alternatively, a hyphen can be overstruck onto a D.

On computers without support for a Vietnamese character set or Unicode, Đ is encoded as DD and đ as dd according to the Vietnamese Quoted-Readable standard. Vietnamese computer users typically input Đ as DD in the Telex and VIQR input methods or as D9 in the VNI input method. In the absence of an input method, the TCVN 6064:1995 and Microsoft Windows Vietnamese keyboard layouts map ZA0-09 (0 on a U.S. keyboard) to đ, or Đ when holding down ⇧ Shift. The Windows layout also maps ZA0-11 (=) to ₫.

Other modes of communication also have dedicated representations of Đ. In Vietnamese Braille, it is , which corresponds to D in French Braille. In the Vietnamese manual alphabet, Đ is produced by touching the thumb to the index finger. In Morse code, it is rendered – · · – · ·, corresponding to Telex's "DD".[14]

Other uses

Phonetic transcription

The lowercase đ is used in some phonetic transcription schemes to represent a voiced dental fricative [ð] (English th in this). Eth (ð) is more commonly used for this purpose, but the crossed d has the advantage of being able to be typed on a standard typewriter, by overlaying a hyphen over a d.[15]

Currency symbols

A minuscule form of the letter, đ, is the symbol of the đồng, the currency of Vietnam, by a 1953 decree by Ho Chi Minh.[16] The South Vietnamese đồng, on the other hand, was symbolized "Đ.", in majuscule. In Unicode, the Vietnamese đồng symbol is properly represented by U+20AB DONG SIGN, but U+0111 đ LATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH STROKE is often used instead. In Vietnamese, the đồng sign is written after the amount in superscript, often underlined.

The uppercase eth (Ð) is also now used to symbolize the cryptocurrency Dogecoin. The idea originated in December 2013 on the website Reddit when a user realized that the symbol wasn't currently being used for any other currency, and the community believed it was fitting for Dogecoin.[17]


Dispersity is represented by the symbol Đ, and is a measure of the heterogeneity of sizes of molecules or particles in a mixture, referring to either molecular mass or degree of polymerization.

Computer encoding

Đ and đ are encoded in Unicode as U+0110 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D WITH STROKE and U+0111 LATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH STROKE; in Latin-2, Latin-4 and Latin-10 as D0 and F0 respectively; and, in Latin-6 as A9 and B9 respectively. In PostScript they are Dcroat, Dmacron, Dslash, dcroat, dmacron and dslash. In Unicode, both crossed d and barred d are considered glyph variants of U+0111.[1]

Unicode has a distinct code point for the visually very similar capital eth, Ð, U+00D0, which can lead to confusion.

As part of WGL4, Đ and đ can be expected to display correctly even on older Windows systems.

See also


  1. ^ As printed in Hồn Việt:[11] Alterum đ notatur eo signo, quia est omnino diversù à nostro et pronunciatur attollendo extremum linguae ad palatum oris illamque statim amovendo absque eo, quod ullo modo dentes attingat, ùt đa đa: perdrix. Et haec littera est valde in usu in principio dictionis.

    As paraphrased by de Rhodes:[12] ...estque vitium linguæ, aliud đ notatur eo signo quia est omninò diversum à nostro & pronunciatur attollendo extremum linguæ ad palatum oris, illamque statim amovendo, absque eo quod ullo modo dentes attingat ut đa đa, perdix: & hæc litera est valdè in usu in principio dictionis.


  1. ^ a b The Unicode Consortium (2003). The Unicode Standard, Version 4.0. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley Developers Press. p. 432.
  2. ^ ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2/WG 2 Revised Proposal to Encode Additional Latin Orthographic Character JTC1/SC2/WG2 N2847R
  3. ^ Example: Lê Bá Khanh; Lê Bá Kông (1991). Vietnamese-English/English-Vietnamese Dictionary (7th printing ed.). New York City: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-87052-924-2.
  4. ^ Bischoff, Bernhard (1990). Latin Palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press. p. 150.
  5. ^ a b c d e Maretić, Tomislav. Gramatika i stilistika hrvatskoga ili srpskoga književnog jezika, p. 14-15. 1899.
  6. ^ "Bài Tập Tại Nhà #1" [Homework Practice #1] (PDF). Portland, Oregon: Lạc Hồng Vietnamese Language School. August 7, 2009. p. 1. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
  7. ^ "Tài Liệu Cho Giáo Viên" [Teaching Materials] (PDF) (in Vietnamese). La Vang Vietnamese Language School. October 28, 2011. p. 1. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  8. ^ Thompson, Laurence (1959). "Saigon phonemics". Language. Linguistic Society of America. 35 (3): 458–461. doi:10.2307/411232. JSTOR 411232.
  9. ^ Jacques, Roland (2002). Portuguese Pioneers of Vietnamese Linguistics. Bangkok: Orchid Press. ISBN 9748304779.
  10. ^ Gesammelte Studien. Bibliotheca Instituti Historici S.I. (in Portuguese). 21. Jesuit Historical Institute. 1963. p. 12. …e a « Manuductio ad linguam Tunckinensem » do Padre Filipe Sibin SI…
  11. ^ a b Nguyễn Minh Hoàng. "Alexandre de Rhodes có phải là cha đẻ của chữ Quốc ngữ?" [Was Alexandre de Rhodes the father of the Vietnamese alphabet?]. Hồn Việt (in Vietnamese). Retrieved November 17, 2013.
  12. ^ de Rhodes, Alexandre (1651). "Lingue annamiticæ seu tunchinensis brevis declaratio". Dictionarium annamiticum lusitanicum, et latinum (in Latin). Rome: Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith. p. 3.
  13. ^ VietNamese Typewriter on Flickr
  14. ^ "Morse Code". Alberquerque, New Mexico: Our Lady of La Vang Eucharistic Youth Society. 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
  15. ^ Pullum, Geoffrey K.; Ladusaw, William A. (1996). Phonetic Symbol Guide. University of Chicago Press. pp. 36–37.
  16. ^ Ho Chi Minh (May 20, 1953). "Sắc lệnh của Chủ tịch Nước Việt Nam Dân chủ Cộng hòa số 162/SL" [Decree number 162/SL of the President of Vietnam] (in Vietnamese). Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
  17. ^ https://www.reddit.com/r/dogecoin/comments/1sv0co/proposed_dogecoin_symbol_ð/
African D

Retroflex D (Ɖ, ɖ) is a Latin letter representing the voiced retroflex plosive [ɖ]. Its lower-case variant – d with tail, or d with retroflex hook – is also used to represent this sound in the International Phonetic Alphabet (but in the transcription of the languages of India, the same sound may be represented by a d with dot below: ḍ).

The letter is a part of the African reference alphabet, and the upper-case variant is called African D in the Unicode standard, as it is mainly used by African languages such as Ewe, Fon, Aja, and Bassa. The African D should not be confused with either the eth (Ð, ð) of Icelandic, Faroese and Old English or with the D with stroke (Đ, đ) of Vietnamese, Serbo-Croatian and Sami languages. However, the upper-case forms of these letters tend to look the same.

Cork encoding

The Cork (also known as T1 or EC) encoding is a character encoding used for encoding glyphs in fonts. It is named after the city of Cork in Ireland, where during a TeX Users Group (TUG) conference in 1990 a new encoding was introduced for LaTeX. It contains 256 characters supporting most west and east-European languages with the Latin alphabet.


D (named dee ) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

D with stroke (disambiguation)

A Latin capital letter D with a stroke through its vertical bar (Đ) is the uppercase form of several different letters:

D with stroke (Đ, đ), used in Vietnamese, some South Slavic (e.g. Croatian, Serbian), Moro, and Sámi languages

Eth (Ð, ð), used in Icelandic, Faroese, and Old English

Retroflex D (Ɖ, ɖ), representing a voiced retroflex plosive soundOther uses:

Dogecoin, which uses capital eth (Ð) as its currency symbol


Dje (Ђ ђ; italics: Ђ ђ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

Dje is the sixth letter of the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, used in Serbo-Croatian to represent the voiced alveolo-palatal affricate /dʑ/.

Dje corresponds to the Latin letter D with stroke (Đ đ) in Gaj's Latin alphabet of Serbo-Croatian and is so transliterated. When strokes are unavailable, it is transliterated as ⟨Dj dj⟩.


Eth (, uppercase: Ð, lowercase: ð; also spelled edh or eð) is a letter used in Old English, Middle English, Icelandic, Faroese (in which it is called edd), and Elfdalian. It was also used in Scandinavia during the Middle Ages but was subsequently replaced with dh and later d. It is often transliterated as d (and d- is rarely used as a mnemonic). The lowercase version has been adopted to represent a voiced dental fricative in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

In Old English, ð (called ðæt by the Anglo-Saxons) was used interchangeably with þ to represent the Old English dental fricative phoneme /θ/, which exists in modern English phonology as the voiced and voiceless dental fricatives now spelled "th".

Unlike the runic letter þ, ð is a modified Roman letter. ð was not found in the earliest records of Old English. A study of Mercian royal diplomas found that ð (along with đ) began to emerge in the early 8th century, with ð becoming strongly preferred by the 780s. Another source indicates that the letter is "derived from Irish writing".The lowercase version has retained the curved shape of a medieval scribe's d, which d itself in general has not. ð was used throughout the Anglo-Saxon era but gradually fell out of use in Middle English, practically disappearing altogether by 1300; þ survived longer, ultimately being replaced by the digraph th.

In Icelandic, ð represents a voiced dental fricative [ð], which is the same as the th in English that, but it never appears as the first letter of a word, where þ is used in its stead. The name of the letter is pronounced in isolation (and before words beginning with a voiceless consonant) as [ɛθ̠] and therefore with a voiceless rather than voiced fricative.

In Faroese, ð is not assigned to any particular phoneme and appears mostly for etymological reasons; however, it does show where most of the Faroese glides are; when ð appears before r, it is, in a few words, pronounced [ɡ]. In the Icelandic and Faroese alphabets, ð follows d.

In Olav Jakobsen Høyem's version of Nynorsk based on Trøndersk, ð was always silent and was introduced for etymological reasons.

Ð has also been used by some in written Welsh to represent /ð/, which is normally represented as dd.U+1D9E ᶞ MODIFIER LETTER SMALL ETH is used in phonetic transcription.U+1D06 ᴆ LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL ETH is used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet.

Finnish orthography

Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 29 letters but also has 2 additional letters in some loanwords. The Finnish orthography strives to represent all morphemes phonologically and, roughly speaking, the sound value of each letter tends to correspond with its value in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) – although some discrepancies do exist.

ISO/IEC 6937

ISO/IEC 6937:2001, Information technology — Coded graphic character set for text communication — Latin alphabet, is a multibyte extension of ASCII, or rather of ISO/IEC 646-IRV. It was developed in common with ITU-T (then CCITT) for telematic services under the name of T.51, and first became an ISO standard in 1983. Certain byte codes are used as lead bytes for letters with diacritics (accents). The value of the lead byte often indicates which diacritic that the letter has, and the follow byte then has the ASCII-value for the letter that the diacritic is on. Only certain combinations of lead byte and follow byte are allowed, and there are some exceptions to the lead byte interpretation for some follow bytes. However, there are no combining characters at all are encoded in ISO/IEC 6937. But one can represent some free-standing diacritics, often by letting the follow byte have the code for ASCII space.

ISO/IEC 6937's architects were Hugh McGregor Ross, Peter Fenwick, Bernard Marti and Loek Zeckendorf.

ISO6937/2 defines 327 characters found in modern European languages using the Latin alphabet. Non-Latin European characters, such as Cyrillic and Greek, are not included in the standard. Also, some diacritics used with the Latin alphabet like the Romanian comma are not included, using cedilla instead as no distinction between cedilla and comma below was made at the time.

IANA has registered the charset names ISO_6937-2-25 and ISO_6937-2-add for two (older) versions of this standard (plus control codes). But in practice this character encoding is unused on the Internet.

The ISO/IEC 2022 escape sequence to specify the right-hand side of the ISO/IEC 6937 character set is ESC - R (hex 1B 2D 52).

Latin Extended-A

Latin Extended-A is a Unicode block and is the third block of the Unicode standard. It encodes Latin letters from the Latin ISO character sets other than Latin-1 (which is already encoded in the Latin-1 Supplement block) and also legacy characters from the ISO 6937 standard.

The Latin Extended-A block has been in the Unicode Standard since version 1.0, with its entire character repertoire, except for the Latin Small Letter Long S, which was added during unification with ISO 10646 in version 1.1.

List of Latin-script letters

This is a list of letters of the Latin script. The definition of a Latin-script letter for this list is a character encoded in the Unicode Standard that has a script property of 'Latin' and the general category of 'Letter'. An overview of the distribution of Latin-script letters in Unicode is given in Latin script in Unicode.

List of Unicode characters

This is a list of Unicode characters. As of version 12.0, Unicode contains a repertoire of over 137,000 characters covering 150 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets. As it is not technically possible to list all of these characters in a single Wikipedia page, this list is limited to a subset of the most important characters for English-language readers, with links to other pages which list the supplementary characters. This page includes the 1062 characters in the Multilingual European Character Set 2 (MES-2) subset, and some additional related characters.

List of XML and HTML character entity references

In SGML, HTML and XML documents, the logical constructs known as character data and attribute values consist of sequences of characters, in which each character can manifest directly (representing itself), or can be represented by a series of characters called a character reference, of which there are two types: a numeric character reference and a character entity reference. This article lists the character entity references that are valid in HTML and XML documents.

A character entity reference refers to the content of a named entity. An entity declaration is created by using the syntax in a Document Type Definition (DTD).

Morse code

Morse code is a character encoding scheme used in telecommunication that encodes text characters as standardized sequences of two different signal durations called dots and dashes or dits and dahs. Morse code is named for Samuel F. B. Morse, an inventor of the telegraph.

The International Morse Code encodes the 26 English letters A through Z, some non-English letters, the Arabic numerals and a small set of punctuation and procedural signals (prosigns). There is no distinction between upper and lower case letters. Each Morse code symbol is formed by a sequence of dots and dashes. The dot duration is the basic unit of time measurement in Morse code transmission. The duration of a dash is three times the duration of a dot. Each dot or dash within a character is followed by period of signal absence, called a space, equal to the dot duration. The letters of a word are separated by a space of duration equal to three dots, and the words are separated by a space equal to seven dots. To increase the efficiency of encoding, Morse code was designed so that the length of each symbol is approximately inverse to the frequency of occurrence in text of the English language character that it represents. Thus the most common letter in English, the letter "E", has the shortest code: a single dot. Because the Morse code elements are specified by proportion rather than specific time durations, the code is usually transmitted at the highest rate that the receiver is capable of decoding. The Morse code transmission rate (speed) is specified in groups per minute, commonly referred to as words per minute.Morse code is usually transmitted by on-off keying of an information carrying medium such as electric current, radio waves, visible light or sound waves. The current or wave is present during time period of the dot or dash and absent during the time between dots and dashes.Morse code can be memorized, and Morse code signalling in a form perceptible to the human senses, such as sound waves or visible light, can be directly interpreted by persons trained in the skill.Because many non-English natural languages use other than the 26 Roman letters, Morse alphabets have been developed for those languages.

In an emergency, Morse code can be generated by improvised methods such as turning a light on and off, tapping on an object or sounding a horn or whistle, making it one of the simplest and most versatile methods of telecommunication. The most common distress signal is SOS – three dots, three dashes, and three dots – internationally recognized by treaty.

U bar

U bar (majuscule: Ʉ, minuscule: ʉ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from U with the addition of a bar.

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the lowercase ʉ is used to represent a close central rounded vowel.


I-bar (majuscule: Ɨ, minuscule: ɨ), also called barred i, is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from I or i with the addition of a bar.

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, ɨ is used to represent a close central unrounded vowel. In American linguistic tradition, it is used to represent the weak vowel heard in the second syllable of roses when distinct from Rosa's. For related uses of the small capital barred i, see near-close central unrounded vowel.

The ISO 6438 (African coded character set for bibliographic information interchange) gives lowercase of Ɨ as ɪ, a small capital I, not ɨ.

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