Digital Video Broadcasting - Satellite - Second Generation (DVB-S2) is a digital television broadcast standard that has been designed as a successor for the popular DVB-S system. It was developed in 2003 by the DVB Project, an international industry consortium, and ratified by ETSI (EN 302307) in March 2005. The standard is based on, and improves upon DVB-S and the electronic news-gathering (or Digital Satellite News Gathering) system, used by mobile units for sending sounds and images from remote locations worldwide back to their home television stations.
DVB-S2 is envisaged (contemplate) for broadcast services including standard and HDTV, interactive services including Internet access, and (professional) data content distribution. The development of DVB-S2 coincided with the introduction of HDTV and H.264 (MPEG-4 AVC) video codecs.
Two new key features that were added compared to the DVB-S standard are:
Other features include enhanced modulation schemes up to 32APSK, additional code rates, and the introduction of a generic transport mechanism for IP packet data including MPEG-4 audio–video streams, while supporting backward compatibility with existing MPEG-2 TS based transmission.
DVB-S2 achieves significantly better performance than its predecessors – mainly allowing for an increase of available bitrate over the same satellite transponder bandwidth. The measured DVB-S2 performance gain over DVB-S is around 30% at the same satellite transponder bandwidth and emitted signal power. When the contribution of improvements in video compression is added, an (MPEG-4 AVC) HDTV service can now be delivered in the same bandwidth that supported an early DVB-S based MPEG-2 SDTV service only a decade before.
Depending on code rate and modulation, the system can operate at a C/N between −2.4 dB (QPSK, 1/4) and 16 dB (32APSK, 9/10) with a quasi-error free goal of a 10−7 TS packet error rate. Distance to the Shannon limit ranges from 0.7 dB to 1.2 dB.
Modes and features of DVB-S2 in comparison to DVB-S:
|Input interface||Single transport stream (TS)||Multiple transport stream and generic stream encapsulation (GSE)|
|Modes||Constant coding & modulation||Variable coding & modulation and adaptive coding & modulation|
|FEC||Reed–Solomon (RS) 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8||LDPC + BCH 1/4, 1/3, 2/5, 1/2, 3/5, 2/3, 3/4, 4/5, 5/6, 6/7, 8/9, 9/10|
|Modulation||Single-carrier QPSK||QPSK, 8PSK, 16APSK, 32APSK|
|Pilots||Pilot symbols||Pilot symbols|
Envisaged scenarios for DVB-S2 by the standard document are:
The conversion process from DVB-S to DVB-S2 is being accelerated, due to the rapid increase of HDTV and introduction of 3D-HDTV. The main factor slowing down this process is the need to replace or upgrade set-top boxes, or acquire TVs with DVB-S2 integrated tuners, which makes the transition slower for established operators.
Current direct-to-home broadcasters using DVB-S2 are:
These broadcasters have used DVB-S2 in their internal broadcast distribution networks, but may not have instituted DVB-S2 transmissions for consumers.
Astra 2E is one of the Astra communications satellites owned and operated by SES, launched to the Astra 28.2°E orbital slot on 30 September 2013 after a 10-week delay caused by rocket launcher problems. The satellite provides free-to-air and encrypted direct-to-home (DTH) digital TV and satellite broadband services for Europe and the Middle East.After launch, Astra 2E underwent in-orbit testing at 43.5°E and began commercial operations at 28.2°E in February 2014. At that time, channels broadcast via Astra 1N (temporarily located at 28.2°E pending Astra 1E's launch) were transferred to Astra 2E and Astra 1N relocated to its design position at 19.2°E.Astra 2E is the second of three 'second generation' satellites for the 28.2°E position to replace the first generation Astra 2A, Astra 2B, Astra 2C and Astra 2D craft originally positioned there between 1998 and 2001. The first, Astra 2F, was launched in 2012 and the third, Astra 2G, was launched in 2014 (launched on 27 December 2014).
Unlike other SES/Astra spacecraft, the launch order of Astra 2E and Astra 2F is not reflected in their alphabetical names, with Astra 2F launched 10 months before Astra 2E.Astra 2F
Astra 2F is one of the Astra communications satellites owned and operated by SES, launched in September 2012 to the Astra 28.2°E orbital slot. The satellite provides free-to-air and encrypted direct-to-home (DTH) digital TV and satellite broadband services for Europe and Africa.
Astra 2F is the first of three ‘second generation’ satellites for the 28.2°E position which replace the first generation Astra 2A, Astra 2B and Astra 2D craft previously there. The second, Astra 2E, was launched in 2013 and the third, Astra 2G, was launched in 2014 (launched on December 27, 2014). Some parts of the construction of Astra 2F by Astrium (now Airbus Defence and Space) in Stevenage, UK could be seen in the BBC2 documentary programme, How To Build… A Satellite broadcast on November 27, 2011.
Astra 2F was successfully launched from Kourou in French Guiana on September 28, 2012. and underwent in-orbit testing at 43.5°E. Commercial operations at 28.2°E began on November 21, 2012.Astra 2G
Astra 2G is one of the Astra communications satellites owned and operated by SES, launched to the Astra 28.2°E orbital slot in December 2014, at 03:37:49 Baikonur time.Astra 2G is positioned at 28.5°E (part of the Astra 28.2°E orbital slot) and is the last of three 'second generation' satellites launched to this slot to replace the first generation Astra 2A, Astra 2B, Astra 2C and Astra 2D craft originally positioned there between 1998 and 2001, and it joined Astra 2E and Astra 2F launched in 2013 and 2012, respectively.Cignal
Cignal (pronounced as signal) is a subscription-based Direct-To-Home (DTH) satellite television service and Internet Protocol television provider in the Philippines. Cignal is owned by Cignal TV Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of the MediaQuest Holdings Inc. under the PLDT Beneficial Trust Fund.For subscribers to receive Cignal broadcasts, they may either have it through satellite broadcast or through the internet. Its IPTV service is availed through PLDT in which the digital set-top box is connected with the optical network terminal through a ethernet cable. Cignal’s prepaid electronic loading system, is powered by the prepaid loading platform of Smart Communications, Inc. Cignal uses VideoGuard encryption system to protect its content from signal piracy. Cignal TV is using the SES-7 satellite to provide optimal coverage directly to the target markets.Cignal offers both Prepaid and Postpaid plans as low as ₱120 and high as ₱1990 per month.
They transmit 89 SD channels, 32 HD channels, and 12 audio channels. They offer Pay-per-view services as well as streaming services.Cignal uses the DVB-S2 digital television broadcast standard to accommodate both Standard Definition (SD) and High Definition (HD) TV broadcasts.
As of June 2018, Cignal reached the 2,000,000 subscribers mark.
Cignal operates a premium movie channel named Cignal 24/7 Pinoy Pay-Per-View.
Prepaid and Postpaid subscribers can watch movies at ₱30 on channel 196.Claro TV
Claro TV is a Latin American operator of Pay television. The service is supplied by Embratel and Claro companies and operates in Star One C2 satellite. Its transmission system is DTH (Direct to Home) in Ku Band, and the channels are encrypted by Nagravision 3 system. The reception is made via mini-satellite dish and a DVB-S2 receiver, and subscribers authentication is made by conditional access card. As of October 2011, Via Embratel had achieved 2,000,000 subscribers.In Puerto Rico, Claro is deploying VRADs in order to launch its IPTV service which will work parallel with their current satellite service.Cosmote TV
Cosmote TV is the corporate name for two pay television services in Greece, owned by Greek telecommunication operator OTE. The two services are as follows:
Cosmote TV via Broadband - IPTV service
Cosmote TV via Satellite - satellite television serviceCosmote TV Satellite broadcasts on Ku band from Eutelsat's Eurobird 9A at 9.0°E featuring DVB-S2 -8PSK/MPEG-4 technology. In June 2012 OTE TV had 76,345 subscribers. In July 2017, after more than 5 years of operation, it was announced that the (now) Cosmote TV package has reached 510,000 subscribers.DD Free Dish
DD Free Dish (previously known as DD Direct Plus) is an Indian Free-To-Air digital direct-broadcast satellite television service. It is owned and operated by Public Service Broadcaster Doordarshan (Prasar Bharati). It has a reach of approximately 30 million households which is 15 % of the total TV Households in the country.It is the only free-to-air satellite television service in India. After upgrade, INSAT-4B satellite at 93.5° was used to broadcast 64 FTA MPEG-2 Channels and 29 radio channels.
With the latest upgrade, to GSAT-15 at 93.5° on 1 February 2016, the present capacity is likely to be enhanced to 104 SDTV channels and 40 Radio channels in near future with the introduction of new MPEG-4, DVB-S2 stream. DD Free Dish DTH viewers can watch 80 SD MPEG-2 TV channels and 18 SD MPEG-4 channels apart from 40 radio channels. New logo for DD Free Dish was added on its transponders on 29 October 2014. DD Free Dish also offers its slots to private channels.At this time DD Free Dish TV channels can be received by using simple free to air set-top boxes with DVB-S and DVB-S2 technology. Now a days many free to air set-top box are available. Recently Prasar Bharati selected few Indian manufacturers to produce iCAS enabled set-top box with MPEG-4 technology. Free to air set-top box can be bought online as well as in offline markets.
There is no monthly charges to access DD Free Dish DTH service. This is India's only free DTH (direct-to-home) service.DVB-S2X
DVB-S2X is an extension of DVB-S2 satellite digital broadcasting standard.
DVB-S2X is a digital satellite television broadcast standard. It has been standardised by DVB Project in March 2014 as an optional extension of DVB-S2 standard. It will also become an ETSI standard.Digital Satellite Service
Digital Satellite System is the initialism expansion of the DSS digital satellite television transmission system used by DirecTV. Only when digital transmission was introduced did direct broadcast satellite (DBS) television become popular in North America, which has led to both DBS and DSS being used interchangeably to refer to all three commonplace digital transmission formats - DSS, DVB-S and 4DTV. Analog DBS services, however, existed prior to DirecTV and were still operational in continental Europe until April 2012.At the time of DirecTV's launch in 1994, the DVB-S digital satellite system in use in the majority of the world had not yet been standardised, the Thomson developed DSS system was used instead.
While functionally similar in DVB-S - MPEG 2 video, MPEG-1 Layer II or AC3 audio, QPSK modulation, and identical error correction (Reed-Solomon coding and Viterbi forward error correction), the transport stream and information tables are entirely different from those of DVB. Also unlike DVB, all DSS receivers are proprietary DirecTV reception units.
DirecTV is now using a modified version of DVB-S2, the latest version of the DVB-S protocol, for HDTV services off the SPACEWAY-1, SPACEWAY-2, DirecTV-10 and DirecTV-11 satellites; however, huge numbers of DSS encoded channels still remain. The ACM modulation scheme used by DirecTV prevents regular DVB-S2 demodulators from receiving the signal although the data carried are regular MPEG-4 transport streams.Dish Home
DishHome is the DTH service provider in Nepal, operated by Dish Media Network Ltd. It was formed in 2010 after a merger between two DTH providers, namely Home TV and Dish Nepal. In the year of 2011 Sandmartin International Holding (SMT) became one of the key stareholder of Dish Media Network Pvt. Ltd. and provides expertise in developing new technologies and digital innovations in the satellite broadcasting.By the year 2016, DishHome had crossed the 750,000 subscriber mark.Dish Home has achieved a customer base of 1000000 plus by 2019. As of April, 2019 DishHome has a total of 180+ television channels, including 130+ SD channels and 50+ HD channels with DishHome's own Channel Plus Movie- Nepali Cinema Channel , Ramailo TV - Complete Nepali Entertainment channel, Action Sports- Nepal's first and only Sports channel, Cine Hits- Nepali Movie MUsic channel, Bollywood Beats- Nepali channel for Bollywood Music, Gunjan- A channel dedicated to Folk Music, Nepa Channel- Newari channel, Junior TV- Nepali Kids channel. Dish Home also runs a Pay Per view Service with a call sign Dishhome Cinemaghar which offers new release Nepali cinema to the market. It provides all the major Nepali channels, Hindi and English language general entertainment channels, including other pay channels of sports, music, movies, news, and kids genre.
DishHome uses MPEG-4 with DVB S2 digital compression technology, transmitting HD Channels and SD Channels in Ku-Band on Amos-4 at 65.0°E. DishHome relies on CAS from Verimatrix and Latens. Their STBs are provisioned by SandMartin and Arion. Its primary competitors are cable television providers, and other DTH service providers from India and China.Generic Stream Encapsulation
Generic Stream Encapsulation, or GSE for short, is a Data link layer protocol defined by DVB. GSE provides means to carry packet oriented protocols such as IP on top of uni-directional physical layers such as DVB-S2, DVB-T2 and DVB-C2.
GSE provides additional features beyond the pure carriage of IP datagrams that increase the protocol flexibility and applicability. Some key GSE functions/characteristics are:
Support for multi-protocol encapsulation (IPv4, IPv6, MPEG, ATM, Ethernet, 802.1pQ VLANs, etc.)
Transparency to network layer functions, including IP encryption and IP header compression.
Support of several addressing modes. In addition to the 6-byte MAC address (including multicast and unicast), it supports a MAC address-less mode, and an optional 3-byte address mode.
A mechanism for fragmenting IP datagrams or other network layer packets over Base Band frames to support ACM/VCM.
Support for hardware filtering.
Extensibility: additional link protocols can be included through specific protocol type values (e.g. Layer 2 security, IP Header Compression, etc.).IP over DVB
IP over DVB or IP over MPEG implies that Internet Protocol datagrams are transferred over the MPEG transport stream, and are distributed using some digital television system, for example DVB-H, DVB-T, DVB-S or DVB-C.SKY PerfecTV!
SKY PerfecTV! (スカパー!, Sukapā!) is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service that provides satellite television, audio programming, and interactive television services to households in Japan, owned by parent company SKY Perfect JSAT Corporation.
SKY PerfecTV! is also a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service. While SKY PerfecTV! Premium Service use DVB-S and DVB-S2, SKY PerfecTV! Basic Service use ISDB-S.Saorsat
Saorsat ( SAIR-sat; the Irish word Saor, meaning free, therefore implying Freesat in English) is a free-to-air satellite service in Ireland. The service launched on 3 May 2012.TV Vlaanderen
TV Vlaanderen is a digital satellite television and terrestrial television service provider for the Flanders region in Belgium.
TV Vlaanderen's customers are mostly people living in Flanders. However, as TV Vlaanderen is officially available to the whole of Belgium, TV Vlaanderen also has many Flemish customers living in the French-speaking part of Belgium due to the unavailability of Dutch-language TV channels on Cable Television platform's in Wallonia.
Like the Dutch satellite television provider CanalDigitaal, TV Vlaanderen is owned by M7 Group S.A..Viasat Ukraine
Viasat Ukraine is a Ukrainian direct broadcast satellite television distributor. It is owned by "Vision TV" which is a joint venture between the Strong Media Group (SMG) and the Swedish Modern Times Group (MTG). It competes with NTV Plus Ukraine and Poverkhnost which broadcast on the Eutelsat system.
The service was launched April 21, 2008 using DVB-S & DVB-S2 transponders on the Astra 4A, Hot Bird and AMOS satellites to broadcast channels compressed with MPEG-2 & MPEG-4 AVC codecs.ZAP (satellite television)
ZAP is a digital satellite television provider mainly for Portuguese-speaking countries in sub-Saharan Africa. ZAP launched in Angola in 2010, providing a subscription based TV service covering the sub-Saharan countries to south of Angola. ZAP operates from the Eutelsat W7 satellite, placed over Africa at 36,0 degrees East, broadcasting in DVB-S2 in five Ku band transponders with MPEG-4 compression and Nagravision encryption.ZAP provides an unprecedented number of Portuguese-language channels for a region where Portuguese-speaking African countries account for more than 40 million people.In order to subscribe to ZAP's television service a subscriber can use either one of the two available decoders. The "HD+" decodes the encrypted signal, provides an electronic programming guide, high definition image and 5.1 stereo sound. The "HD+DVR" decoder provides the additional functionality of digital video recorder.ČT HD
ČT HD was the high-definition TV channel from Česká televize. ČT HD broadcast programming from ČT1, ČT2 and ČT4, via IPTV, digital terrestrial (in several areas only) and satellite (via Astra 1E – DVB-S standard, since spring 2010 via the new Astra 3B – DVB-S2 standard).
Wireless video and data distribution methods
|Satellite radio / TV|
|Relay satellite companies|