DTS (sound system)

DTS (originally Digital Theater Systems) is an American company that makes multichannel audio technologies for film and video. Based in Calabasas, California, the company introduced its DTS technology in 1993 as a higher-quality competitor to Dolby Laboratories, incorporating DTS in the film Jurassic Park.[2][3][4] The DTS product is used in surround sound formats for both commercial/theatrical and consumer-grade applications. It was known as The Digital Experience until 1995. DTS licenses its technologies to consumer electronics manufacturers.

The DTS brand was bought by Tessera in December 2016, then Tessera changed its name to Xperi.

DTS, Inc.
Subsidiary
IndustryAudio, Audio data compression, Audio Encoding, Audio Remastering
Founded1990
Headquarters,
Key people
Jon Kirchner
(Chairman and CEO)
ProductsDTS-HD Master Audio Suite
DTS HD Surround Audio Suite
HD Radio
DTS:X
Headphone:X
Play-Fi
ParentXperi Corporation (2016—present)
SubsidiariesHD Radio (iBiquity)
Manzanita Systems
Phorus
SRS Labs
Websitewww.dts.com

History

DTS was founded by Terry Beard, an audio engineer and Caltech graduate. Beard, speaking to a friend of a friend, was able to get in touch with Steven Spielberg to audition a remastering of Spielberg's film Close Encounters of the Third Kind mixed in DTS. Spielberg then selected DTS sound for his next film, Jurassic Park and with the backing of Universal Pictures and its then-parent Matsushita Electric, over 1,000 theatres in the United States adopted the DTS system.[5]

Jurassic Park DTS CD-ROM Disc (1993)
A photo of a theatrical DTS CD-ROM disc used for the original 1993 release of Jurassic Park

Work on the new audio format started in 1991, four years after Dolby Laboratories started work on its new codec, Dolby Digital.

The basic and most common version of the format is a 5.1-channel system, similar to a Dolby Digital setup, which encodes the audio as five primary (full-range) channels plus a special LFE (low-frequency effects) channel for the subwoofer.

Encoders and decoders support numerous channel combinations, and stereo, four-channel, and four-channel+LFE soundtracks have been released commercially on DVD, CD, and Laserdisc.

Other, newer DTS variants are also currently available, including versions that support up to seven primary audio channels plus one LFE channel (DTS-ES). These variants are generally based on DTS's core-and-extension philosophy, in which a core DTS data stream is augmented with an extension stream which includes the additional data necessary for the new variant in use. The core stream can be decoded by any DTS decoder, even if it does not understand the new variant. A decoder which does understand the new variant decodes the core stream, and then modifies it according to the instructions contained in the extension stream. This method allows backward compatibility.

DTS's main competitors in multichannel theatrical audio are Dolby Digital and SDDS, although only Dolby Digital and DTS are used on DVDs and implemented in home theater hardware.

One of the DTS Inc.'s initial investors was film director Steven Spielberg, who felt that theatrical sound formats up until the company's founding were no longer state of the art, and as a result were no longer optimal for use on projects where quality sound reproduction was of the utmost importance. Spielberg debuted the format with his 1993 production of Jurassic Park, which came slightly less than a full year after the official theatrical debut of Dolby Digital (Batman Returns). In addition, Jurassic Park also became the first home video release to contain DTS sound when it was released on LaserDisc in January 1997, two years after the first Dolby Digital home video release (Clear and Present Danger on Laserdisc), which debuted in January 1995.

In 2008, the cinema division was divested to form DTS Digital Cinema. In 2009 DTS Digital Cinema was purchased by Beaufort International Group Plc. and became known as Datasat Digital Entertainment.

35mm film audio macro
A photo of a 35 mm film print featuring all four audio formats (or "quad track")- from left to right: SDDS (blue area to the left of the sprocket holes), Dolby Digital (grey area between the sprocket holes labelled with the Dolby "Double-D" logo in the middle), analog optical sound (the two white lines to the right of the sprocket holes), and the DTS time code (the dashed line to the far right.)

SRS Labs

In 2012, DTS acquired the business of SRS Labs (Sound Retrieval System), a psychoacoustic 3D audio processing technology, including over 1,000 audio patents and trademarks.

Manzanita Systems

In 2014, DTS acquired Manzanita Systems,[6] a provider of MPEG software solutions for digital television, VOD, and digital ad insertion.[7]

Phorus

Phorus, a subsidiary of DTS, Inc., is a Los Angeles based technology group dedicated to wireless audio solutions for connected devices.[8]

HD Radio (iBiquity)

On September 2, 2015, iBiquity announced that it was being purchased by DTS for US$172 million, uniting iBiquity's HD Radio digital radio broadcast technology with DTS' digital audio surround sound systems.[9]

Theatrical use

In theatrical use, a proprietary 24-bit time code is optically imaged onto the film. An LED reader scans the timecode data from the film and sends it to the DTS processor, using the time code to synchronize the projected image with the DTS soundtrack audio. The multi-channel DTS audio is recorded in compressed form on standard CD-ROM media at a bitrate of 882 kbit/s. The audio compression used in the theatrical DTS system (which is very different and completely unrelated to the home Coherent Acoustics-based DTS Digital Surround format) is the APT-X100 system. Unlike the home version of DTS or any version of Dolby Digital, the APT-X100 system is fixed at a 4:1 compression ratio. Data reduction is accomplished via sub-band coding with linear prediction and adaptive quantization. The theatrical DTS processor acts as a transport mechanism, as it holds and reads the audio discs. When the DTS format was launched, it used one or two discs with later units holding three discs, thus allowing a single DTS processor to handle two-disc film soundtracks along with a third disc for theatrical trailers. The DTS time code on the 35mm print identifies the film title which is matched to the individual DTS CD-ROMs, guaranteeing that the film cannot be played with the wrong disc. Each DTS CD-ROM contains a DOS program that the processor uses to play back the soundtrack, allowing system improvements or bug fixes to be added easily. Unlike Dolby Digital and SDDS, or the home version of DTS, the theatrical DTS system only carries 5 discrete channels on the CD-ROMs. The .1 LFE subwoofer track is mixed into the discrete surround channels on the disc and recovered via low-pass filters in the theater.

DTS audio codec

On the consumer level, DTS is the oft-used shorthand for the DTS Coherent Acoustics (DCA) codec, transportable through S/PDIF and part of the LaserDisc, DVD, and Blu-ray specifications. This system is the consumer version of the DTS standard, using a similar codec without needing separate DTS CD-ROM media. Like standard CD players, DVD and Blu-ray Disc players cannot decode audio from DTS audio CDs.

Both music and movie DVDs allow delivery of DTS audio signal, but DTS was not part of the original DVD specification, so early DVD players do not recognize DTS audio tracks at all. The DVD specification was revised to allow optional inclusion of DTS audio tracks. The DVD title must carry one or more primary audio tracks in AC-3 or LPCM format (in Europe, MPEG-1 Audio Layer II is also an allowed primary track format). The DTS audio track, if present, can be selected by the user. Subsequent DVD players now decode DTS natively or pass it through to an external decoder. Nearly all standalone receivers and many integrated DVD player/receivers can decode DTS.

A small number of Laserdiscs carry DTS soundtracks. The NTSC Laserdisc format allows for either analog audio only or both analog and digital audio tracks. Laserdiscs encoded with DTS sound [10] replace the LPCM digital audio track with the DTS soundtrack. This soundtrack is output via digital coaxial or optical audio outputs and requires an external decoder to process the bitstream.

For PC playback, many software players support the decoding of DTS. The VideoLAN project has created a decoding module for DTS called libdca (formerly libdts), which is the first open source implementation of DTS.[11]

Sony's PlayStation 3 and Microsoft's Xbox 360 are capable of DTS decoding and output via TOSLINK or HDMI as LPCM. However, HDMI output on the Xbox 360 is only found on the "Elite" model and newer models available since mid-2007, with the release of the Falcon motherboard revision. Also, the Xbox 360 cannot decode DTS from DTS audio CDs. PlayStation 3 consoles can bitstream DTS over HDMI, but cannot decode audio from DTS audio CDs. The newer "slim" models are able to bitstream DTS-HD MA as well, but also cannot decode audio from DTS CDs.

DTS technologies

In addition to the standard 5.1-channel DTS Surround codec, the company has several other technologies in its product range designed to compete with similar systems from Dolby Labs. Those which conceptually extend DTS (to add more channels and/or more accurate sound reproduction) are implemented as extensions to a core DTS Coherent Acoustics data stream.[12] The core stream is compatible with DTS decoders which do not support the extension(s); the extension(s) provide the additional data required to implement the additional functionality.

The primary new technologies are:

DTS 70 mm

This is a process designed specifically for playback in motion picture theaters equipped with 70mm projection and 6-track surround sound. The 70 mm DTS prints do not have 6-track magnetic striping, so there is no analog backup should the digital sound fail. The time code track on the film is many times wider than the 35mm version, since it can occupy the real estate formerly taken up by a magnetic track. Theaters with 70 mm DTS frequently install two time code readers for greater reliability.

The gradual disappearance of 70 mm as a common exhibition format has led to DTS-70 being reserved for niche engagements of 70 mm revivals and restorations. Dolby Digital has not been adapted to the 70 mm format.

DTS-ES

DTS-ES (DTS Extended Surround) includes two variants, DTS-ES Matrix and DTS-ES Discrete 6.1, depending on how the sound was originally mastered and stored.[13] Both variants are implemented in ways which are compatible with DTS decoders which do not include support for DTS-ES.

DTS-ES Matrix provides 5.1 discrete channels, with a matrixed center-surround audio channel. DTS processors that are compatible with the ES codec look for and recognize "flags" built into the audio coding and "unfold" the rear-center sound from data that would otherwise be sent to rear surround speakers. DTS decoders which do not understand ES process the sound as if it were standard 5.1, and the matrixed audio for the center surround channel is output equally from the two surround speakers (very much as a sound intended to be in the centre of the sound field in a stereo recording is played equally by the left and right speakers). This is notated as DTS-ES 5.1.

DTS-ES Discrete provides 6.1 discrete channels, with a discretely recorded (non-matrixed) center-surround channel; in home theater systems with a 7.1 configuration, the two rear-center speakers play in mono. To maintain compatibility with DTS decoders which do not support DTS-ES, the center-surround channel is also matrixed into the left and right surround channels, so that the rear center channel's sound is still present when played in 5.1 on a non-ES system; an ES decoder removes the matrixed audio from these two channels when playing back DTS-ES Discrete soundtracks. DTS-ES Discrete is sometimes notated as DTS-ES 6.1. Only a few DVD titles have been released with DTS-ES Discrete.

In contrast, Dolby's competing EX codec, which also boasts a center rear channel, can only handle matrixed data and does not support a discrete sixth channel; it is most directly comparable to DTS-ES Matrix.

Note: The center-rear/surround channel is encoded and decoded in exactly the same way as the center-front. The center surround channel can be decoded using any surround sound processor by feeding the left and right surround signals to the processor inputs. Left-Center-Right surround is produced. This will work for a "center surround" reproduction, whether the source material is explicitly encoded, as in DTS-ES, or hidden as ambience in any 5.1 source, including DTS-ES 5.1 and Dolby 5.1.

DTS Neo:6

DTS Neo:6, like Dolby's Pro Logic IIx system, reconstructs 2.1, 5.1, 6.1, or 7.1 sources to 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1, and 7.1 channel systems. A 7.1 system's 2 rear speakers are mono. Neo:6 is a multi-band decoder, unlike Dolby Pro Logic II's broadband logic steering, meaning that the decoder can enhance more than one predominant signal at a time — provided each predominant signal lies in a different frequency band than the others. The number of bands steered varies in each Neo:6 implementation, with the first decoders steering in 12 separate bands and later units steering up to 19.

DTS Neo:X

DTS Neo:X reconstructs 2.1, 5.1, 6.1, or 7.1 sources to 11.1 front height and width channel systems. Dolby's Pro Logic IIz's system adds only front height channels to the 7.1 configuration. Neo:X also matrix downmixes 11.1 sources to 5.1 or 7.1 channel systems.

DTS 96/24

DTS 96/24 allows the delivery of 5.1 channels of 24-bit, 96 kHz audio and high quality video on the DVD-Video format. Prior to the development of DTS 96/24, it was only possible to deliver two channels of 24-bit, 96 kHz audio on DVD Video. DTS 96/24 can also be placed in the video zone on DVD-Audio discs, making these discs playable on all DTS-compatible DVD players. DTS 96/24 is implemented as a core DTS stream plus an extension containing the deltas to enable 96/24 sound reproduction.

DTS-HD High Resolution Audio

DTS-HD High Resolution Audio, along with DTS-HD Master Audio, comprise the DTS-HD extension to the original DTS audio format. It delivers up to 7.1 channels of sound at a 96 kHz sampling frequency and 24-bit depth resolution. DTS-HD High Resolution Audio is selected as an optional surround sound format for Blu-ray Disc, with constant bit rates up to 6.0 Mbit/s and 3.0 Mbit/s, respectively. It is intended to be an alternative for DTS-HD Master Audio where disc space may not allow it. DTS-HD High Resolution Audio is implemented as a core DTS stream plus an extension containing the two additional channels plus deltas to enable 96/24 sound reproduction.

DTS-HD Master Audio

DTS-HD-MA
DTS-HD Master Audio logo.

DTS-HD Master Audio, previously known as DTS++,[14] is the second of two DTS-HD audio formats.[15] It supports a virtually unlimited number of surround sound channels, can deliver audio quality at bit rates extending from lossless (24-bit, 192 kHz) down to DTS Digital Surround and, like Neo, downmix to 5.1 or 2.1 systems.

DTS-HD Master Audio is selected as an optional surround sound format for Blu-ray, where it has been limited to a maximum of 8 discrete channels. DTS-HD MA supports variable bit rates up to 24.5 Mbit/s, with up to 6 channels encoded at up to 192 kHz or 8 channels and nine objects encoded at 96 kHz/24 bit. If more than two channels are used, a "channel remapping" function allows for remixing the soundtrack to compensate for a different channel layout in the playback system compared to the original mix.

All Blu-ray players can decode the DTS "core" resolution soundtrack at 1.5 Mbit/s, however, as DTS-HD Master Audio is also implemented as a standard DTS core plus extensions, but cannot decode audio from DTS audio CDs. DTS-HD Master Audio and Dolby TrueHD are the only technologies that deliver compressed lossless surround sound for these new disc formats, ensuring the highest quality audio performance available in the new standards. (DTS Coherent Acoustics' coding system has been selected as mandatory audio technology for both the Blu-ray Disc [BD]).[16]

DTS:X

DTSX technology Logo
DTS:X logo.
DTS X B&W
Print logo

Rather than define a fixed number of channels, one for each speaker, DTS:X allows the "location" (direction from the listener) of "objects" (audio tracks) to be specified as polar coordinates. The audio processor is then responsible for dynamically rendering sound output depending on the number and position of speakers available. Dolby Atmos uses a similar technique,[17][18] although the speaker layout employed by cinema DTS:X is the sum of Dolby Atmos and Auro-3D. The layout showcased at AMC Burbank theatre number 8 has a standard eight channel base layer, a five channel height layer on top of the base layer (on the front and side walls) and three rows of speakers on the ceiling. The surround arrays are bass managed by woofers suspended from the ceiling.[19]

DTS Neural:X

DTS Neural:X usually comes on systems that also have DTS:X, and is an upmixing technique for upmixing or remapping legacy bitstreams and PCM content to virtually any speaker layout, in which the sound can come from anywhere around the listener, including above.[20]

DTS Headphone:X

DTS HeadphoneX Logo
DTS Headphone:X logo.

DTS Headphone:X reproduces 12 channels of binaural surround sound using any pair of stereo headphones.[21] The head related transfer function is developed by DTS and includes compensation for room cues such as reflection and delay by mapping the acoustic characteristic of the original mixing studio, or other professional audio lab as a reference.[22]

DTS Connect

DTS Connect is a blanket name for a two-part system used on the computer platform only, in order to convert PC audio into the DTS format, transported via a single S/PDIF cable.[23] The two components of the system are DTS Interactive and DTS Neo:PC. It is found on various CMedia soundcards and onboard audio with Realtek ALC883DTS/ALC889A/ALC888DD-GR/ALC892-DTS-CG and SoundMAX AD1988 chips, as well as several cards based on the X-Fi chipset, such as the SoundBlaster Titanium series and Auzentech's X-Fi Forte, X-Fi Prelude, X-Fi Home Theater HD and X-Fi Bravura cards.

  • DTS Interactive: This is a real-time DTS stream encoder. On the PC, it takes multichannel audio and converts it into a 1.5 Mbit/s DTS stream for output. Because it uses the original DTS codec to transmit audio, fidelity is limited to 5.1 channel at 48 kHz, 24bit. More than 5.1 channels, a higher sampling frequency or data rate are not supported, due to the lack of support for DTS variants such as DTS 96/24. It can also be found on some standalone devices (e.g., Surround Encoder). Nearly a dozen titles on the PlayStation 2 feature the "DTS Interactive" real-time stream encoder, such as Grand Theft Auto: Vice City and Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines.
  • DTS Neo:PC: This is a technology based on the DTS Neo:6 matrix surround technology, which transforms any stereo content (MP3, WMA, CD Audio, or games) into a simulated 7.1-channel surround sound experience. The 7.1-channel surround sound is output as a DTS stream for output via a S/PDIF cable port.

DTS Play-Fi

Play-Fi is a wireless protocol for multiroom audio based on the existing 802.11 specification (b/g/n). It emerged in late 2012 as an Android streaming protocol, with iOS support added in September 2013, and Windows support later, including audio/video sync.[24] The first Play-Fi speaker was the Phorus PS1, made by DTS subsidiary Phorus.[25]

Unlike competitors such as Sonos or SoundTouch from Bose, Play-Fi is an open standard and has been adopted by a wide range of brands including Anthem, Arcam, Definitive Technology, Hewlett-Packard, Integra, Klipsch, MartinLogan, McIntosh, Onkyo, Paradigm, Pioneer, Polk Audio, Rotel, Sonus Faber, Soundcast and Wren. The Play-Fi app supports streaming from the user's device, DLNA servers,[26] via AirPlay[27] and from online streaming services including Spotify, Pandora Radio, Amazon Prime Music, iHeart Radio, Rhapsody, SiriusXM, Tidal, Qobuz, KKBox, QQ Music, and Juke.[28] DTS Play-Fi also introduced a Play-Fi enabled wireless speaker with Amazon Alexa Voice Services built-in under the Onkyo, Phorus, and Pioneer brands in September 2017.[29]

Other Play-Fi capabilities include:

  • grouping speakers for individual simultaneous playback of the same source and so that their volume can be controlled simultaneously[30]
  • grouping speakers in stereo[31] or surround[32] configurations
  • creating zones for playing different audio streams to different groups of speakers[33]
  • streaming line-in input to a speaker group[34]
  • streaming of arbitrary audio output on computers running Windows[24] or Linux with PulseAudio (albeit with a delay[35] and only to individual speakers, as opposed to groups, zones, or stereo configurations[36])
  • streaming the left and right surround channels of a broadcast or movie to 2 wireless Play-Fi speakers to be used as surround channels with a Play-Fi enabled sound bar.[37]
  • Ability to stream and decode high resolution audio (up to 96 kHz / 24-bit).[38]

Play-Fi doesn't support Google Cast, rebroadcasting Bluetooth input to more than one speaker,[39] or audio streaming in sync with video on non-Windows systems.[40]

Others

  • DTS Surround Sensation: Previously known as DTS Virtual. It allows a virtual 5.1 surround sound to be heard through a standard pair of headphones.[41]

Comparison with other formats

DTS and Dolby Digital (AC-3), DTS's chief competitor in the cinema theatre and home theatre markets, are often compared because of their similarity in product goals, though Dolby believed that the surround channels should be diffused and DTS said they should be directional. In theatrical installations, AC-3 audio is placed between sprocket holes on the 35 mm film itself, leaving the audio content susceptible to physical damage from film wear and mishandling. DTS audio is stored on a separate set of CD-ROM media, whose greater storage capacity affords the potential to deliver better audio fidelity and is not subject to the usual wear and damage suffered by the film print during the normal course of the movie's theatrical screening. Disregarding the separate CD-ROM assembly as a potential point of failure, the DTS audiopath is comparatively impervious to film degradation, unless the film-printed timecode is completely destroyed.

In the consumer (home theater) market, AC-3 and DTS are close in terms of audio performance. When the DTS audio track is encoded at its highest legal bitrate (1509.75 kbit/s), technical experts rank DTS as perceptually transparent for most audio program material (i.e., indistinguishable to the uncoded source in a double blind test). Dolby claims its competing AC-3 codec achieves similar transparency at its highest coded bitrate (640 kbit/s). However, in program material available to home consumers (DVD, broadcast, and subscription digital TV), neither AC-3 nor DTS typically run at their highest allowed bitrate. DVD and broadcast (ATSC) HDTV cap AC-3 bitrate at 448 kbit/s. But even at that rate, consumer audio gear already enjoys better audio performance than theatrical (35 mm movie) installations, which are limited to even lower bitrates. When DTS audio was introduced to the DVD specification, a few studios authored DTS tracks on some DVDs at the full bitrate (1509.75 kbit/s). Most later DVD titles that offered DTS tracks were encoded at 754.5 kbit/s (about half the rate of 1536kbps). At this reduced rate, DTS no longer retains audio transparency. This was done to make room for more audio tracks and content to reduce costs of spreading extra material on multiple discs.

AC-3 and DTS are sometimes judged by their encoded bitrates. Dolby Digital 5.1 can compress the same data to less, taking up minimal space. Conversely, DTS proponents claim that the extra bits give higher fidelity and more dynamic range, providing a richer and more lifelike sound. But no conclusion can be drawn from their respective bitrates, as each codec relies on different coding tools and syntax to compress audio.

See also

References

  1. ^ https://www.bloomberg.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=27605
  2. ^ Sharkey, Jack. "A Brief History of Surround Sound". Kefdirect.com. Kef. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  3. ^ Garber, David. "Jon Kirchner: Delivering the Sonic Goods". CSQ.
  4. ^ Rothman, Matt (May 25, 1993). "Sound future arrives aboard a dinosaur". Variety.
  5. ^ Rothman, Matt. "Sound future arrives aboard a dinosaur". Variety.
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-13. Retrieved 2016-03-13.
  7. ^ "Manzanita Systems - Essential MPEG Solutions". www.manzanitasystems.com.
  8. ^ "About - Phorus". phorus.com.
  9. ^ "DTS and Ibiquity Digital Corp to Make the Drive Better with HD Radio Technology - DTS". www.dts.com.
  10. ^ "What is DTS Sound? - Audiogurus". www.audiogurus.com.
  11. ^ VideoLAN. "VLC - Features - VideoLAN". www.videolan.org.
  12. ^ Audio Technologies & Software | Professional Archived 2009-07-21 at the Wayback Machine.. DTS. Retrieved on 2013-12-09.
  13. ^ "timefordvd.com - Informationen zum Thema timefordvd". www.timefordvd.com.
  14. ^ "DTD Unveils DTS-HD Brand For High Definition Media Formats - ecoustics.com". 1 November 2004.
  15. ^ "Box". www.dts.com.
  16. ^ "DTS technology mandatory for next generation discs - dts.com". Archived from the original on 2006-10-20. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  17. ^ Pendlebury, Ty (April 9, 2015). "DTS:X takes on Dolby Atmos from on high". CNET. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  18. ^ Palenchar, Joseph (April 20, 2015). "DTS Makes The Case For DTS:X Surround". TWICE. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  19. ^ "From the Guild : TOWARD AN OPEN-STANDARD SURROUND-SOUND FORMAT". MPEG. Retrieved 2016-06-09.
  20. ^ "DTS home solutions". DTS. DTS. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  21. ^ DTS CTO Fred Kitson interviewed on the TV show Home Theatre Geeks on the TWiT.tv network
  22. ^ "Anywhere - DTS". dts.com.
  23. ^ LEADING MOTHERBOARD COMPANY, FOXCONN, TEAMS WITH AUDIO PIONEER DTS FOR INTEGRATED PC PRODUCTS Archived 2008-06-26 at the Wayback Machine., February 29, 2008
  24. ^ a b "Play-Fi for Windows". DTS.
  25. ^ Pendlebury, Ty (22 October 2013). "Phorus PS1 Speaker review: Phorus' wireless sound won't scare Sonos". CNET.
  26. ^ "Supported Media Servers". DTS.
  27. ^ "How do I use AirPlay with a Play-Fi Product?". DTS.
  28. ^ Pendlebury, Ty (4 January 2016). "DTS Play-Fi takes streaming fight to Google with support from high-end manufacturers". CNET.
  29. ^ "First DTS Play-Fi Speakers with Amazon Alexa Voice Service to be unveiled at IFA - Play-Fi". play-fi.com. Retrieved 2017-10-16.
  30. ^ "Adding speakers and creating speaker groups". DTS.
  31. ^ "Stereo pair set up". DTS.
  32. ^ "Set-Up Play-Fi Surround". DTS.
  33. ^ "Multi-zone Streaming". DTS.
  34. ^ "Stream a "Line-In" audio input". DTS.
  35. ^ Mund, Massimo. "Known issues". pulseaudio-dlna. GitHub.
  36. ^ Dascalescu, Dan (13 April 2017). "Streaming to Play-Fi groups/zones/stereo configurations". pulseaudio-dlna. GitHub.
  37. ^ "What is Play-Fi wireless audio?". Crutchfield. Retrieved 2017-10-16.
  38. ^ "True Lossless Hi-Res Audio comes to DTS Play-Fi - Play-Fi". play-fi.com. Retrieved 2017-10-16.
  39. ^ "How can i play audio via Bluetooth through BOTH speakers of the stereo pair?". Amazon.com: Questions and Answers. Phorus. 4 April 2017.
  40. ^ "Can I stream video and hear the audio on my Play-Fi product?". DTS.
  41. ^ DTS Stirs Surround Sensation(TM) at CES 2008, (January 7, 2008)
Aabavanan

Aabavanan is an Indian film director, screenwriter and producer who has worked in Tamil films. Since the early 1980s, he worked in Tamil films. He spent most of his career screenwriting, lyrics writing, music composing and producing movies with different themes. He is the first person in Tamil cinema, who introduced the live-recording system, he is also the first person to introduce DTS sound system in india.

He is well known for this screenplay and also knows for his interval block in "Inaintha kaigal"

Ayngaran International

Ayngaran International is a film distribution and production company, based in the United Kingdom. Historically, Tamil films from India have been distributed to overseas theaters and for home media consumption by Ayngaran. It also operates a chain of retail video stores located in the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Malaysia, and Singapore.As of 2008, the company debuted as an independent film studio, opening offices in India. Its first production was Karuppu Roja (1996).

Bassam Al-Thawadi

Bassam Mohammed Al-Thawadi (born December 13, 1960) is a veteran Bahraini filmmaker and film director, known for producing Bahrain's first feature film, The Barrier, in 1990. Regarded as a regional pioneer in film-making, he is a founding member of the GCC Cinema Society and is also the founder and director-in-general of first Arab Cinema Festival in Bahrain. He had directed numerous short films and also commercials, educational & cultural programmes during his tenure in the Bahrain Radio and Television Corporation as well as performing in plays.Al-Thawadi was chairman of the Al Sawari Video Festival of 1994 and a member of the judging committee of the Baghdad International Television & Film Festival in 1988. He organized the New Egyptian Cinema Days Festival in Bahrain in 1993, and was the director of the fifth Arab Music Festival in 1996.

Digital Entertainment Content Ecosystem

The Digital Entertainment Content Ecosystem (DECE LLC) is a consortium of major film studios, consumer electronics manufacturers and retailers, networking hardware vendors, systems integrators, and Digital Rights Management (DRM) vendors. The consortium was announced in September 2008 by its president, Mitch Singer, also the chief technology officer (CTO) of Sony Pictures Entertainment. DECE was chartered to develop a set of standards for the digital distribution of premium Hollywood content. The consortium intends to create a set of rules and a back-end system for the management of those rules that will enable consumers to share purchased digital content between a domain of registered consumer electronics devices.DECE's digital locker system is named UltraViolet.Amazon, Apple, Disney, and Google are not members of DECE. In February 2014, Disney launched its own digital locker system named Keychest and an associated streaming platform named Disney Movies Anywhere. In October 2017, Disney expanded Keychest to outside studios and renamed Disney Movies Anywhere to Movies Anywhere. Movies Anywhere currently connects to Amazon Video, FandangoNOW, Google Play, the iTunes Store, Microsoft Movies & TV, and Vudu.

Dolby Digital

Dolby Digital is the name for audio compression technologies developed by Dolby Laboratories. Originally named Dolby Stereo Digital until 1994, except for Dolby TrueHD, the audio compression is lossy. The first use of Dolby Digital was to provide digital sound in cinemas from 35mm film prints; today, it is now also used for other applications such as TV broadcast, radio broadcast via satellite, digital video streaming, DVDs, Blu-ray discs and game consoles.

Futurist Theatre

The Futurist Theatre was a theatre and cinema in Scarborough, North Yorkshire, England. It was located on Foreshore Road, on the sea front of the South Bay.

The theatre closed on 6 January 2014 after the operator's lease expired. The building was demolished by August 2018.

The Futurist was built as a cinema in 1921. It remained in this role until 1958 when the stage was extended to allow live performances at the venue. The Beatles performed there twice, on 11 December 1963 and on 9 August 1964. Extensions to the stage allowed the popular The Black and White Minstrel Show to perform there many times when it was owned (between 1966 and 1974) by Robert Luff, the producer of the stage version. The extension to the stage meant the closure of the adjacent Arcadia Theatre which became a lounge.

During the 1980s, Scarborough Borough Council took over the property and leased the theatre to Apollo Leisure Ltd (UK), who ran it until September 2002.

In December 2002, Barrie C. Stead, who also runs the Hollywood Plaza cinema, took over the Futurist and refurbished the theatre and cinema, installing new projectors, DTS sound system and a new CinemaScope screen.

Every summer, there was a summer season with usually the same acts every week in July and August.The Futurist had the twelfth largest capacity (2,155) of a theatre in the country, and the fifth largest outside London.In the winter of 2011, the Futurist managed to attract over 16,000 people during eight sell-out performances of Calendar Girls produced by David Pugh.On 9 January 2017, Scarborough Borough Council voted to demolish the theatre, by the narrowest of margins (22-21). The decision was a controversial one, as not all the councillors voted, and many locals and visitors alike, would have preferred the venue to be saved, restored and modernised. The fate of the site is uncertain. However, interest has been shown from the Flamingoland group, who gave a large donation to the encumbant conservative party prior to the ramping up of the parties campaign to demolish the building. Demolition of the building began in June 2018 and was completed in August 2018.

Indriyam

Indriyam is a 2000 Indian Malayalam horror film directed by George Kithu. The film is about a group of college friends who go into a haunted forest, with Vikram, Vani Viswanath, Nishanth Sagar, Boban Alummoodan And Lena appearing amongst others in the cast.The initial collection was huge and astonishing.The Film was Hit at the boxoffice and used possibilities of DTS sound system. It was dubbed and released in Tamil as Manthira Kottai in December 2000, shortly after the success of Sethu, in which Vikram had featured.

Kington Loo

Kington Loo (17 October 1930 - 21 March 2003) was an architect in Malaysia who belongs to the group who brought modernism to Southeast Asia in the wake of World War II. The firm he work for, Booty and Edwards, became a leader in the region. His mother, Lok Soh June, was an accomplished piano player and was the sixth daughter of millionaire businessman Loke Chow Kit; his father, the engineer Yuson Loo, was the grandson of prominent businessman Loke Yew. He was married and had a daughter, Ysa Loo.

List of file formats

This is a list of file formats used by computers, organized by type. Filename extensions are usually noted in parentheses if they differ from the file format name or abbreviation. Many operating systems do not limit filenames to one extension shorter than 4 characters, as was common with some operating systems that supported the File Allocation Table (FAT) file system. Examples of operating systems that do not impose this limit include Unix-like systems, and Microsoft Windows NT, 95, 98, and Me which have no three character limit on extensions for 32-bit or 64-bit applications on file systems other than pre-Windows 95 and Windows NT 3.5 versions of the FAT file system. Some filenames are given extensions longer than three characters.

Some file formats, such as .txt, may be listed multiple times.

Satya Harishchandra (1965 Kannada film)

Satya Harischandra (Kannada: ಸತ್ಯ ಹರಿಶ್ಚಂದ್ರ) is a 1965 Indian Kannada epic film directed by Hunsur Krishnamurthy and produced by K. V. Reddy. It stars Rajkumar in the lead role, as Harishchandra, an Indian mythological king, who was renowned for upholding truth and justice under any circumstance. The film is based on poet Raghavanka's work, Harishchandra Kavya. The supporting cast features Udaykumar, Pandari Bai, Narasimharaju, M. P. Shankar, K. S. Ashwath and Baby Padmini. This was the second Kannada movie based on king Harishchandra, the first one being the 1943 movie Satya Harishchandra.

K. V. Reddy simultaneously produced a Telugu version of the movie also titled Satya Harishchandra starring N. T. Rama Rao. At the 13th National Film Awards, the film was awarded the President's silver medal for the Best Feature Film in Kannada. The film was hugely successful at the time of its release and is seen as a milestone in Kannada cinema. Satya Harishchandra was the third Indian and first South Indian film to be digitally coloured. The coloured version, released in April 2008, was a commercial success.

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