DMOZ (from, an earlier domain name) was a multilingual open-content directory of World Wide Web links. The site and community who maintained it were also known as the Open Directory Project (ODP). It was owned by AOL (now a part of Verizon's Oath Inc.) but constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors.

DMOZ used a hierarchical ontology scheme for organizing site listings. Listings on a similar topic were grouped into categories which then included smaller categories.

DMOZ closed on March 17, 2017 because AOL no longer wished to support the project.[2][3] The website became a single landing page on that day, with links to a static archive of DMOZ, and to the DMOZ discussion forum, where plans to rebrand and relaunch the directory are being discussed.[3]

As of September 2017, a non-editable mirror remained available at,[4] and it was announced that while the DMOZ URL would not return, a successor version of the directory named Curlie would be provided.[5][6]

"dmoz" in white on a green background with each letter in a separate square
Dmoz - Open Directory Project
Type of site
Web directory
Available in90 languages, including English
ParentOath Inc. (Verizon)
Alexa rankNegative increase 64,731 (July 2017)[1]
LaunchedJune 5, 1998
Current statusClosed
Content license
Open Directory License, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported


DMOZ was founded in the United States as Gnuhoo by Rich Skrenta and Bob Truel in 1998 while they were both working as engineers for Sun Microsystems. Chris Tolles, who worked at Sun Microsystems as the head of marketing for network security products, also signed on in 1998 as a co-founder of Gnuhoo along with co-founders Bryn Dole and Jeremy Wenokur. Skrenta had developed TASS, an ancestor of tin, the popular threaded Usenet newsreader for Unix systems. The original category structure of the Gnuhoo directory was based loosely on the structure of Usenet newsgroups then in existence.

The Gnuhoo directory went live on June 5, 1998. After Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation objected to the use of Gnu in the name, Gnuhoo was changed to NewHoo.[7] Yahoo! then objected to the use of Hoo in the name, prompting a proposed name change to ZURL.[8] Prior to switching to ZURL, NewHoo was acquired by Netscape Communications Corporation in October 1998 and became the Open Directory Project. Netscape released Open Directory data under the Open Directory License. Netscape was acquired by AOL shortly thereafter and DMOZ was one of the assets included in the acquisition.

Odp sitecount top
DMOZ size by date, 1998 to 2015.

By the time Netscape assumed stewardship, the Open Directory Project had about 100,000 URLs indexed with contributions from about 4500 editors. On October 5, 1999, the number of URLs indexed by DMOZ reached one million. According to an unofficial estimate, the URLs in DMOZ numbered 1.6 million in April 2000, surpassing those in the Yahoo! Directory.[9] DMOZ achieved the milestones of indexing two million URLs on August 14, 2000, three million listings on November 18, 2001 and four million on December 3, 2003. As of April 2013 there were 5,169,995 sites listed in over 1,017,500 categories. On October 31, 2015, there were 3,996,412 sites listed in 1,026,706 categories.

In January 2006, DMOZ began publishing online reports to inform the public about the development of the project. The first report covered the year 2005. Monthly reports were issued subsequently until September 2006.[10] These reports gave greater insight into the functioning of the directory than the simplified statistics provided on the front page of the directory. The number of listings and categories cited on the front page included "Test" and "Bookmarks" categories but these were not included in the RDF dump offered to users. There were about 7330 active editors during August 2006.[10] 75,151 editors had contributed to the directory as of March 31, 2007.[11] As of April 2013, the number of contributing editors had increased to 97,584.[11]

System failure and editing outage, October to December 2006

On October 20, 2006, DMOZ's main server suffered a catastrophic failure[12] that prevented editors from working on the directory until December 18, 2006. During that period, an older build of the directory was visible to the public. On January 13, 2007, the Site Suggestion and Update Listings forms were again made available.[13] On January 26, 2007, weekly publication of RDF dumps resumed. To avoid future outages, the system resided on a redundant configuration of two Intel-based servers from then on.[14]

The site's interface was given an upgrade in 2016, branded "DMOZ 3.0", but AOL took it offline the following year.

Competing and spinoff projects

As DMOZ became more widely known, two other major web directories edited by volunteers and sponsored by and Zeal emerged, both now defunct. These directories did not license their content for open content distribution.[15][16]

The concept of using a large-scale community of editors to compile online content has been successfully applied to other types of projects. DMOZ's editing model directly inspired at least three other open content volunteer projects: music site MusicMoz, an open content restaurant directory known as ChefMoz[17] and an encyclopedia known as Open Site.[18] Finally, according to Larry Sanger, DMOZ was part of the inspiration for the Nupedia project, out of which Wikipedia grew.[19]


GnuHoo logo

Original logo as from June 1998

NewHoo logo

Logo after rebranding as NewHoo

Open Directory Project logo

Logo after acquisition by Netscape

DMOZ Open Directory Project logo

Logo from 1999 to 2014 with the name DMOZ

DMOZ logo

Logo from March 2014

DMOZ logo

Logo from June 2016 until the closing in March 2017


Gnuhoo borrowed the basic outline for its initial ontology from Usenet. In 1998, Rich Skrenta said, "I took a long list of groups and hand-edited them into a hierarchy."[20] For example, the topic covered by the newsgroup was represented by the category Computers/AI/Artificial_Life. The original divisions were for Adult, Arts, Business, Computers, Games, Health, Home, News, Recreation, Reference, Regional, Science, Shopping, Society, Sports and "World". While these sixteen top-level categories have remained intact, the ontology of second- and lower-level categories has undergone a gradual evolution; significant changes are initiated by discussion among editors and then implemented when consensus has been reached.

In July 1998, the directory became multilingual with the addition of the World top-level category. The remainder of the directory lists only English language sites. By May 2005, seventy-five languages were represented. The growth rate of the non-English components of the directory has been greater than the English component since 2002. While the English component of the directory held almost 75% of the sites in 2003, the World level grew to over 1.5 million sites as of May 2005, forming roughly one-third of the directory. The ontology in non-English categories generally mirrors that of the English directory, although exceptions which reflect language differences are quite common.

Several of the top-level categories have unique characteristics. The Adult category is not present on the directory homepage but it is fully available in the RDF dump that DMOZ provides. While the bulk of the directory is categorized primarily by topic, the Regional category is categorized primarily by region. This has led many to view DMOZ as two parallel directories: Regional and Topical.

On November 14, 2000, a special directory within DMOZ was created for people under 18 years of age.[21] Key factors distinguishing this "Kids and Teens" area from the main directory are:

  • stricter guidelines which limit the listing of sites to those which are targeted or "appropriate" for people under 18 years of age;[22]
  • category names as well as site descriptions use vocabulary which is "age appropriate";
  • age tags on each listing distinguish content appropriate for kids (age 12 and under), teens (13 to 15 years old) and mature teens (16 to 18 years old);
  • Kids and Teens content is available as a separate RDF dump;
  • editing permissions are such that the community is parallel to that of DMOZ.

By May 2005, this portion of DMOZ included over 32,000 site listings.

Since early 2004, the whole site has been in UTF-8 encoding. Prior to this, the encoding used to be ISO 8859-1 for English language categories and a language-dependent character set for other languages. The RDF dumps have been encoded in UTF-8 since early 2000.


Directory listings are maintained by editors. While some editors focus on the addition of new listings, others focus on maintaining the existing listings and some do both. This includes tasks such as the editing of individual listings to correct spelling and/or grammatical errors, as well as monitoring the status of linked sites. Still others go through site submissions to remove spam and duplicate submissions.

Robozilla is a Web crawler written to check the status of all sites listed in DMOZ. Periodically, Robozilla will flag sites which appear to have moved or disappeared and editors follow up to check the sites and take action. This process is critical for the directory in striving to achieve one of its founding goals: to reduce the link rot in web directories. Shortly after each run, the sites marked with errors are automatically moved to the unreviewed queue where editors may investigate them when time permits.

Due to the popularity of DMOZ and its resulting impact on search engine rankings (See PageRank), domains with lapsed registration that are listed on DMOZ have attracted domain hijacking, an issue that has been addressed by regularly removing expired domains from the directory.

While corporate funding and staff for DMOZ have diminished in recent years, volunteers have created editing tools such as linkcheckers to supplement Robozilla, category crawlers, spellcheckers, search tools that directly sift a recent RDF dump, bookmarklets to help automate some editing functions, mozilla based add-ons,[23] and tools to help work through unreviewed queues.

License and requirements

DMOZ data was previously made available under the terms of the Open Directory License, which required a specific DMOZ attribution table on every Web page that uses the data.

The Open Directory License also included a requirement that users of the data continually check DMOZ site for updates and discontinue use and distribution of the data or works derived from the data once an update occurs. This restriction prompted the Free Software Foundation to refer to the Open Directory License as a non-free documentation license, citing the right to redistribute a given version not being permanent and the requirement to check for changes to the license.

In 2011, DMOZ silently changed its license to a Creative Commons Attribution license, which is a free license (and GPL compatible).[24]

RDF dumps

DMOZ data is made available through an RDF-like dump that is published on a download server, older versions are also archived there.[25] New versions are usually generated weekly. An DMOZ editor has catalogued a number of bugs that are encountered in the DMOZ RDF dump, most importantly that the file format isn't RDF.[26] So while today the so-called RDF dump is valid XML, it is not valid RDF and as such, software to process the DMOZ RDF dump needs to be specifically written for DMOZ data.

Content users

DMOZ data powers the core directory services for many of the Web's largest search engines and portals, including Netscape Search, AOL Search, and Alexa. Google Directory used DMOZ information, until being shuttered in July 2011.[27]

Other uses are also made of DMOZ data. For example, in the spring of 2004 Overture announced a search service for third parties combining Yahoo! Directory search results with DMOZ titles, descriptions and category metadata. The search engine Gigablast announced on May 12, 2005 its searchable copy of DMOZ. The technology permits search of websites listed in specific categories, "in effect, instantly creating over 500,000 vertical search engines".[28]

As of 8 September 2006, DMOZ listed 313 English-language Web sites that use DMOZ data as well as 238 sites in other languages.[29] However, these figures do not reflect the full picture of use, as those sites that use DMOZ data without following the terms of the DMOZ license are not listed.

Policies and procedures

Rich Skrenta
DMOZ was co-founded by Rich Skrenta (depicted in 2009, age 42).

Restrictions are imposed on who can become an DMOZ editor. The primary gatekeeping mechanism is an editor application process wherein editor candidates demonstrate their editing abilities, disclose affiliations that might pose a conflict of interest, and otherwise give a sense of how the applicant would likely mesh with the DMOZ culture and mission.[30] A majority of applications are rejected but reapplying is allowed and sometimes encouraged. The same standards apply to editors of all categories and subcategories.

DMOZ's editing model is a hierarchical one. Upon becoming editors, individuals will generally have editing permissions in only a small category. Once they have demonstrated basic editing skills in compliance with the Editing Guidelines, they are welcome to apply for additional editing privileges in either a broader category or else another category in the directory. Mentorship relationships between editors are encouraged, and internal forums provide a vehicle for new editors to ask questions.

DMOZ has its own internal forums, the contents of which are intended only for editors to communicate with each other primarily about editing topics. Access to the forums requires an editor account and editors are expected to keep the contents of these forums private.[31]

Over time, senior editors can be granted additional privileges which reflect their editing experience and leadership within the editing community. The most straightforward are editall privileges, which allow an editor to access all categories in the directory. Meta privileges additionally allow editors to perform tasks such as reviewing editor applications, setting category features, and handling external and internal abuse reports. Cateditall privileges are similar to editall, but only for a single directory category. Similarly, catmod privileges are similar to meta, but only for a single directory category. Catmv privileges allow editors to make changes to directory ontology by moving or renaming categories. All of these privileges are granted by admins and staff, usually after discussion with meta editors.

In August 2004, a new level of privileges called admin was introduced. Administrator status was granted to a number of long serving metas by staff. Administrators have the ability to grant editall+ privileges to other editors and to approve new directory-wide policies, powers which had previously only been available to root (staff) editors.[32]

All DMOZ editors are expected to abide by DMOZ's Editing Guidelines. These guidelines describe editing basics: which types of sites may be listed and which may not; how site listings should be titled and described in a loosely consistent manner; conventions for the naming and building of categories; conflict of interest limitations on the editing of sites which the editor may own or otherwise be affiliated with; and a code of conduct within the community.[33] Editors who are found to have violated these guidelines may be contacted by staff or senior editors, have their editing permissions cut back, or lose their editing privileges entirely. DMOZ Guidelines are periodically revised after discussion in editor forums.

Controversy and criticism

There have long been allegations that volunteer DMOZ editors give favorable treatment to their own websites while concomitantly thwarting the good faith efforts of their competition.[34] Such allegations are fielded by ODP's staff and meta editors, who have the authority to take disciplinary action against volunteer editors who are suspected of engaging in abusive editing practices.[35] In 2003, DMOZ introduced a new Public Abuse Report System that allows members of the general public to report and track allegations of abusive editor conduct using an online form.[36] Uninhibited discussion of DMOZ's purported shortcomings has become more common on mainstream webmaster discussion forums. Although site policies suggest that an individual site should be submitted to only one category,[37] as of October 2007,, a news aggregation site operated by DMOZ founder Rich Skrenta, had more than 17,000 listings.[38]

Early in the history of DMOZ, its staff gave representatives of selected companies, such as Rolling Stone or CNN, editing access in order to list individual pages from their websites.[39] Links to individual CNN articles were added until 2004, but were entirely removed from the directory in January 2008[40] due to the content being outdated and not considered worth the effort to maintain. There have been no similar experiments with the editing policy since then.

Ownership and management

DMOZ Closed
Screenshot taken in April 2017 showing DMOZ website to be closed.

Underlying some controversy surrounding DMOZ is its ownership and management. Some of the original GnuHoo volunteers felt that they had been deceived into joining a commercial enterprise.[7] To varying degrees, those complaints have continued up until the present.

At DMOZ's inception, there was little thought given to the idea of how DMOZ should be managed and there were no official forums, guidelines or FAQs. In essence, DMOZ began as a free for all.[41]

As time went on, the ODP Editor Forums became the de facto DMOZ parliament and when one of DMOZ's staff members would post an opinion in the forums, it would be considered an official ruling.[31] Even so, DMOZ staff began to give trusted senior editors additional editing privileges, including the ability to approve new editor applications, which eventually led to a stratified hierarchy of duties and privileges among DMOZ editors, with DMOZ's paid staff having the final say regarding DMOZ's policies and procedures.[32][42]

Robert Keating, a principal of Touchstone Consulting Group in Washington, D.C. since 2006, has worked as AOL's Program Manager for DMOZ since 2004. He started working for AOL in 1999 as Senior Editor for AOL Search, then as Managing Editor, AOL Search, DMOZ, and then as Media Ecosystem Manager, AOL Product Marketing.[43][44]

Editor removal procedures

DMOZ's editor removal procedures are overseen by DMOZ's staff and meta-editors. According to DMOZ's official editorial guidelines, editors are removed for abusive editing practices or uncivil behaviour. Discussions that may result in disciplinary action against volunteer editors take place in a private forum which can only be accessed by DMOZ's staff and meta editors. Volunteer editors who are being discussed are not given notice that such proceedings are taking place.[42] Some people find this arrangement distasteful, wanting instead a discussion modeled more like a trial held in the U.S. judicial system.[45]

In the article "Editor Removal Explained", DMOZ meta editor Arlarson states that "a great deal of confusion about the removal of editors from DMOZ results from false or misleading statements by former editors".[46]

The DMOZ's confidentiality guidelines prohibit any current DMOZ editors in a position to know anything from discussing the reasons for specific editor removals.[42] However, a generic list of reasons is for example given in the guidelines.[47] In the past, this has led to removed DMOZ editors wondering why they cannot log in at DMOZ to perform their editing work.[48][49]

Allegations that editors are removed for criticizing policies

David F. Prenatt, Jr., former DMOZ editor netesq, and another former editor known by the alias The Cunctator, both claim to have been removed for disagreeing with staff about changes to policies, particularly DMOZ's copyright policies. According to their claims, staff use the excuse of uncivil behaviour as a means to remove bothersome editors.[45][50][51]

Blacklisting allegations

Senior DMOZ editors have the ability to attach "warning" or "do not list" notes to individual domains but no editor has the unilateral ability to block certain sites from being listed. Sites with these notes might still be listed and at times notes are removed after some discussion.[52]

Hierarchical structure

Criticism of DMOZ's hierarchical structure emerged by around 2005. Many believe hierarchical directories are too complicated. With the emergence of Web 2.0, folksonomies began to appear, and some editors proposed that folksonomies, networks and directed graphs are more "natural" and easier to manage than hierarchies.[53][54][55]



The ODPSearch software is a derivative version of Isearch which is open-source, licensed under the Mozilla Public License.[56]

Editor forums

The ODP Editor Forums were originally run on software that was based on the proprietary Ultimate Bulletin Board system. In June 2003, they switched to the open source phpBB system. As of 2007, these forums are powered by a modified version of phpBB.

Bug tracking

The bug tracking software used by the ODP is Bugzilla and the web server Apache. Squid web proxy server was also used but it was removed in August 2007 when the storage servers were reorganized. All these applications are open source.


The DMOZ database/editing software is closed source (although Richard Skrenta has said in June 1998 that he was considering licensing it under the GNU General Public License). This has led to criticism from the aforementioned GNU project, many of whom also criticized the DMOZ content license. The content was later released under a Creative Commons license, which is compatible with the GNU license.[57]

As such, there have been some efforts to provide alternatives to DMOZ. These alternatives would allow communities of like-minded editors to set up and maintain their own open source/open content Web directories. The only credible alternative, now that DMOZ has closed, is Curlie, where the links from DMOZ have been utilised and many of the DMOZ editors work.

See also


  1. ^ " Traffic Statistics". Alexa Internet. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  2. ^ Sullivan, Danny (March 17, 2017). "DMOZ has officially closed after nearly 19 years of humans trying to organize the web". Search Engine Land. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Why Dmoz Was Closed ?". April 16, 2017. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
  4. ^ "The Directory of the Web – This site includes information formerly made available via DMOZ". Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  5. ^ "New dmoz". Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  6. ^ "Curlie: Present". March 29, 2017. Archived from the original on September 18, 2017. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
  7. ^ a b "The GnuHoo BooBoo". Slashdot. Retrieved April 27, 2007.
  8. ^ "Zurl Directory" Archived December 23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ ODP and Yahoo Size Charts by ODP editor geniac
  10. ^ a b ODP reports by ODP volunteer administrator chris2001
  11. ^ a b ODP Front Page Archived May 1, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved August 15, 2006
  12. ^ "Dmoz's Catastrophic Server/Hardware Failure". October 27, 2006. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  13. ^ technical problems Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  14. ^ The Hamsters' New Home, in: Open Directory newsletter issue Winter 2006. Retrieved December 26, 2006.
  15. ^ "Terms of Use" Archived February 2, 2002, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "GO Network Terms of Service and Conditions of Use" Archived May 10, 2000, at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ ChefMoz Fine Dining Menu Archived May 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, in: Open Directory newsletter issue Autumn 2003
  18. ^ help Archived June 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine on
  19. ^ Moody, Glyn (July 13, 2006). "This time, it'll be a Wikipedia written by experts". The Guardian. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  20. ^ Sullivan, Danny (July 1, 1998). "NewHoo: Yahoo Built By The Masses". Search Engine Watch. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  21. ^ Kids and Teens Launches! Archived February 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine Open Directory Project Newsletter, November/December 2000
  22. ^ "Kids&Teens Guidelines". Archived from the original on July 16, 2014. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  23. ^ "ODPExtension" Mozilla based add-on, ODP Magic. formerly known as ODP Extension
  24. ^ GNU Project: on the Creative Commons Attribution license
  25. ^ "Open Directory RDF Dump". Archived from the original on June 26, 2014. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  26. ^ "ODP/dmoz Data Dump ToDo List". Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  27. ^ "Google Streamlining: Say Goodbye to the Google Directory and Labs!". Pandia Search Engine News. July 21, 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
  28. ^ "Gigablast Launches 500,000 Vertical Search Engines". Gigablast. May 12, 2005. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  29. ^ Category: Sites Using ODP Data Archived March 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine on Retrieved September 8, 2006.
  30. ^ "Become an Editor at the Open Directory Project". Archived from the original on August 27, 2014. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  31. ^ a b "ODP Communication Guidelines". Archived from the original on July 22, 2014. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  32. ^ a b "Open Directory Project Administrator Guidelines". Archived from the original on July 22, 2014. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  33. ^ "ODP Directory Editorial Guidelines". Archived from the original on July 1, 2014. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  34. ^ "How To: ODP Editor Is Competitor". November 4, 2000. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  35. ^ ODP Meta Guidelines: Editor Abuse and Removal Archived January 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved October 9, 2008.
  36. ^ "Open Directory Project: Public Abuse Report System". Archived from the original on August 7, 2010. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  37. ^ "How to suggest a site to the Open Directory". Archived from the original on June 16, 2014. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  38. ^ Open Directory Project Search: "topix" (Retrieved October 18, 2007)
  39. ^ "Multiple URL's in DMOZ". January 30, 2003. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  40. ^ "Wayback Machine for". External link in |title= (help)
  41. ^ "The Open Directory Project: The Spirit of the Web". Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  42. ^ a b c "Open Directory Project Meta Guidelines". December 31, 2013. Archived from the original on March 4, 2017. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
  43. ^ Meet AOL's DMOZ Staff Team Archived January 1, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, DMOZ Blog, January 8, 2009
  44. ^ Robert Keating, LinkedIn
  45. ^ a b Prenatt, David (May 29, 2000). "Life After ODP". Yahoo! Groups. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  46. ^ Arlarson, Editor Removal Explained Archived December 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Open Directory Project Newsletter (September 2000).
  47. ^ "Guidelines: Account Removal". July 3, 2016. Archived from the original on March 17, 2017. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
  48. ^ "Editor account expired". July 27, 2004. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  49. ^ Thread: Can't Login Archived November 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine on Resource-Zone
  50. ^ Prenatt, Jr, David F. (June 1, 2000). "Life After the Open Directory Project". Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  51. ^ CmdrTaco (October 24, 2000). "Dmoz (aka AOL) Changing Guidelines In Sketchy Way". Slashdot. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  52. ^ Add Note to URL Feature Archived May 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, in ODP Documentation
  53. ^ Hriţcu, C. (April 8, 2005). "Folksonomies vs. Ontologies". Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  54. ^ "Ontology is Overrated" Archived July 29, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  55. ^ Hammond, Tony; Hannay, Timo; Lund, Ben; Scott, Joanna (April 2005). "Social Bookmarking Tools (I)". D-Lib Magazine. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  56. ^ "Open Directory Search Guide". Archived from the original on June 16, 2014. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  57. ^ "Licenses for Works of Practical Use besides Software and Documentation". GNU Project. Retrieved July 17, 2017.

External links

American Songwriter

American Songwriter is a bimonthly magazine, established in 1984 covering every aspect of the craft and art of songwriting. It features interviews, songwriting tips, news, reviews and lyric contest. The magazine is based in Nashville, Tennessee.

Bob Truel

Bob Truel is a computer programmer. He met Rich Skrenta in ninth grade in Mt. Lebanon, Pennsylvania and has since co-founded several Internet ventures with him and others, including DMOZ with Bryn Dole, Chris Tolles, and Jeremy Wenokur in 1998, Newhoo in 1998, with Tom and Michael Markson in 2002, and search engine blekko with Michael Markson in 2007.


Chef Moz, an offshoot of DMOZ, was an open content directory of World Wide Web links of restaurants. The website was constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors, and owned by Netscape.

Chef Moz, similar to its parent DMOZ, used a hierarchical ontology scheme for organizing site listings. Listings on a similar topic were grouped into categories, which can then include smaller categories.

On 17 February 2011, DMOZ administrator "lisagirl" confirmed that Chef Moz was dead.


Cloaking is a search engine optimization (SEO) technique in which the content presented to the search engine spider is different from that presented to the user's browser. This is done by delivering content based on the IP addresses or the User-Agent HTTP header of the user requesting the page. When a user is identified as a search engine spider, a server-side script delivers a different version of the web page, one that contains content not present on the visible page, or that is present but not searchable. The purpose of cloaking is sometimes to deceive search engines so they display the page when it would not otherwise be displayed (black hat SEO). However, it can also be a functional (though antiquated) technique for informing search engines of content they would not otherwise be able to locate because it is embedded in non-textual containers such as video or certain Adobe Flash components. Since 2006, better methods of accessibility, including progressive enhancement, have been available, so cloaking is no longer necessary for regular SEO.Cloaking is often used as a spamdexing technique to attempt to sway search engines into giving the site a higher ranking. By the same method, it can also be used to trick search engine users into visiting a site that is substantially different from the search engine description, including delivering pornographic content cloaked within non-pornographic search results.

Cloaking is a form of the doorway page technique.

A similar technique is used on DMOZ web directory, but it differs in several ways from search engine cloaking:

It is intended to fool human editors, rather than computer search engine spiders.

The decision to cloak or not is often based upon the HTTP referrer, the user agent or the visitor's IP; but more advanced techniques can be also based upon the client's behaviour analysis after a few page requests: the raw quantity, the sorting of, and latency between subsequent HTTP requests sent to a website's pages, plus the presence of a check for robots.txt file, are some of the parameters in which search engines spiders differ heavily from a natural user behaviour. The referrer tells the URL of the page on which a user clicked a link to get to the page. Some cloakers will give the fake page to anyone who comes from a web directory website, since directory editors will usually examine sites by clicking on links that appear on a directory web page. Other cloakers give the fake page to everyone except those coming from a major search engine; this makes it harder to detect cloaking, while not costing them many visitors, since most people find websites by using a search engine.

Human search engine

A human search engine is a search engine that uses human participation to filter the search results and assist users in clarifying their search request. The goal is to provide users with a limited number of relevant results, as opposed to traditional search engines that often return a large number of results that may or may not be relevant.

Examples of human search engines include ApexKB, ChaCha, and the now defunct NowNow (from and Sproose.

Karol Sabath

Karol Sabath (April 24, 1963 – October 10, 2007) was a Polish biologist, paleontologist and paleoartist.

He was employed by the Instytut Paleobiologii of the Polska Akademia Nauk - Institute of Paleobiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw. He also worked for National Geographic magazine, the Museum of the Polish Geological Institute, the European edition of Scientific American, and various other publishing houses in Poland.

He authored many popular-science books for children, did translations, and wrote popular-science articles for Polish national newspapers.

He was a scientific advisor for many popular-science events, including reconstructions of paleobiological environment and specimens (Baltow Jurassic Park).

He was a member of one of the Polish - Mongolian Paleobiological Expeditions to the Gobi Desert. His scientific interests included dinosaur eggs and babies, and dinosaur tracks.

In 2003, Sabath and Jørn Hurum demonstrated that Tarbosaurus is a close relative of Alioramus, and not a species of Tyrannosaurus. This was based on supporting evidence for the hypothesis that tyrannosaurids originated in Asia, and then migrated to North America.

He was a co-founder of Polish Evolutionary Wortal and Paleobiology Website

He was a Wikipedia Editor and DMOZ Editor.

List of browser games

This is a selected list of single-player browser games, playable in internet browsers or with software such as Adobe Flash. See List of multiplayer browser games for games with more than one player.

In addition to this list, there are many web sites with many other browser games such as the hundreds listed at the DMOZ listing.

List of enterprise search vendors

This is a list of enterprise search vendors.

List of web directories

A Web directory is a listing of Web sites organized in a hierarchy or interconnected list of categories.

The following is a list of notable Web directory services. was a web directory (or human search engine) and Internet-based knowledge exchange (question and answer site) launched in May 2007 by Jason Calacanis. It differentiated itself from algorithmic search engines like Google and, as well as other directory sites like DMOZ and Yahoo! by tracking and building hand-crafted result sets for many of the currently popular search terms. President Jason Rapp exited the company in September, 2012.In 2014, Calacanis announced that Mahalo would be sunset as he moved his focus towards an app called Inside. He was quoted by TechCrunch saying "it makes 7 figures so we’re not shutting it off but we are not investing in it". Mahalo's website has since shut down.

Media of Togo

Media in Togo includes radio, television, and online and print formats. The Agence Togolaise de Presse news agency began in 1975. The Union des Journalistes Independants du Togo press association is headquartered in Lomé.

Mozilla (mascot)

Mozilla was the mascot of the now disbanded Netscape Communications Corporation and subsequently the Mozilla Foundation.

Mozilla took the form of a green and purple cartoon lizard. Programmer Jamie Zawinski came up with the name during a meeting while working at the company. Mozilla was designed by Dave Titus in 1994.The name "Mozilla" was already in use at Netscape as the codename for Netscape Navigator 1.0. The name stood for "Mosaic killer", as the company's goal was to displace NCSA Mosaic as the world's number one web browser. Initially the mascot took various forms, including that of a helmeted astronaut or "spaceman", but the eventual choice of a Godzilla-like lizard which went well with the theme of crushing the competition, especially because of the similarity between the names.

Mozilla featured prominently on Netscape's web site in the company's early years. However, the need to project a more "professional" image (especially towards corporate clients) led to his being removed. Mozilla continued to be used inside Netscape, though, often featuring on T-shirts given to staff or on artwork adorning the walls of the Netscape campus in Mountain View.

The name "Mozilla" later became more prominent when it was used for the open source browser of the same name. With the launch of the web site in 1998, the mascot was redesigned as a larger, fiercer red Tyrannosaurus rex. The new design was by Shepard Fairey of "Obey Giant" and Barack Obama "Hope" poster fame.When Netscape acquired the website directory NewHoo in 1998, they rebranded it the Open Directory Project with the nickname "DMOZ" (Directory of Mozilla) due to its similarity to the Mozilla project. A green and purple image of Mozilla was placed on every page of the site, which remains the case today, despite Netscape's disbanding after its acquisition by AOL.

The mascot has since been "retired from active duty", removed from official Mozilla branding and replaced by the current Mozilla wordmark, set in Meta Bold typeface.

Obfuscation (software)

In software development, obfuscation is the deliberate act of creating source or machine code that is difficult for humans to understand. Like obfuscation in natural language, it may use needlessly roundabout expressions to compose statements. Programmers may deliberately obfuscate code to conceal its purpose (security through obscurity) or its logic or implicit values embedded in it, primarily, in order to prevent tampering, deter reverse engineering, or even as a puzzle or recreational challenge for someone reading the source code. This can be done manually or by using an automated tool, the latter being the preferred technique in industry.

Open Directory License

The Open Directory License (ODL) is a public copyright license that was used by DMOZ for its content.

Unlike open source licenses, the Open Directory License expressly forbids its applicability to software or open content hosted elsewhere. Time Warner (via the Netscape Communications Corporation) owns the compilation copyright to its unique selection of website listings (links, titles and descriptions) in the open directory on As a practical matter, this includes the layouts, and the categories, and does not extend to the content Dmoz links to, or the actual links themselves.

The Free Software Foundation describes the ODL as a non-free license, citing the right to redistribute a given version not being permanent, and the requirement to check for changes to the license.

Open Site

Open-Site, the Open Encyclopedia Project was a free internet encyclopedia operated by Michael J. Flickinger in an effort to build a free categorized community-built encyclopedia, inspired by DMOZ. The Open Site software is open source under the Mozilla Public License and the content was free content under the GNU Free Documentation License.

Rich Skrenta

Richard "Rich" Skrenta (born 1967 (age 51–52) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is a computer programmer and Silicon Valley entrepreneur who created the web search engine blekko.

Styrian Coarse-haired Hound

The Styrian Coarse-haired Hound (FCI No. 62), (German: Steirische Rauhhaarbracke) is a breed of medium-sized hound dog originated in the Austrian province of Styria. It is bred as a scenthound, for hunting boar in mountainous terrain. The breed is one of the large Austrian Bracke.

Web directory

A web directory or link directory is an online list or catalog of websites. That is, it is a directory on the World Wide Web of (all or part of) the World Wide Web. Historically, directories typically listed entries on people or businesses, and their contact information; such directories are still in use today. A web directory includes entries about websites, including links to those websites, organized into categories and subcategories. Besides a link, each entry may include the title of the website, and a description of its contents. In most web directories, the entries are about whole websites, rather than individual pages within them (called "deep links"). Websites are often limited to inclusion in only a few categories.

There are two ways to find information on the Web: by searching or browsing. Web directories provide links in a structured list to make browsing easier. Many web directories combine searching and browsing by providing a search engine to search the directory. Unlike search engines, which base results on a database of entries gathered automatically by web crawler, most web directories are built manually by human editors. Many web directories allow site owners to submit their site for inclusion, and have editors review submissions for fitness.

Web directories may be general in scope, or limited to particular subjects or fields. Entries may be listed for free, or by paid submission (meaning the site owner must pay to have his or her website listed).

RSS directories are similar to web directories, but contain collections of RSS feeds, instead of links to web sites.

Yahoo! Directory

The Yahoo! Directory was a web directory which at one time rivaled DMOZ in size. The directory was Yahoo!'s first offering and started in 1994 under the name Jerry and David's Guide to the World Wide Web. When Yahoo! changed to crawler-based listings for its main results in October 2002, the human-edited directory's significance dropped, but it was still being updated as of April 16, 2014. Users could browse thousands of listings which were organized in 7 or more tiers. For example, if a user was looking for a site on chess they might follow a path such as: recreation -> games -> board games -> chess.

The directory originally offered two options for suggesting websites for possible listing: "Standard", which was free, and a paid submission process which offered expedited review. "Standard" was dropped, and a non-refundable review fee of $299 ($600 for adult sites) was required when suggesting any website. If listed, the same amount was charged annually.

On September 26, 2014, Yahoo! announced that it would be closing the directory on December 31, 2014. This followed the closing of a number of country-specific directories in 2010.

Browser versions
E-mail clients
Other components
Server software
Web services
See also

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