Dénia (Valencian: [ˈdenia]; Spanish: Denia [ˈdenja]), is a historical coastal city in the province of Alicante, Spain, on the Costa Blanca halfway between Alicante and Valencia, and the capital and judicial seat of the comarca of Marina Alta. Denia's historical heritage has been influenced by Iberian, Greek, Roman, Islamic, Napoleonic and Christian civilizations. As of 2014, it had a population of 41,672, although this is more than doubled by tourism during the summer months.
View of Dénia from the Montgó out to sea
Coat of arms
Location in Spain
Dénia (Valencian Community)
|Autonomous community||Valencian Community|
|• Mayor||Vicent Grimalt (PSOE)|
|• Total||66.2 km2 (25.6 sq mi)|
|Elevation||22 m (72 ft)|
|• Density||630/km2 (1,600/sq mi)|
|Demonym(s)||denier(a) (va) |
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
There is evidence of human habitation in the area since prehistoric times and there are significant Iberian ruins on the hillsides nearby. In the 4th century BC it was a Greek colony of Marseille or Empúries, being mentioned by Strabo as Hemeroscòpion (Greek: Ημεροσκοπείον) (meaning calendar), and later known as Hemeroscòpium. It was an ally of Rome during the Punic Wars, and later was absorbed into the Roman Empire under the name of Dianum (after their goddess Diana). In the 1st century BC Quintus Sertorius established a Roman naval base here.
In 636-696 AD, during the Visigothic Kingdom of Iberia, it was the seat of a bishop from Toledo. After the Muslim conquest of Iberia and the dissolution of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Dénia (known as Dāniyah or دانية in Arabic which means lowland) became the capital of a taifa kingdom that reigned over part of the Valencian coast and Ibiza. The Slavic Muslim slaves, saqālibah, led by Muyahid ibn Yusuf ibn Ali their leader, who could take profit from the progressive crumbling of the Caliphate's superstructure to gain control over the province of Dénia. The Saqaliba managed to free themselves and run the Taifa of Dénia which extended its reach as far as the islands of Majorca and its capital Madinah Mayurqah. The Saqaliba Taifa lost its independence in 1076, when it was captured by Ahmad al-Muqtadir, lord of Zaragoza, under which it remained until the Almoravid invasion in 1091. The Muslim Arabs originally built the castle fortress, and the French, who occupied the city for four years during the Peninsular War, re-built it in the early 19th century.
The town was reconquered by the Christians in 1244. This caused a decline for the city, which remained nearly uninhabited after the exile of most of the Muslim population. It was later repopulated by the Valencian government. Created a fief in 1298, it was held by the de Sandoval family from 1431, although the city itself was returned to Aragonese crown in 1455. A marquisate from 1487, Dénia gained many privileges thanks to Francisco Gómez de Sandoval y Rojas, Duke of Lerma, a favourite of Philip III of Spain. It suffered a further period of decay after the decree of Expulsion of the Moriscos (1609), by which 25,000 people left the marquisate, leaving the local economy in a dismal state.
During the War of the Spanish Succession Dénia was besieged by 9,000 French troops in June 1707, who broke down several sections of the town walls using cannon, but their attacks in July were repulsed by the small garrison with great loss of life to the attackers resulting in the siege being raised after 27 days. Dénia, however, fell to the French forces that November. In 1713 the Treaty of Utrecht recognised Louis XIV's grandson Philip, Duke of Anjou, as King of Spain (as Philip V), so returning Dénia to Spanish rule.
It was reacquired by the Spanish crown in 1803, after which Denia gained an increasingly important role as a trading port. A community of English raisin traders lived in Denia from 1800 until the time of the Spanish Civil War in the late 1930s.
Dénia is home to large Moorish castle on a rocky crag overlooking the city. It was built in the 11th and 12th century and offers views around the sea, the city and the surrounding area. Located in the castle is the Palau del Governador and its corresponding museum.
Dénia also has the Museu Etnològic with further details on the history and culture of the city.
Dénia has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa), with mild and short winters and hot and long summers. The mean temperature of the coldest month (January) is 12.3 °C (54.1 °F), while the mean of the hottest month (August) is 26.8 °C (80.2 °F). The city enjoys around 3,000 sunshine hours per year.
The ferry to Ibiza and the other Balearic Islands departs daily. Until 2005, the city also served as the northern terminus for a 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge railway line through the mountains from Alicante (popularly known as the Limón Express), run by FGV. This was not a specific tourist railway; it provided transport throughout the year and was geared to commuter use. Efforts have been made to re-open the line, so far without success.
The Bous a la Mar (meaning "Bulls at the Sea") is held in July. The highlight of this week-long festival is watching bulls run down the main street Marqués de Campo, only to be chased into the Mediterranean sea by those daring enough to enter a makeshift bull ring with them.
Since 1974 it has been home to painter and sculptor Joan Castejón. The town honored him as Adoptive Son of Dénia in 1999.
The 2007–08 Copa del Rey was the 106th staging of the Copa del Rey.
The competition started on 29 August 2007 and concluded on 16 April 2008 with the final, held at the Vicente Calderón Stadium in Madrid, in which Valencia lifted the trophy for the seventh time in their history with a 3–1 victory over Getafe. The cup holders had been Sevilla, but they were eliminated in the round of 16.Ahmad ibn Munim al-Abdari
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim ibn Ali ibn Munim al-Abdari (Arabic: أحمد بن ابراهيم بن علي بن منعم الأبداري; died 1228) was a mathematician, originally from Dénia in Andalusia. He lived and taught in Marrakesh where he was known as one of the best scholars in geometry and number theory. He is often confused with Muhammad ibn 'Abd al Mun'im, a different mathematician who worked in the court of Roger II of Sicily.Only three of his many mathematical texts are known today; one on magic squares, one on geometry and one on the science of calculation. Only the last, Fiqh al-hisab is extant. It is the first book in the history of mathematics to devote a whole chapter to combinatorial problems.Al-Muʿayṭī
Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿUbayd Allāh ibn al-Walīd al-Muʿayṭī, also spelled al-Muʿiṭī (died AD 1041 [AH 432]), was an Umayyad Caliph reigning in Dénia from 1014 until 1016 in opposition to Sulaymān ibn al-Mustaʿīn, reigning from Córdoba. He was a member of the Marwanid lineage and the only Andalusian Umayyad caliph not descended from ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III. He was a puppet of his ḥājib (chamberlain) Mujāhid al-ʿĀmirī, who was the actual ruler of the kingdom of Dénia. His authority did not extended beyond Dénia and the Balearic Islands.
Al-Muʿayṭī's name consists of the kunya, Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (meaning "father of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān"); his actual given name, ʿAbd Allāh; and a series of patronymics indicating his descent from his father, ʿUbayd Allāh, as far back as an author wished to go. The historian Ibn Bashkuwāl recorded al-Muʿayṭī's genealogy back to Umayya ibn ʿAbd Shams, namesake of the dynasty. The name al-Muʿayṭī itself indicates that he belonged to the branch descended from Abī Muʿayṭ.The seizure of Almería by Mujāhid's rival, Khayrān, in July 1014 provided the impetus for Mujāhid to legitimise his rule by proclaiming a caliph of his own. ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿUbayd Allāh al-Muʿayṭī, as a descendant of Muḥammad and of the Qurayshī tribe, was a legitimate claimant. He was a faqīh (religious scholar), originally from Egypt, who had fled Córdoba and sought refuge in Dénia when Sulaymān, with an army of Berbers, had deposed the caliph Hishām II in 1013. He was proclaimed caliph in December 1014 with the honorific title al-Muntaṣir biʾllāh (Victor in God). Mujāhid then performed the bayʿa (oath of allegiance) and was appointed ḥājib.The given names of al-Muʿayṭī and that of his son, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, were put on the coins and flags of Dénia. Although the daʿwa (call) of al-Muʿayṭī was not widely heeded outside of the lands ruled by Mujāhid, it did receive the support of the great scholar Ibn Ḥazm when in 1016 al-Muʿayṭī was briefly the only Umayyad claimant. For this, the scholar was imprisoned by Khayrān, a support of the non-Umayyad caliph.Within months of al-Muʿayṭī's appointment, Mujāhid set out on an expedition to conquer the island of Sardinia in the name of the new caliph. During his absence, an uprising led by ʿAlī ibn Ḥammūd deposed and executed Sulaymān. According to the historian Ibn ʿIdhāri, Sulaymān was distracted by the elevation of al-Muʿayṭī as his rival and did not foresee the uprising of ʿAlī, who soon had himself, although a non-Umayyad, proclaimed caliph.Al-Muʿayṭī himself took advantage of Mujāhid's absence to assert his own authority. When the ḥājib returned from his second failed expedition to Sardinia in 1016, he deposed al-Muʿayṭī and exiled him to Africa. There he "eked out his remaining days as a wandering teacher, no doubt enthralling his pupils with tall stories of how he had once been the successor of the Prophet". He died in 1041, either at Kutāma in Morocco or at Baghdad.With al-Muʿayṭī removed, Mujāhid recognised Sulaymān ibn al-Mustaʿīn's successor in Córdoba, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Murtaḍā, as caliph in 1017 or 1018. It has even been suggested that al-Muʿayṭī's deposition was precipitated by the need for a united front against the anti-Umayyad usurpers of the Ḥammūdid dynasty after 1016.Alicante Tram
The Alicante Tram, trademarked as Alicante Metropolitan TRAM (Valencian: TRAM Metropolità d'Alacant, Spanish: TRAM Metropolitano de Alicante), operates in the Spanish city of Alicante (Valencia) and its surrounding area. Like other narrow gauge railways in the Valencian Community, it is run by Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana (FGV). It was inaugurated on 15 August 2003 replacing narrow-gauge diesel trains between Alicante and El Campello.
The Alicante Metropolitan Tram light rail combines different modes of rail services: a partially underground modern tramway through Alicante city centre, a tram-train from Alicante to Benidorm, and conventional commuter rail from Benidorm to Altea, Calp and Dénia.Alicante railway station
Alicante Terminal (Valencian: Alacant Terminal) is the central railway station of Alicante, Spain. Commonly referred locally as the RENFE station, the station is part of Adif system, and is a terminal station.
The station accommodates RENFE long-distance and medium-distance trains, and it is the origin of lines C-1 and C-3 of Cercanías Murcia/Alicante (suburban trains). The station is not related to the narrow gauge railway Alicante-Dénia managed by FGV and part of the city's tram network.
By the end of 2013, AVE (high-speed) railway is expected to reach Alicante. While a new intermodal station is to be constructed in place of the current terminal, a temporal terminal is to be utilized by the high speed trains.Autopista AP-7
The Autopista AP-7 (also called Autopista del Mediterráneo) is a Spanish autopista (controlled-access highway). It is a toll motorway that runs along the Mediterranean coast of Spain.
AP-7 has two different sections (911+96 km):
From Els Límits (in La Jonquera municipality) to Vera: 911 km long. Main cities passed:
Castelló de la Plana
From Málaga to Guadiaro: 96 km long. Main cities passed:
Club Deportivo Dénia is a Spanish football team based in Dénia, in the autonomous community of Valencia. Founded in 1927 it plays in Divisiones Regionales de Fútbol in the Valencian Community, holding home games at Estadio Diego Mena Cuesta, with a capacity of 3.000 seats.Costa Blanca
The Costa Blanca (Valencian: [ˈkɔsta ˈβlaŋka], Spanish: [ˈkosta ˈβlaŋka], literally meaning "White Coast") is over 200 kilometres (120 mi) of Mediterranean coastline in the Alicante province, on the southeastern coast of Spain. It extends from the town of Dénia in the north, beyond which lies the Costa del Azahar (or Costa dels Tarongers), to Pilar de la Horadada in the south, beyond which lies the Costa Cálida. Costa Blanca has a well-developed tourism industry and is a popular destination for British and German tourists.
The localities along the Costa Blanca are Alicante (Alicante/Alacant), Altea, Benidorm, Benissa (Benisa), Calp (Calpe), Dénia (Denia), Elche (Elche/Elx), El Campello (Campello), Finestrat, Guardamar del Segura, L'Alfàs del Pi (Alfaz del Pi), Orihuela Costa, Pilar de la Horadada, Santa Pola, Teulada–Moraira, Torrevieja, Villajoyosa (Villajoyosa/La Vila Joiosa) and Xàbia (Xàbia/Jávea). Benidorm and Alicante cities are the major tourist centres.El Verger
El Verger (Valencian pronunciation: [el veɾˈdʒeɾ]; Spanish: Vergel [beɾˈxel]) is a town of 4,992 inhabitants situated 3 kilometres from the Mediterranean sea and 8 kilometres from Dénia, in the Comarca of Marina Alta, Land of Valencia, Spain. The main attractions are the Main Street, two medieval towers, a neoclassical church and a safari park. The town's crest, recently resuscitated, pays homage to its name: it displays two trees and four flowers.
The Prime Meridian crosses El Verger.Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana
Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana (Valencian pronunciation: [ˌfɛrokaˈrilz ðe la dʒeneɾaliˈtad valensiˈana], "Valencian Government Railways") or FGV is a Valencian public railway company which operates several 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge lines, in the autonomous community of Valencia, Spain.
The company currently operates the city metro and tram system of Valencia (Valencia Metro) and Alicante (Alicante Tram).
It also operates a non-electrified 62 km (39 mi) long line, between Benidorm and Dénia, in Alicante province.
The company is owned by the Generalitat Valenciana (i.e. the regional government body of the Valencian Community).Marina Alta
Marina Alta (Valencian: [maˈɾina ˈalta], "Upper Marina") is a central and coastal comarca of the autonomous community of Valencia, Spain. The comarca is located in the area of Alicante and its capital and largest settlement is the city of Dénia.
Marina Alta borders the comarca of Safor to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east, the comarca of Marina Baixa to the south and Comtat to the west.
Marina Alta and Marina Baixa are commonly referred to as les Marines.Mujāhid al-ʿĀmirī
Abu ʾl-Djaysh Mujāhid ibn ʿAbd Allāh al-ʿĀmiri, surnamed al-Muwaffaḳ (died AD 1044/5 [AH 436]), was the ruler of Dénia and the Balearic Islands from late 1014 (early AH 405) until his death. With the exception of his early and disastrous invasion of Sardinia, his reign was mostly peaceful. His court became a centre of scholarship and literary production and he himself wrote a book about poetry (now lost).Palma de Mallorca
Palma, formerly Palma de Mallorca ( or , Catalan: [ˈpalmə], Spanish: [ˈpalma]), is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands in Spain. It is situated on the south coast of Mallorca on the Bay of Palma. The Cabrera Archipelago, though widely separated from Palma proper, is administratively considered part of the municipality. As of 2018, Palma Airport serves over 29 million passengers per year.Pedreguer
Pedreguer (Valencian: [peðɾeˈɣeɾ], Spanish: [peðɾeˈɣeɾ]) is a town in the comarca of Marina Alta in the province of Alicante, Spain. The town is situated at the foot of the Muntanya Gran and close to the two larger coastal towns of Dénia and Xàbia. It has a population of 7097 (as of 2008). It is also close to the Jalon Valley which is famous for its springtime almond tree blossom.Pedreguer Rastro is a sort of flea market in the town. Sunday morning is flea market day. Held on the polygons where people flock from all over the Costa Blanca to buy and sell produce, clothing, gifts, home made jams, chutneys and much more.
Saturday morning is the farmers market held in the town.
The main high street has a church, police station and the town hall.
A Sports centre is located on the polygons with an outdoor swimming pool and other sports facilities.
La Sella resort comes under Pedreguer town which has a golf course, tennis club and local bars and restaurants including the Brassa Armells.Fiestas in Pedreguer include bull runs to firework displays.Local beaches include Denia, El Verger, Els Poblets and Oliva.Pego, Alicante
Pego (Valencian and Spanish: [ˈpeɣo]) is a municipality located in the province of Alicante, Spain.
Lying just inland from the northern Costa Blanca resort of Dénia, the town of Pego sits in a depression, surrounded by mountains. A part of the Marina Alta comarca of Alicante, Pego has a population of 10,721 (2006) and a history dating from the Arab occupation.
The region around Pego was settled during the Bronze Age and later by Iberian and Roman civilizations, though the story of the town really begins during the times of the Moors in around 726, when Pego was an important Arab enclave which later formed part of the Taifa of Dénia. Subsequently, conquered by forces under James I of Aragon in 1244, Pego was later repopulated with peasants from Catalonia and the barony of Pego was created in 1262, and control of the town passed through the hands of various members of the Valencian nobility.Peter Greenwell
Peter Ashley Greenwell (12 August 1929, Hampton-in-Arden – 4 June 2006, Dénia) was an English composer and pianist best known as an accompanist to Noël Coward. He wrote the music for the songs of The Crooked Mile (1959) and other musicals and plays, and also composed scores for British comedy films such as The Virgin Soldiers (1969), Our Miss Fred (1972), Up the Front (1972) and Don't Just Lie There, Say Something! (1973).Saqaliba
Ṣaqāliba (Arabic: صقالبة, sg. ṣaqlabī) is a term used in medieval Arabic sources to refer to Slavs and other peoples of Central and Eastern Europe, or in a broad sense to European slaves. The term originates from the Middle Greek slavos/sklavenos (Slav), which in Hispano-Arabic came to designate first Slavic slaves and then, similarly to the semantic development of the term in other West-European languages, foreign slaves in general. The word is often misused to refer only to slaves from Central and Eastern Europe, but it refers to all Europeans and others traded by the Arab traders during the war or peace periods.There were several major routes for the trading of Slavic slaves into the Arab world: through Central Asia (Mongols, Tatars, Khazars, etc.) for the East Slavs; through the Balkans for the South Slavs; through Central and Western Europe for the West Slavs and to al-Andalus. The Volga trade route and other European routes, according to Ibrahim ibn Jakub (10th century), were serviced by Radanite Jewish merchants. (Compare Crimean–Nogai raids into East Slavic lands.) Theophanes mentions that the Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I settled a whole army of 5,000 Slavic mercenaries in Syria in the 660s.
In the Arab world, Saqaliba served or were forced to serve in a multitude of ways: as servants, harem concubines, eunuchs, craftsmen, soldiers, and as Caliph's guards. In Iberia, Morocco, Damascus and Sicily, their military role may be compared with that of mamluks in the Ottoman Empire. In al-Andalus, Slavic eunuchs were so popular and widely distributed that they became synonymous with Saqāliba.
Some Saqāliba became rulers of taifas (principalities) in Iberia after the collapse of the Caliphate of Cordoba in 1031. For example, Mujāhid al-ʿĀmirī organized the Saqaliba in Dénia to rebel, seize control of the city, and establish the Taifa of Dénia (1010-1227), which extended its reach as far as the island of Majorca.Segunda División B de Futsal
The Segunda División B de Futsal formerly known as Primera Nacional A is the third professional futsal pyramid in Spain. It was founded in 1989 and is managed by the CNFS of the Royal Spanish Football Federation.
The Segunda División B de Futsal consists in 9 groups. Every group corresponds to one or two Spanish regions. There are in total 147 approx. teams. When finishing the regular season in every group, the top team of each group and the four runners-up with highest scores play the promotion playoffs to Segunda División. Conversely, the two or three bottom teams of each group are relegated to Tercera División.
By winning the promotion via playoffs doesn't necessarily mean the promotion for the winning team. Some teams are forced to give up for not meet financial requirements to play in LNFS, even having won the promotion.
From 2011–12' season onwards, Primera Nacional A will be known as Segunda División B.Taifa of Dénia
The taifa of Dénia was an Islamic Moorish kingdom in medieval Spain, ruling over part of the Valencian coast and Ibiza. With Dénia as its capital, the taifa included the Balearic Islands and parts of the Spanish mainland.
|Climate data for Dénia, Spain|
|Record high °C (°F)||26
|Average high °C (°F)||17.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.3
|Average low °C (°F)||7.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||37
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||185||191||228||249||294||322||353||318||266||225||192||178||3,001|
|Source #1: |
|Source #2: |
Municipalities of Marina Alta
Municipalities of the province of Alicante