Czech language

Czech (/tʃɛk/; čeština Czech pronunciation: [ˈtʃɛʃcɪna]), historically also Bohemian[6] (/boʊˈhiːmiən, bə-/;[7] lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.[6] Spoken by over 10 million people, it serves as the official language of the Czech Republic. Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a very high degree.[8] Like other Slavic languages, Czech is a fusional language with a rich system of morphology and relatively flexible word order. Its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by Latin[9] and German.[10]

The Czech–Slovak group developed within West Slavic in the high medieval period, and the standardization of Czech and Slovak within the Czech–Slovak dialect continuum emerged in the early modern period. In the later 18th to mid-19th century, the modern written standard became codified in the context of the Czech National Revival. The main vernacular, known as Common Czech, is based on the vernacular of Prague, but is now spoken throughout most of the Czech Republic. The Moravian dialects spoken in the eastern part of the country are also classified as Czech, although some of their eastern variants are closer to Slovak.

Czech has a moderately-sized phoneme inventory, comprising ten monophthongs, three diphthongs and 25 consonants (divided into "hard", "neutral" and "soft" categories). Words may contain complicated consonant clusters or lack vowels altogether. Czech has a raised alveolar trill, which is not known to occur as a phoneme in any other language, represented by the grapheme ř. Czech uses a simple orthography which phonologists have used as a model.

Czech
čeština, český jazyk
Native toCzech Republic
EthnicityCzechs
Native speakers
10.7 million (2015)[1]
Latin script (Czech alphabet)
Czech Braille
Official status
Official language in
 Czech Republic
 European Union
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byInstitute of the Czech Language
(of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic)
Language codes
ISO 639-1cs
ISO 639-2cze (B)
ces (T)
ISO 639-3ces
Glottologczec1258[4]
Linguasphere53-AAA-da < 53-AAA-b...-d
(varieties: 53-AAA-daa to 53-AAA-dam)
IETFcs[5]
Map of Czech language
Czech language.
  Spoken by the majority
  Spoken by a minority

Classification

Slavic languages tree
Classification of Czech within the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family. Czech and Slovak make up a "Czech–Slovak" subgroup.

Czech is a member of the West Slavic sub-branch of the Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family. This branch includes Polish, Kashubian, Upper and Lower Sorbian and Slovak. Slovak is the closest language genetic neighbor of Czech, followed by Polish and Silesian.[11]

The West Slavic languages are spoken in Central Europe. Czech is distinguished from other West Slavic languages by a more-restricted distinction between "hard" and "soft" consonants (see Phonology below).[11]

History

Kralice
The Bible of Kralice was the first complete translation of the Bible into the Czech language from the original languages. Its six volumes were first published between 1579 and 1593.
Studeněves, tabule dětského hřiště
A Czech-language sign at the entrance to a children's playground

Medieval/Old Czech

The term "Old Czech" is applied to the period predating the 16th century, with the earliest records of the high medieval period also classified as "early Old Czech", but the term "Medieval Czech" is also used.

Around the 7th century, the Slavic expansion reached Central Europe, settling on the eastern fringes of the Frankish Empire. The West Slavic polity of Great Moravia formed by the 9th century. The Christianization of Bohemia took place during the 9th and 10th centuries. The diversification of the Czech-Slovak group within West Slavic began around that time, marked among other things by its ephemeral use of the voiced velar fricative consonant (/ɣ/)[12] and consistent stress on the first syllable.[13]

The Bohemian (Czech) language is first recorded in writing in glosses and short notes during the 12th to 13th centuries. Literary works written in Czech appear in the late 13th and early 14th century and administrative documents first appear towards the late 14th century. The first complete Bible translation also dates to this period.[14] Old Czech texts, including poetry and cookbooks, were produced outside the university as well.[15]

Literary activity becomes widespread in the early 15th century in the context of the Bohemian Reformation. Jan Hus contributed significantly to the standardization of Czech orthography, advocated for widespread literacy among Czech commoners (particularly in religion) and made early efforts to model written Czech after the spoken language.[14]

Early Modern Czech

There was no standardization distinguishing between Czech and Slovak prior to the 15th century.[16] In the 16th century, the division between Czech and Slovak becomes apparent, marking the confessional division between Lutheran Protestants in Slovakia using Czech orthography and Catholics, especially Slovak Jesuits, beginning to use a separate Slovak orthography based on the language of the Trnava region.

The publication of the Kralice Bible between 1579 and 1593 (the first complete Czech translation of the Bible from the original languages) became very important for standardization of the Czech language in the following centuries.

In 1615, the Bohemian diet tried to declare Czech to be the only official language of the kingdom. After the Bohemian Revolt (of predominantly Protestant aristocracy) which was defeated by the Habsburgs in 1620, the Protestant intellectuals had to leave the country. This emigration together with other consequences of the Thirty Years' War had a negative impact on the further use of the Czech language. In 1627, Czech and German became official languages of the Kingdom of Bohemia and in the 18th century German became dominant in Bohemia and Moravia, especially among the upper classes.[17]

Modern Czech

Jan Vilímek - Josef Dobrovský
Josef Dobrovský, whose writing played a key role in reviving Czech as a written language.

The modern standard Czech language originates in standardization efforts of the 18th century.[18] By then the language had developed a literary tradition, and since then it has changed little; journals from that period have no substantial differences from modern standard Czech, and contemporary Czechs can understand them with little difficulty.[19] Changes include the morphological shift of í to ej and é to í (although é survives for some uses) and the merging of í and the former ejí.[20] Sometime before the 18th century, the Czech language abandoned a distinction between phonemic /l/ and /ʎ/ which survives in Slovak.[21]

With the beginning of the national revival of the mid-18th century, Czech historians began to emphasize their people's accomplishments from the 15th through the 17th centuries, rebelling against the Counter-Reformation (the Habsburg re-catholization efforts which had denigrated Czech and other non-Latin languages).[22] Czech philologists studied sixteenth-century texts, advocating the return of the language to high culture.[23] This period is known as the Czech National Revival[24] (or Renaissance).[23]

During the national revival, in 1809 linguist and historian Josef Dobrovský released a German-language grammar of Old Czech entitled Ausführliches Lehrgebäude der böhmischen Sprache (Comprehensive Doctrine of the Bohemian Language). Dobrovský had intended his book to be descriptive, and did not think Czech had a realistic chance of returning as a major language. However, Josef Jungmann and other revivalists used Dobrovský's book to advocate for a Czech linguistic revival.[24] Changes during this time included spelling reform (notably, í in place of the former j and j in place of g), the use of t (rather than ti) to end infinitive verbs and the non-capitalization of nouns (which had been a late borrowing from German).[21] These changes differentiated Czech from Slovak.[25] Modern scholars disagree about whether the conservative revivalists were motivated by nationalism or considered contemporary spoken Czech unsuitable for formal, widespread use.[24]

Adherence to historical patterns was later relaxed and standard Czech adopted a number of features from Common Czech (a widespread, informal register), such as leaving some proper nouns undeclined. This has resulted in a relatively high level of homogeneity among all varieties of the language.[26]

Geographic distribution

Languages of CE Europe
A map of the languages of Central and Eastern Europe. Within the Czech Republic, Common Czech is represented by dark yellow (C1) and Moravian dialects by medium yellow (C2) and light green (C3).
Vojvodina rusyn croatian czech map
Official use of Czech in Vojvodina, Serbia

In 2005 and 2007, Czech was spoken by about 10 million residents of the Czech Republic.[17][27] A Eurobarometer survey conducted from January to March 2012 found that the first language of 98 percent of Czech citizens was Czech, the third-highest in the European Union (behind Greece and Hungary).[28]

Czech, the official language of the Czech Republic (a member of the European Union since 2004), is one of the EU's official languages and the 2012 Eurobarometer survey found that Czech was the foreign language most often used in Slovakia.[28] Economist Jonathan van Parys collected data on language knowledge in Europe for the 2012 European Day of Languages. The five countries with the greatest use of Czech were the Czech Republic (98.77 percent), Slovakia (24.86 percent), Portugal (1.93 percent), Poland (0.98 percent) and Germany (0.47 percent).[29]

Czech speakers in Slovakia primarily live in cities. Since it is a recognised minority language in Slovakia, Slovak citizens who speak only Czech may communicate with the government in their language to the extent that Slovak speakers in the Czech Republic may do so.[30]

United States

Immigration of Czechs from Europe to the United States occurred primarily from 1848 to 1914. Czech is a Less Commonly Taught Language in U.S. schools, and is taught at Czech heritage centers. Large communities of Czech Americans live in the states of Texas, Nebraska and Wisconsin.[31] In the 2000 United States Census, Czech was reported as the most-common language spoken at home (besides English) in Valley, Butler and Saunders Counties, Nebraska and Republic County, Kansas. With the exception of Spanish (the non-English language most commonly spoken at home nationwide), Czech was the most-common home language in over a dozen additional counties in Nebraska, Kansas, Texas, North Dakota and Minnesota.[32] As of 2009, 70,500 Americans spoke Czech as their first language (49th place nationwide, behind Turkish and ahead of Swedish).[33]

Standard Czech

The modern written standard is directly based on the standardization during the Czech National Revival in the 1830s, significantly influenced by Josef Jungmann's Czech–German dictionary published during 1834–1839. Jungmann used vocabulary of the Bible of Kralice (1579–1613) period and of the language used by his contemporaries. He borrowed words not present in Czech from other Slavic languages or created neologisms.[34]

Phonology

Spoken Czech

Standard Czech contains ten basic vowel phonemes, and three more found only in loanwords. They are /a/, /ɛ/, /ɪ/, /o/, and /u/, their long counterparts /aː/, /ɛː/, /iː/, /oː/ and /uː/, and three diphthongs, /ou̯/, /au̯/ and /ɛu̯/. The latter two diphthongs and the long /oː/ are exclusive to loanwords.[35] Vowels are never reduced to schwa sounds when unstressed.[36] Each word usually has primary stress on its first syllable, except for enclitics (minor, monosyllabic, unstressed syllables). In all words of more than two syllables, every odd-numbered syllable receives secondary stress. Stress is unrelated to vowel length, and the possibility of stressed short vowels and unstressed long vowels can be confusing to students whose native language combines the features (such as most varieties of English).[37]

Voiced consonants with unvoiced counterparts are unvoiced at the end of a word before a pause, and in consonant clusters voicing assimilation occurs, which matches voicing to the following consonant. The unvoiced counterpart of /ɦ/ is /x/.[38]

Czech consonants are categorized as "hard", "neutral" or "soft":

  • Hard: /d/, /ɡ/, /ɦ/, /k/, /n/, /r/, /t/, /x/
  • Neutral: /b/, /f/, /l/, /m/, /p/, /s/, /v/, /z/
  • Soft: /c/, /ɟ/, /j/, /ɲ/, /r̝/, /ʃ/, /ts/, /tʃ/, /ʒ/

This distinction describes the declension patterns of nouns, which is based on the category of a noun's ending consonant. Hard consonants may not be followed by i or í in writing, or soft ones by y or ý (except in loanwords such as kilogram).[39] Neutral consonants may take either character. Hard consonants are sometimes known as "strong", and soft ones as "weak".[40]

The phoneme represented by the letter ř (capital Ř) is often considered unique to Czech.[41] It represents the raised alveolar non-sonorant trill (IPA: [r̝]), a sound somewhere between Czech's r and ž (example: "řeka" (river) ),[41] and is present in Dvořák. In unvoiced environments, /r̝/ is realized as its voiceless allophone [r̝̊].[42]

The consonants /r/ and /l/ can be syllabic, acting as syllable nuclei in place of a vowel. Strč prst skrz krk ("Stick [your] finger through [your] throat") is a well-known Czech tongue twister using only syllabic consonants.[43]

Czech vowel chart
A Czech vowel chart

Grammar

Slavic grammar is fusional; its nouns, verbs, and adjectives are inflected by phonological processes to modify their meanings and grammatical functions, and the easily separable affixes characteristic of agglutinative languages are limited.[44] Slavic inflection is complex and pervasive, inflecting for case, gender and number in nouns and tense, aspect, mood, person and subject number and gender in verbs.[45]

Parts of speech include adjectives, adverbs, numbers, interrogative words, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections.[46] Adverbs are primarily formed from adjectives by taking the final ý or í of the base form and replacing it with e, ě, or o.[47] Negative statements are formed by adding the affix ne- to the verb of a clause, with one exception: je (he, she or it is) becomes není.[48]

Sentence and clause structure

Czech pronouns, nominative case
Person Singular Plural
1. my
2. ty
vy (formal)
vy
3. on (masculine)
ona (feminine)
ono (neuter)
oni (masculine)
ony (feminine)
ona (neuter)

Because Czech uses grammatical case to convey word function in a sentence (instead of relying on word order, as English does), its word order is flexible. As a pro-drop language, in Czech an intransitive sentence can consist of only a verb; information about its subject is encoded in the verb.[49] Enclitics (primarily auxiliary verbs and pronouns) must appear in the second syntactic slot of a sentence, after the first stressed unit. The first slot must contain a subject and object, a main form of a verb, an adverb or a conjunction (except for the light conjunctions a, "and", i, "and even" or ale, "but").[50]

Czech syntax has a subject–verb–object sentence structure. In practice, however, word order is flexible and used for topicalization and focus. Although Czech has a periphrastic passive construction (like English), colloquial word-order changes frequently produce the passive voice. For example, to change "Peter killed Paul" to "Paul was killed by Peter" the order of subject and object is inverted: Petr zabil Pavla ("Peter killed Paul") becomes "Paul, Peter killed" (Pavla zabil Petr). Pavla is in the accusative case, the grammatical object (in this case, the victim) of the verb.[51]

A word at the end of a clause is typically emphasized, unless an upward intonation indicates that the sentence is a question:[52]

  • Pes jí bagetu. – The dog eats the baguette (rather than eating something else).
  • Bagetu jí pes. – The dog eats the baguette (rather than someone else doing so).
  • Pes bagetu jí. – The dog eats the baguette (rather than doing something else to it).
  • Jí pes bagetu? – Does the dog eat the baguette? (emphasis ambiguous)

In portions of Bohemia (including Prague), questions such as Jí pes bagetu? without an interrogative word (such as co, "what" or kdo, "who") are intoned in a slow rise from low to high, quickly dropping to low on the last word or phrase.[53]

In modern Czech syntax, adjectives precede nouns,[54] with few exceptions.[55] Relative clauses are introduced by relativizers such as the adjective který, analogous to the English relative pronouns "which", "that", "who" and "whom". As with other adjectives, it is declined into the appropriate case (see Declension below) to match its associated noun, person and number. Relative clauses follow the noun they modify, and the following is a glossed example:[56]

Czech: Chc-i navštív-it universit-u, na kter-ou chod-í Jan.
Gloss: want-1.SG visit-INF university-SG.ACC, on which-SG.F.ACC attend-3.SG John.SG.NOM

English: I want to visit the university that John attends.

Declension

In Czech, nouns and adjectives are declined into one of seven grammatical cases. Nouns are inflected to indicate their use in a sentence. A nominative–accusative language, Czech marks subject nouns with nominative case and object nouns with accusative case. The genitive case marks possessive nouns and some types of movement. The remaining cases (instrumental, locative, vocative and dative) indicate semantic relationships, such as secondary objects, movement or position (dative case) and accompaniment (instrumental case). An adjective's case agrees with that of the noun it describes. When Czech children learn their language's declension patterns, the cases are referred to by number:[57]

No. Ordinal name (Czech) Full name (Czech) Case Main usage
1. první pád nominativ nominative Subjects
2. druhý pád genitiv genitive Belonging, movement away from something (or someone)
3. třetí pád dativ dative Indirect objects, movement toward something (or someone)
4. čtvrtý pád akuzativ accusative Direct objects
5. pátý pád vokativ vocative Addressing someone
6. šestý pád lokál locative Location
7. sedmý pád instrumentál instrumental Being used for a task; acting with someone (or something)

Some Czech grammatical texts order the cases differently, grouping the nominative and accusative (and the dative and locative) together because those declension patterns are often identical; this order accommodates learners with experience in other inflected languages, such as Latin or Russian. This order is nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative, instrumental and vocative.[57]

Some prepositions require the nouns they modify to take a particular case. The cases assigned by each preposition are based on the physical (or metaphorical) direction, or location, conveyed by it. For example, od (from, away from) and z (out of, off) assign the genitive case. Other prepositions take one of several cases, with their meaning dependent on the case; na means "onto" or "for" with the accusative case, but "on" with the locative.[58]

Examples of declension patterns (using prepositions) for a few nouns with adjectives follow. Only one plural example is given, since plural declension patterns are similar across genders.

Case Noun/adjective
Big dog (m.) Small cat (f.) Hard wood (n.) Young dragons (pl.)
Nom. velký pes
(big dog)
malá kočka
(small cat)
tvrdé dřevo
(hard wood)
mladí draci
(young dragons)
Gen. bez velkého psa
(without the big dog)
bez malé kočky
(without the small cat)
bez tvrdého dřeva
(without the hard wood)
bez mladých draků
(without the young dragons)
Dat. k velkému psovi
(to the big dog)
k malé kočce
(to the small cat)
ke tvrdému dřevu
(to the hard wood)
ke mladým drakům
(to the young dragons)
Acc. vidím velkého psa
(I see the big dog)
vidím malou kočku
(I see the small cat)
vidím tvrdé dřevo
(I see the hard wood)
vidím mladé draky
(I see the young dragons)
Voc. velký pse!
(big dog!)
malá kočko!
(small cat!)
tvrdé dřevo!
(hard wood!)
mladí draci!
(young dragons!)
Loc. o velkém psovi
(about the big dog)
o malé kočce
(about the small cat)
o tvrdém dřevě
(about the hard wood)
o mladých dracích
(about the young dragons)
Ins. s velkým psem
(with the big dog)
s malou kočkou
(with the small cat)
s tvrdým dřevem
(with the hard wood)
s mladými draky
(with the young dragons)

This is a glossed example of a sentence using several cases:

Czech: Nes-l js-em krabic-i do dom-u se sv-ým přítel-em.
Gloss: carry-SG.M.PST be-1.SG box-SG.ACC into house-SG.GEN with own-SG.INS friend-SG.INS

English: I carried the box into the house with my friend.

Czech distinguishes three genders—masculine, feminine, and neuter—and the masculine gender is subdivided into animate and inanimate. With few exceptions, feminine nouns in the nominative case end in -a, -e, or consonant; neuter nouns in -o, -e, or , and masculine nouns in a consonant.[59] Adjectives agree in gender and animacy (for masculine nouns in the accusative or genitive singular and the nominative plural) with the nouns they modify.[60] The main effect of gender in Czech is the difference in noun and adjective declension, but other effects include past-tense verb endings: for example, dělal (he did, or made); dělala (she did, or made) and dělalo (it did, or made).[61]

Nouns are also inflected for number, distinguishing between singular and plural. Typical of a Slavic language, Czech cardinal numbers one through four allow the nouns and adjectives they modify to take any case, but numbers over five place these nouns and adjectives in the genitive case when the entire expression is in nominative or accusative case. The Czech koruna is an example of this feature; it is shown here as the subject of a hypothetical sentence, and declined as genitive for numbers five and up.[62]

English Czech
one crown jedna koruna
two crowns dvě koruny
three crowns tři koruny
four crowns čtyři koruny
five crowns pět korun

Numerical words decline for case and, for numbers one and two, for gender. Numbers one through five are shown below as examples, and have some of the most exceptions among Czech numbers. The number one has declension patterns identical to those of the demonstrative pronoun, to.[63][64]

1 2 3 4 5
Nominative jeden (male)
jedna (female)
jedno (neuter)
dva (male)
dvě (female, neuter)
tři čtyři pět
Genitive jednoho (male)
jedné (female)
jednoho (neuter)
dvou tří or třech čtyř or čtyřech pěti
Dative jednomu (male)
jedné (female)
jednomu (neuter)
dvěma třem čtyřem pěti
Accusative jednoho (male an.)
jeden (male in.)
jednu (female)
jedno (neuter)
dva (male)
dvě (female, neuter)
tři čtyři pět
Locative jednom (male)
jedné (female)
jednom (neuter)
dvou třech čtyřech pěti
Instrumental jedním (male)
jednou (female)
jedním (neuter)
dvěma třemi čtyřmi pěti

Although Czech's grammatical numbers are singular and plural, several residuals of dual forms remain. Some nouns for paired body parts use a historical dual form to express plural in some cases: ruka (hand)—ruce (nominative); noha (leg)—nohama (instrumental), nohou (genitive/locative); oko (eye)—oči, and ucho (ear)—uši. While two of these nouns are neuter in their singular forms, all plural forms are considered feminine; their gender is relevant to their associated adjectives and verbs.[65] These forms are plural semantically, used for any non-singular count, as in mezi čtyřma očima (face to face, lit. among four eyes). The plural number paradigms of these nouns are actually a mixture of historical dual and plural forms. For example, nohy (legs; nominative/accusative) is a standard plural form of this type of noun.[66]

Verb conjugation

Czech verb conjugation is less complex than noun and adjective declension because it codes for fewer categories. Verbs agree with their subjects in person (first, second or third) and number (singular or plural), and are conjugated for tense (past, present or future). For example, the conjugated verb mluvíme (we speak) is in the present tense and first-person plural; it is distinguished from other conjugations of the infinitive mluvit by its ending, -íme.[67]

Typical of Slavic languages, Czech marks its verbs for one of two grammatical aspects: perfective and imperfective. Most verbs are part of inflected aspect pairs—for example, koupit (perfective) and kupovat (imperfective). Although the verbs' meaning is similar, in perfective verbs the action is completed and in imperfective verbs it is ongoing. This is distinct from past and present tense,[68] and any Czech verb of either aspect can be conjugated into any of its three tenses.[67] Aspect describes the state of the action at the time specified by the tense.[68]

The verbs of most aspect pairs differ in one of two ways: by prefix or by suffix. In prefix pairs, the perfective verb has an added prefix—for example, the imperfective psát (to write, to be writing) compared with the perfective napsat (to write down, to finish writing). The most common prefixes are na-, o-, po-, s-, u-, vy-, z- and za-.[69] In suffix pairs, a different infinitive ending is added to the perfective stem; for example, the perfective verbs koupit (to buy) and prodat (to sell) have the imperfective forms kupovat and prodávat.[70] Imperfective verbs may undergo further morphology to make other imperfective verbs (iterative and frequentative forms), denoting repeated or regular action. The verb jít (to go) has the iterative form chodit (to go repeatedly) and the frequentative form chodívat (to go regularly).[71]

Many verbs have only one aspect, and verbs describing continual states of being—být (to be), chtít (to want), moct (to be able to), ležet (to lie down, to be lying down)—have no perfective form. Conversely, verbs describing immediate states of change—for example, otěhotnět (to become pregnant) and nadchnout se (to become enthusiastic)—have no imperfective aspect.[72]

Although Czech's use of present and future tense is largely similar to that of English, the language uses past tense to represent the English present perfect and past perfect; ona běžela could mean she ran, she has run or she had run.[73]

Conjugation of být in future tense
Person Singular Plural
1. budu budeme
2. budeš budete
3. bude budou

In some contexts, Czech's perfective present (which differs from the English present perfect) implies future action; in others, it connotes habitual action.[74] As a result, the language has a proper future tense to minimize ambiguity. The future tense does not involve conjugating the verb describing an action to be undertaken in the future; instead, the future form of být (as shown in the table at left) is placed before the infinitive (for example, budu jíst—"I will eat").[75]

This conjugation is not followed by být itself, so future-oriented expressions involving nouns, adjectives, or prepositions (rather than verbs) omit být. "I will be happy" is translated as Budu šťastný (not Budu být šťastný).[75]

Conditional form of koupit (to buy)
Person Singular Plural
1. koupil/a bych koupili/y bychom
2. koupil/a bys koupili/y byste
3. koupil/a/o by koupili/y/a by

The infinitive form ends in t (archaically, ti). It is the form found in dictionaries and the form that follows auxiliary verbs (for example, můžu tě slyšet—"I can hear you").[76] Czech verbs have three grammatical moods: indicative, imperative and conditional.[77] The imperative mood adds specific endings for each of three person (or number) categories: -Ø/-i/-ej for second-person singular, -te/-ete/-ejte for second-person plural and -me/-eme/-ejme for first-person plural.[78] The conditional mood is formed with a particle after the past-tense verb. This mood indicates possible events, expressed in English as "I would" or "I wish".[79]

Most Czech verbs fail into one of five classes, which determine their conjugation patterns. The future tense of být would be classified as a Class I verb because of its endings. Examples of the present tense of each class and some common irregular verbs follow in the tables below:[80]

Class I Class II Class III Class IV Class V
Definition to carry to print to wander to suffer to do, to make
Infinitive nést tisknout putovat trpět dělat
1st p. sg. nesu tisknu putuji trpím dělám
2nd p. sg. neseš tiskneš putuješ trpíš děláš
3rd p. sg. nese tiskne putuje trpí dělá
1st p. pl. neseme tiskneme putujeme trpíme děláme
2nd p. pl. nesete tisknete putujete trpíte děláte
3rd p. pl. nesou tisknou putují trpí dělají
Irregular verbs
Definition to be to want to eat to know
Infinitive být chtít jíst vědět
1st p. sg. jsem chci jím vím
2nd p. sg. jsi chceš jíš víš
3rd p. sg. je chce
1st p. pl. jsme chceme jíme víme
2nd p. pl. jste chcete jíte víte
3rd p. pl. jsou chtějí jedí vědí

Orthography

Psací písmo
The handwritten Czech alphabet

Czech has one of the most phonemic orthographies of all European languages. Its thirty-one graphemes represent thirty sounds (in most dialects, i and y have the same sound), and it contains only one digraph: ch, which follows h in the alphabet.[81] As a result, some of its characters have been used by phonologists to denote corresponding sounds in other languages. The characters q, w and x appear only in foreign words.[82] The háček (ˇ) is used with certain letters to form new characters: š, ž, and č, as well as ň, ě, ř, ť, and ď (the latter five uncommon outside Czech). The last two letters are sometimes written with a comma above (ʼ, an abbreviated háček) because of their height.[83] The character ó exists only in loanwords and onomatopoeia.[84]

Unlike most European languages, Czech distinguishes vowel length; long vowels are indicated by an acute accent or, occasionally with ů, a ring. Long u is usually written ú at the beginning of a word or morpheme (úroda, neúrodný) and ů elsewhere,[85] except for loanwords (skútr) or onomatopoeia ().[86] Long vowels and ě are not considered separate letters in the alphabetical order.[87]

Czech typographical features not associated with phonetics generally resemble those of most Latin European languages, including English. Proper nouns, honorifics, and the first letters of quotations are capitalized, and punctuation is typical of other Latin European languages. Writing of ordinal numerals is similar to most European languages. The Czech language uses a decimal comma instead of a decimal point. When writing a long number, spaces between every three numbers (e.g. between hundreds and thousands) may be used for better orientation in handwritten texts, but not in decimal places, like in English. The number 1,234,567.8910 may be written as 1234567,8910 or 1 234 567,8910. Ordinal numbers (1st) use a point as in German (1.). In proper noun phrases (except personal names), only the first word is capitalized (Pražský hrad, Prague Castle).[88][89]

Varieties

The main vernacular of Bohemia is "Common Czech", based on the dialect of the Prague region. Other Bohemian dialects have become marginalized, while Moravian dialects remain more widespread, with a political movement for Moravian linguistic revival active since the 1990s.

Common Czech

The main Czech vernacular, spoken primarily in and around Prague but also throughout the country, is known as Common Czech (obecná čeština). This is an academic distinction; most Czechs are unaware of the term or associate it with vernacular (or incorrect) Czech.[90] Compared to standard Czech, Common Czech is characterized by simpler inflection patterns and differences in sound distribution.[91]

Common Czech has become ubiquitous in most parts of the Czech Republic since the later 20th century. It is usually defined as an interdialect used in common speech in Bohemia and western parts of Moravia (by about two thirds of all inhabitants of the Czech Republic). Common Czech is not codified, but some of its elements have become adopted in the written standard. Since the second half of the 20th century, Common Czech elements have also been spreading to regions previously unaffected, as a consequence of media influence. Standard Czech is still the norm for politicians, businesspeople and other Czechs in formal situations, but Common Czech is gaining ground in journalism and the mass media.[91]

Common Czech is characterized by quite regular differences from the standard morphology and phonology. These variations are more or less common among all Common Czech speakers:[92]

  • é usually replaced by ý/í: malý město (small town), plamínek (little flame), lítat (to fly);
  • ý (sometimes also í) replaced by ej: malej dům (small house), mlejn (mill), plejtvat (to waste), bejt (to be) – as a consequence of the loss of the difference in the pronunciation of y/ý and i/í in the 15th century;
  • unified plural endings of adjectives: malý lidi (small people), malý ženy (small women), malý města (small towns) – stand.: malí lidé, malé ženy, malá města;
  • unified instrumental ending -ma in plural: s těma dobrejma lidma, ženama, chlapama, městama (with the good people, women, guys, towns) – stand.: s těmi dobrými lidmi, ženami, chlapy, městy. In essence, this form resembles the form of the dual, which was once a productive form, but now is almost extinct and retained in a lexically specific set of words. In Common Czech the ending became productive again around the 17th century, but used as a substitute for a regular plural form.[93]
  • prothetic v- added to most words beginning o-: votevřít vokno (to open the window) – stand.: otevřít okno; but ovoce not *vovoce (fruit)
  • omitting of the syllabic -l in the masculine ending of past tense verbs: řek (he said), moh (he could), pích (he pricked) – stand.: řekl, mohl, píchl.

Example of declension (with the comparison with the standard Czech):

    Masculine
animate
Masculine
inanimate
Feminine Neuter
Sg. Nominative mladej člověk
mladý člověk
mladej stát
mladý stát
mladá žena
mladá žena
mladý zvíře
mladé zvíře
Genitive mladýho člověka
mladého člověka
mladýho státu
mladého státu
mladý ženy
mladé ženy
mladýho zvířete
mladého zvířete
Dative mladýmu člověkovi
mladému člověku
mladýmu státu
mladému státu
mladý ženě
mladé ženě
mladýmu zvířeti
mladému zvířeti
Accusative mladýho člověka
mladého člověka
mladej stát
mladý stát
mladou ženu
mladou ženu
mladý zvíře
mladé zvíře
Vocative mladej člověče!
mladý člověče!
mladej státe!
mladý státe!
mladá ženo!
mladá ženo!
mladý zvíře!
mladé zvíře!
Locative mladym člověkovi
mladém člověkovi
mladym státě
mladém státě
mladý ženě
mladé ženě
mladym zvířeti
mladém zvířeti
Instrumental mladym člověkem
mladým člověkem
mladym státem
mladým státem
mladou ženou
mladou ženou
mladym zvířetem
mladým zvířetem
Pl. Nominative mladý lidi
mladí lidé
mladý státy
mladé státy
mladý ženy
mladé ženy
mladý zvířata
mladá zvířata
Genitive mladejch lidí
mladých lidí
mladejch států
mladých států
mladejch žen
mladých žen
mladejch zvířat
mladých zvířat
Dative mladejm lidem
mladým lidem
mladejm státům
mladým státům
mladejm ženám
mladým ženám
mladejm zvířatům
mladým zvířatům
Accusative mladý lidi
mladé lidi
mladý státy
mladé státy
mladý ženy
mladé ženy
mladý zvířata
mladá zvířata
Vocative mladý lidi!
mladí lidé!
mladý státy!
mladé státy!
mladý ženy!
mladé ženy!
mladý zvířata!
mladá zvířata!
Locative mladejch lidech
mladých lidech
mladejch státech
mladých státech
mladejch ženách
mladých ženách
mladejch zvířatech
mladých zvířatech
Instrumental mladejma lidma
mladými lidmi
mladejma státama
mladými státy
mladejma ženama
mladými ženami
mladejma zvířatama
mladými zvířaty

mladý člověk – young man/person, mladí lidé – young people, mladý stát – young state, mladá žena – young woman, mladé zvíře – young animal

Bohemian dialects

Apart from the Common Czech vernacular, there remain a variety of other Bohemian dialects, mostly in marginal rural areas. Dialect use began to weaken in the second half of the 20th century, and by the early 1990s regional dialect use was stigmatized, associated with the shrinking lower class and used in literature or other media for comedic effect. Increased travel and media availability to dialect-speaking populations has encouraged them to shift to (or add to their own dialect) standard Czech.[94]

The Czech Statistical Office in 2003 recognized the following Bohemian dialects:[95]

  • Nářečí středočeská (Central Bohemian dialects)
  • Nářečí jihozápadočeská (Southwestern Bohemian dialects)
  • Podskupina chodská (Chod subgroup)
  • Podskupina doudlebská (Doudleby subgroup)
  • Nářečí severovýchodočeská (Northeastern Bohemian dialects)
  • Podskupina podkrknošská (Krkonoše subgroup)

Bohemian dialects use a slightly different set of vowel phonemes to standard Czech. The phoneme /ɛː/ is peripheral and is replaced by /iː/, and a second native diphthong /eɪ̯/ occurs, usually in places where standard Czech has /iː/.[96]

Moravian dialects

The Czech dialects spoken in Moravia and Silesia are known as Moravian (moravština). In the Austro-Hungarian Empire, "Bohemian-Moravian-Slovak" was a language citizens could register as speaking (with German, Polish and several others).[97] Of the Czech dialects, only Moravian is distinguished in nationwide surveys by the Czech Statistical Office. As of 2011, 62,908 Czech citizens spoke Moravian as their first language and 45,561 were diglossal (speaking Moravian and standard Czech as first languages).[98]

Beginning in the sixteenth century, some varieties of Czech resembled Slovak;[16] the southeastern Moravian dialects, in particular, are sometimes considered dialects of Slovak rather than Czech. These dialects form a continuum between the Czech and Slovak languages,[99] using the same declension patterns for nouns and pronouns and the same verb conjugations as Slovak.[100]

The Czech Statistical Office in 2003 recognized the following Moravian dialects:[95]

  • Nářečí českomoravská (Bohemian–Moravian dialects)
  • Nářečí středomoravská (Central Moravian dialects)
  • Podskupina tišnovská (Tišnov subgroup)
  • Nářečí východomoravská (Eastern Moravian dialects)
  • Nářečí slezská (Silesian dialects)

Sample

In a 1964 textbook on Czech dialectology, Břetislav Koudela used the following sentence to highlight phonetic differences between dialects:[101]

Standard Czech: Dej mouku ze mna na vozík.
Common Czech: Dej mouku ze mlejna na vozejk.
Central Moravian: Dé móku ze mna na vozék.
Eastern Moravian: Daj múku ze młýna na vozík.
Silesian: Daj muku ze młyna na vozik.
Slovak: Daj múku z mlyna na vozík.
English: Put the flour from the mill into the cart.

Mutual intelligibility

Czech and Slovak have been considered mutually intelligible; speakers of either language can communicate with greater ease than those of any other pair of West Slavic languages. Since the 1993 dissolution of Czechoslovakia, mutual intelligibility has declined for younger speakers, probably because Czech speakers now experience less exposure to Slovak and vice versa.[102]

In phonetic differences, Czech is characterized by a glottal stop before initial vowels and Slovak by its less-frequent use of long vowels than Czech;[103] however, Slovak has long forms of the consonants r and l when they function as vowels.[104] Phonemic differences between the two languages are generally consistent, typical of two dialects of a language. Grammatically, although Czech (unlike Slovak) has a fully productive vocative case,[103] both languages share a common syntax.[16]

One study showed that Czech and Slovak lexicons differed by 80 percent, but this high percentage was found to stem primarily from differing orthographies and slight inconsistencies in morphological formation;[105] Slovak morphology is more regular (when changing from the nominative to the locative case, Praha becomes Praze in Czech and Prahe in Slovak). The two lexicons are generally considered similar, with most differences found in colloquial vocabulary and some scientific terminology. Slovak has slightly more borrowed words than Czech.[16]

The similarities between Czech and Slovak led to the languages being considered a single language by a group of 19th-century scholars who called themselves "Czechoslavs" (Čechoslované), believing that the peoples were connected in a way which excluded German Bohemians and (to a lesser extent) Hungarians and other Slavs.[106] During the First Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938), although "Czechoslovak" was designated as the republic's official language, both Czech and Slovak written standards were used. Standard written Slovak was partially modeled on literary Czech, and Czech was preferred for some official functions in the Slovak half of the republic. Czech influence on Slovak was protested by Slovak scholars, and when Slovakia broke off from Czechoslovakia in 1938 as the Slovak State (which then aligned with Nazi Germany in World War II), literary Slovak was deliberately distanced from Czech. When the Axis powers lost the war and Czechoslovakia reformed, Slovak developed somewhat on its own (with Czech influence); during the Prague Spring of 1968, Slovak gained independence from (and equality with) Czech,[16] due to the transformation of Czechoslovakia from a unitary state to a federation. Since the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993, "Czechoslovak" has referred to improvised pidgins of the languages which have arisen from the decrease in mutual intelligibility.[107]

Vocabulary

Czech vocabulary derives primarily from Slavic, Baltic and other Indo-European roots. Although most verbs have Balto-Slavic origins, pronouns, prepositions and some verbs have wider, Indo-European roots.[108] Some loanwords have been restructured by folk etymology to resemble native Czech words (hřbitov, "graveyard" and listina, "list").[109]

Most Czech loanwords originated in one of two time periods. Earlier loanwords, primarily from German,[110] Greek and Latin,[111] arrived before the Czech National Revival. More recent loanwords derive primarily from English and French,[110] and also from Hebrew, Arabic and Persian. Many Russian loanwords, principally animal names and naval terms, also exist in Czech.[112]

Although older German loanwords were colloquial, recent borrowings from other languages are associated with high culture.[110] During the nineteenth century, words with Greek and Latin roots were rejected in favor of those based on older Czech words and common Slavic roots; "music" is muzyka in Polish and музыка (muzyka) in Russian, but in Czech it is hudba.[111] Some Czech words have been borrowed as loanwords into English and other languages—for example, robot (from robota, "labor")[113] and polka (from polka, "Polish woman" or from "půlka" "half").[114]

Sample text

Presl brambor
1846 sample of printed Czech

According to Article 1 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

Czech: Všichni lidé se rodí svobodní a sobě rovní co do důstojnosti a práv. Jsou nadáni rozumem a svědomím a mají spolu jednat v duchu bratrství.[115]

English: "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."[116]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Czech at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ a b c d e http://www.coe.int/en/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/treaty/148/declarations?p_auth=63PpH3zN
  3. ^ Ministry of Interior of Poland: Act of 6 January 2005 on national and ethnic minorities and on the regional languages
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Czech". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. ^ IANA language subtag registry, retrieved October 15, 2018
  6. ^ a b "Czech language". www.britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  7. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach; James Hartmann; Jane Setter (eds.), English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-3-12-539683-8
  8. ^ Golubović, Jelena; Gooskens, Charlotte (2015). "Mutual intelligibility between West and South Slavic languages". Russian Linguistics. 39 (3): 351–373. doi:10.1007/s11185-015-9150-9.
  9. ^ http://babel.mml.ox.ac.uk/naughton/lit_to_1918.html. University of Oxford
  10. ^ http://slavic.ucla.edu/czech/czech-republic/. University of California, Los Angeles
  11. ^ a b Sussex & Cubberley 2011, pp. 54–56
  12. ^ Liberman & Trubetskoi 2001, p. 112
  13. ^ Liberman & Trubetskoi 2001, p. 153
  14. ^ a b Sussex & Cubberley 2011, pp. 98–99
  15. ^ Piotrowski 2012, p. 95
  16. ^ a b c d e Berger, Tilman. "Slovaks in Czechia – Czechs in Slovakia" (PDF). University of Tübingen. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  17. ^ a b Cerna & Machalek 2007, p. 26
  18. ^ Chloupek & Nekvapil 1993, p. 92
  19. ^ Chloupek & Nekvapil 1993, p. 95
  20. ^ Chloupek & Nekvapil 1993, p. 93
  21. ^ a b Maxwell 2009, p. 106
  22. ^ Agnew 1994, p. 250
  23. ^ a b Agnew 1994, pp. 251–252
  24. ^ a b c Wilson 2009, p. 18
  25. ^ Chloupek & Nekvapil 1993, p. 96
  26. ^ Chloupek & Nekvapil 1993, pp. 93–95
  27. ^ Naughton 2005, p. 2
  28. ^ a b "Europeans and Their Languages" (PDF). Eurobarometer. June 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2014.
  29. ^ van Parys, Jonathan (2012). "Language knowledge in the European Union". Language Knowledge. Retrieved July 23, 2014.
  30. ^ Škrobák, Zdeněk. "Language Policy of Slovak Republic" (PDF). Annual of Language & Politics and Politics of Identity. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
  31. ^ Hrouda, Simone J. "Czech Language Programs and Czech as a Heritage Language in the United States" (PDF). University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved July 23, 2014.
  32. ^ "Chapter 8: Language" (PDF). Census.gov. 2000. Retrieved July 23, 2014.
  33. ^ "Languages of the U.S.A" (PDF). U.S. English. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 20, 2009. Retrieved July 25, 2014.
  34. ^ Naughton, James. "CZECH LITERATURE, 1774 TO 1918". Oxford University. Archived from the original on 12 June 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  35. ^ Dankovičová 1999, p. 72
  36. ^ Harkins 1952, p. 9
  37. ^ Harkins 1952, p. 12
  38. ^ Dankovičová 1999, p. 73
  39. ^ "Psaní i – y po písmenu c". Czech Language Institute. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  40. ^ Harkins 1952, p. 11
  41. ^ a b Harkins 1952, p. 6
  42. ^ Dankovičová 1999, p. 71
  43. ^ Naughton 2005, p. 5
  44. ^ Qualls 2012, pp. 6–8
  45. ^ Qualls 2012, p. 5
  46. ^ Naughton 2005, pp. v–viii
  47. ^ Naughton 2005, pp. 61–63
  48. ^ Naughton 2005, p. 212
  49. ^ Naughton 2005, p. 74
  50. ^ Short 2009, p. 324.
  51. ^ Short 2009, p. 325.
  52. ^ Naughton 2005, pp. 10–11
  53. ^ Naughton 2005, p. 10
  54. ^ Naughton 2005, p. 48
  55. ^ Uhlířová, Ludmila. "SLOVOSLED NOMINÁLNÍ SKUPINY". Nový encyklopedický slovník češtiny. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  56. ^ Harkins 1952, p. 271
  57. ^ a b Naughton 2005, p. 25
  58. ^ Naughton 2005, pp. 201–205
  59. ^ Naughton 2005, pp. 22–24
  60. ^ Naughton 2005, p. 51
  61. ^ Naughton 2005, p. 141
  62. ^ Naughton 2005, p. 114
  63. ^ Naughton 2005, p. 83
  64. ^ Naughton 2005, p. 117
  65. ^ Naughton 2005, p. 40
  66. ^ Komárek 2012, p. 238
  67. ^ a b Naughton 2005, p. 131
  68. ^ a b Naughton 2005, p. 146
  69. ^ Naughton 2005, p. 147
  70. ^ Naughton 2005, pp. 147–148
  71. ^ Lukeš, Dominik (2001). "Gramatická terminologie ve vyučování - Terminologie a platonický svět gramatických idejí". DominikLukeš.net. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  72. ^ Naughton 2005, p. 149
  73. ^ Naughton 2005, p. 140
  74. ^ Naughton 2005, p. 150
  75. ^ a b Naughton 2005, p. 151
  76. ^ Naughton 2005, p. 7
  77. ^ Rothstein & Thieroff 2010, p. 359
  78. ^ Naughton 2005, p. 157
  79. ^ Naughton 2005, pp. 152–154
  80. ^ Naughton 2005, pp. 136–140
  81. ^ Pansofia 1993, p. 11
  82. ^ Harkins 1952, p. 1
  83. ^ Harkins 1952, pp. 6–8
  84. ^ Harkins 1952, p. 8
  85. ^ Harkins 1952, p. 7
  86. ^ Pansofia 1993, p. 26
  87. ^ Hajičová 1986, p. 31
  88. ^ Naughton 2005, p. 11
  89. ^ Pansofia 1993, p. 34
  90. ^ Wilson 2009, p. 21
  91. ^ a b Daneš, František (2003). "The present-day situation of Czech". Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. Retrieved August 10, 2014. (Subscription required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  92. ^ Tahal 2010, pp. 245–253
  93. ^ Komárek 2012, pp. 179–180
  94. ^ Eckert 1993, pp. 143–144
  95. ^ a b "Map of Czech Dialects". Český statistický úřad (Czech Statistical Office). 2003. Archived from the original on December 1, 2012. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
  96. ^ Komárek 2012, p. 116
  97. ^ Kortmann & van der Auwera 2011, p. 714
  98. ^ "Tab. 614b Obyvatelstvo podle věku, mateřského jazyka a pohlaví (Population by Age, Mother Tongue, and Gender)" (in Czech). Český statistický úřad (Czech Statistical Office). March 26, 2011. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
  99. ^ Kortmann & van der Auwera 2011, p. 516
  100. ^ Šustek, Zbyšek (1998). "Otázka kodifikace spisovného moravského jazyka (The question of codifying a written Moravian language)" (in Czech). University of Tartu. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
  101. ^ Koudela 1964, p. 173
  102. ^ Short 2009, p. 306.
  103. ^ a b Sussex & Cubberley 2011, pp. 57–58
  104. ^ Esposito 2011, p. 83
  105. ^ Esposito 2011, p. 82
  106. ^ Maxwell 2009, pp. 101–105
  107. ^ Nábělková, Mira (January 2007). "Closely-related languages in contact: Czech, Slovak, "Czechoslovak"". International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Retrieved August 18, 2014. (Subscription required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  108. ^ Mann 1957, p. 159
  109. ^ Mann 1957, p. 160
  110. ^ a b c Mathesius 2013, p. 20
  111. ^ a b Sussex & Cubberley 2011, p. 101
  112. ^ Mann 1957, pp. 159–160
  113. ^ Harper, Douglas. "robot (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
  114. ^ Harper, Douglas. "polka (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
  115. ^ "Všeobecná deklarace lidských prav" (PDF). United Nations Information Centre Prague. United Nations. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-14. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
  116. ^ "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights". United Nations. Archived from the original on December 8, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014.

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  • Short, David (2009). "Czech and Slovak". In Bernard Comrie (ed.). The World's Major Languages (2nd ed.). Routledge. pp. 305–330.
  • Scheer, Tobias (2004). A Lateral Theory of Phonology: What is CVCV, and why Should it Be?, Part 1. Walter De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-017871-5.
  • Stankiewicz, Edward (1986). The Slavic Languages: Unity in Diversity. Mouton De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-009904-1.
  • Sussex, Rolan; Cubberley, Paul (2011). The Slavic Languages. Cambridge Language Surveys. ISBN 978-0-521-29448-5.
  • Tahal, Karel (2010). A grammar of Czech as a foreign language (PDF). Factum.
  • Wilson, James (2009). Moravians in Prague: A Sociolinguistic Study of Dialect Contact in the Czech. Peter Lang International Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-3-631-58694-5.

External links

Army of the Czech Republic

The Army of the Czech Republic (Czech: Armáda České republiky, AČR), also known as the Czech Army or Czech Armed Forces, is the military service responsible for the defence of the Czech Republic in compliance with international obligations and treaties on collective defence. It is also set to support peacekeeping, rescue and humanitarian operations both within the national territory and abroad. Armed Forces consist of the General Staff, the Land Forces, the Air Force and support units.From the late 1940s to 1989, the extensive Czechoslovak People's Army (about 200,000) formed one of the pillars of the Warsaw Pact military alliance. After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic is completing a major reorganisation and reduction of the armed forces, which intensified after the Czech Republic joined NATO on 12 March 1999.As defined by the Czech Law No. 219/1999 Coll., the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic (Czech: ozbrojené síly České republiky) are the military forces of the Czech Republic. They consist of the Army of the Czech Republic, the Military Office of President of the Republic and the Castle Guard.

Czech Braille

Czech Braille is the braille alphabet of the Czech language. Like braille in other Latin-script languages, Czech Braille assigns the 25 basic Latin letters (not including "W") the same as Louis Braille's original assignments for French.

Czech Extraliga

The Czech Extraliga (Czech: Extraliga ledního hokeje, ELH) is the highest-level ice hockey league in the Czech Republic. It was created by the 1993 split of the Czechoslovak First Ice Hockey League following the breakup of Czechoslovakia. The league features 14 teams. It is considered as the fifth best ice hockey league in the world.

Czech Republic

The Czech Republic ( (listen); Czech: Česká republika [ˈtʃɛskaː ˈrɛpublɪka] (listen)), also known by its short-form name, Czechia ( (listen); Czech: Česko [ˈtʃɛsko] (listen)), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. It is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants; its capital and largest city is Prague, with 1.3 million residents. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava, Olomouc and Pilsen. The Czech Republic is a member of the European Union (EU), NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, and the Council of Europe.

It is a developed country with an advanced, high income export-oriented social market economy based in services, manufacturing and innovation. The UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development. The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index. It ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.

The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Beside Bohemia itself, the King of Bohemia ruled the lands of the Bohemian Crown, holding a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor; and Prague was the imperial seat in periods between the 14th and 17th century. In the Hussite Wars of the 15th century driven by the Protestant Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Catholic Church.

Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary. The Protestant Bohemian Revolt (1618–20) against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism and reimposed Catholicism, and also adopted a policy of gradual Germanization. This contributed to the anti-Habsburg sentiment. A long history of resentment of the Catholic Church followed and still continues. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the German Confederation 1815-1866 as part of Austrian Empire (1804 to 1867) and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, which was formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I.

Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period. However, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became the Slovak Republic; Czechoslovakia was liberated in 1945 by the armies of the Soviet Union and the United States. Most of the three millions of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004.

Czechs

The Czechs (Czech: Češi, pronounced [ˈtʃɛʃɪ]; singular masculine: Čech [ˈtʃɛx], singular feminine: Češka [ˈtʃɛʃka]) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history, and Czech language.

Ethnic Czechs were called Bohemians in English until the early 20th century, referring to the medieval land of Bohemia which in turn was adapted from late Iron Age tribe of Celtic Boii. During the Migration Period, West Slavic tribes of Bohemians settled in the area, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations", and formed a principality in the 9th century, which was part of Great Moravia, in form of Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia, the predecessors of the modern republic.

The Czech diaspora is found in notable numbers in the United States, Canada, Israel, Austria, Germany, Slovakia, Switzerland, Italy, the United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Argentina and Brazil, among others.

Flag of the Czech Republic

The national flag of the Czech Republic (Czech: státní vlajka České republiky) is the same as the flag of former Czechoslovakia. Upon the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic kept the Czechoslovak flag while Slovakia adopted its own flag. The first flag of Czechoslovakia was based on the flag of Bohemia and was white over red. This was almost identical to the flag of Poland (only the proportion was different), so a blue triangle was added at the hoist in 1920. The flag was banned by the Nazis in 1939, and a horizontal tricolor of white, red, and blue was enforced. The 1920 flag was restored in 1945.

Football Association of the Czech Republic

The Football Association of the Czech Republic (Czech: Fotbalová asociace České republiky; FAČR) or colloquially the Czech Football Association is the governing body of football in the Czech Republic, based in Prague. It organizes the lower-level league competitions in the country (the professional Czech First League and Czech Second League are organized independently), the Czech Cup, and the Czech Republic national football team.

Goose

Geese are waterfowl of the family Anatidae. This group comprises the genera Anser (the grey geese) and Branta (the black geese). Chen, a genus comprising 'white geese', is sometimes used to refer to a group of species that are more commonly placed within Anser. Some other birds, mostly related to the shelducks, have "goose" as part of their names. More distantly related members of the family Anatidae are swans, most of which are larger than true geese, and ducks, which are smaller.

Mladá fronta DNES

Mladá fronta Dnes (Young Front Today), also known as MF DNES or simply Dnes (Today), is a daily newspaper in the Czech Republic. Its name could be translated into English as Youth Front Today. As of 2016, it is the second largest Czech newspaper, after the Czech tabloid Blesk.

Moravia

Moravia ( maw-RAY-vee-ə, -⁠RAH-, moh-; Czech: Morava; German: Mähren ; Polish: Morawy; Latin: Moravia) is a historical region in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The medieval and early modern Margraviate of Moravia was a crown land of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (from 1348 to 1918), an imperial state of the Holy Roman Empire (1004 to 1806), later a crown land of the Austrian Empire (1804 to 1867) and briefly also one of 17 former crown lands of the Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1867 to 1918. During the early 20th century, Moravia was one of the five lands of Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1928; it was then merged with Czech Silesia, and eventually dissolved by abolition of the land system in 1949.

Moravia has an area of over 22,000 km2 and about 3 million inhabitants, which is roughly 2/7 or 30% of the whole Czech Republic. The statistics from 1921 states, that the whole area of Moravia including the enclaves in Silesia covers 22,623.41 km2. The people are historically named Moravians, a subgroup of Czechs (as understood by Czechs). The land takes its name from the Morava river, which rises in the northern tip of the region and flows southward to the opposite end, being its major stream. Moravia's largest city and historical capital is Brno. Before being sacked by the Swedish army during the Thirty Years' War, Olomouc was another capital.Though officially abolished by an administrative reform in 1949, Moravia is still commonly acknowledged as a specific land in the Czech Republic. Moravian people are considerably aware of their Moravian identity and there is some rivalry between them and the Czechs from Bohemia.

National Library of the Czech Republic

The National Library of the Czech Republic (Czech: Národní knihovna České republiky) is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture. The library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where approximately half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař. The National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers. As well as Czech texts, the library also stores older material from Turkey, Iran and India. The library also houses books for Charles University in Prague.The library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years.

OF

OF or Of may refer to:

Air Finland, a defunct Finnish airline (IATA airline code OF)

Mass of Paul VI, or Ordinary Form, in Roman Catholicism

Of, Turkey, a town and district in Trabzon Province, Turkey

Offenbach (district), German vehicle registration plate code OF

Old French, a dialect continuum spoken from the 9th century to the 14th century

Open Firmware, computer software which loads an operating system

Order of Fiji, which has the post-nominal letters of OF

Outfielder, a defensive position in baseball

Oxygen fluoride, a compound containing only the chemical elements oxygen and fluorine

Občanské fórum, or Civic Forum, a Czech political movement in 1989

Osvobodilna fronta, the Liberation Front of the Slovenian People

OF grade tea

Obec

Obec (plural: obce or obcí) is the Czech and Slovak word for a municipality (in the Czech Republic, in Slovakia and abroad). The literal meaning of the word is "commune" or "community". It is the smallest administrative unit that is governed by elected representatives. Cities are also municipalities. The council is called "obecní zastupitelstvo/obecné zastupiteľstvo" or "zastupitelstvo města/mestské zastupiteľstvo" or "zastupitelstvo městyse", the office is called "obecní úřad/obecný úrad" or "úřad města/mestský úrad" or "úřad městyse". An obec can have its own flag and coat of arms and is composed of one or more cadastral areas ("katastrální území/katastrálne územia"). An obec can have several settlements or parts whether villages or hamlets.

South Moravian Region

The South Moravian Region (Czech: Jihomoravský kraj; Slovak: Juhomoravský kraj; German: Südmährische Region) is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the south-western part of its historical region of Moravia (an exception is Jobova Lhota which belongs to Bohemia). Its capital is Brno, the 2nd largest city in the Czech Republic. The region has 1,169,000 inhabitants (as of 30 June 2013) and the total area of 7,196.5 km². It is bordered by the South Bohemian Region (west), Vysočina Region (north-west), Pardubice Region (north), Olomouc Region (north east), Zlín Region (east), Trenčín and Trnava Regions, Slovakia (south east) and Lower Austria, Austria (south).

Stadion Letná

The Generali Arena, previously, and still commonly known as Letná Stadium (Czech: Stadion Letná [ˈstadjon ˈlɛtnaː]), is a football stadium in Prague. It is the home venue of Sparta Prague and often the home stadium of the Czech Republic national football team. It has capacity for 19,416 people.

Vltava

The Vltava (, Czech: [ˈvl̩tava] (listen); German: Moldau [ˈmɔldaʊ]) is the longest river within the Czech Republic, running southeast along the Bohemian Forest and then north across Bohemia, through Český Krumlov, České Budějovice and Prague, and finally merging with the Elbe at Mělník. It is commonly referred to as the "Bohemian sea" and the "Czech national river".

Vysočina Region

The Vysočina Region (IPA: [ˈvɪsotʃɪna]; Czech: Kraj Vysočina "Highlands Region", German: Region Hochland), is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located partly in the south-eastern part of the historical region of Bohemia and partly in the south-west of the historical region of Moravia. Its capital is Jihlava.

The region is the location of two mountain ranges, Žďárské vrchy and Jihlavské vrchy, both part of the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands. The Vysočina Region is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the most in any region in the Czech Republic. The region is one of just three in the country (the others being Prague and the Central Bohemian Region) which does not have a border with a foreign country.

XVideos

XVideos is a pornographic video sharing and viewing website. The website is registered to the Czech company WGCZ Holding. As of April 2019, it was the 47th most visited website in the world.In 2012, it was estimated that the site streams over a terabyte per second, which was the equivalent of one-fifteenth of the network bandwidth available from London to New York.WGCZ Holding also run the Bang Bros network of websites and are the current owners of the Penthouse magazine and its related assets.

České Budějovice

České Budějovice ([ˈtʃɛskɛː ˈbuɟɛjovɪtsɛ] (listen); German: Budweis or Böhmisch Budweis, Latin: Budovicium) is a statutory city in the Czech Republic. It is the largest city in the South Bohemian Region as well as its political and commercial capital, the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of České Budějovice, the University of South Bohemia, and the Academy of Sciences. It is located in the center of a valley of the Vltava River, at the confluence with the Malše. It is famous for Budweiser.

České Budějovice, which is located in the historical province of Bohemia, is not to be confused with Moravské Budějovice in Moravia.

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