Czech koruna

The koruna (sign: ; code: CZK) is the currency of the Czech Republic since 1993, and in English it is sometimes referred to as Czech crown or Czech krone. The koruna is one of European Union's 11 currencies, and the Czech Republic is legally bound to adopt the euro currency in the future.

The official name in Czech is koruna česká (plural koruny české, though the zero-grade genitive plural form korun českých is used on banknotes and coins of value 5 Kč or higher). The ISO 4217 code is CZK and the local acronym is Kč, which is placed after the numeric value (e.g., "50 Kč") or sometimes before it (as is seen on the 10-koruna coin). One koruna equals 100 haléřů (abbreviated as "h", singular: haléř, nominative plural: haléře, genitive plural: haléřů – used with numbers higher or equal to 5 – e.g. 3 haléře, 8 haléřů), but haléře have been withdrawn, and the smallest unit of physical currency is 1 Kč.

Czech koruna
koruna česká  (Czech)
CZK Banknotes 2014 50 CZK
Koruna banknotes50 Kč coin
ISO 4217
CodeCZK
Number203
Exponent2
Denominations
Subunit
 ​1100haléř (defunct)
PluralThe language(s) of this currency belong(s) to the Slavic languages. There is more than one way to construct plural forms.
Symbol
 haléř (defunct)h
Banknotes
 Freq. used100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000 Kč
 Rarely used5000 Kč
Coins1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 Kč
Demographics
User(s) Czech Republic
Issuance
Central bankCzech National Bank
 Websitewww.cnb.cz
MintČeská mincovna
 Websiteceskamincovna.cz
Valuation
Inflation2.5%
 SourceCzech Statistical Office, February 2017
 MethodCPI

History

In 1892, the Austro-Hungarian krone replaced the gulden, at the rate of one gulden equaling two kronen (which is also the reason why the 10-koruna coin is still nicknamed pětka or "the five" by the Czechs). The name "krone" was invented by the emperor, Franz Joseph I of Austria. After Austria-Hungary dissolved in 1918, the only successor state that kept the name of the currency, the koruna, was Czechoslovakia. In the late 1920s, the Czechoslovak koruna was the hardest currency in Europe. During the Second World War, the currency on the occupied Czech territory was artificially weakened. The Czechoslovak koruna was restored after the war. It underwent a highly controversial monetary reform in 1953.

The Czech koruna replaced the Czechoslovak koruna when it was introduced in 1993 after the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. It first consisted of overstamped 20-, 50-, 100-, 500-, and 1000-Czechoslovak koruna banknotes, but a new series was properly introduced in 1993.

In November 2013, the Czech National Bank (ČNB) intervened to weaken the exchange rate of the koruna through a monetary stimulus to stop the currency from excessive strengthening.[1] In late 2016, the ČNB stated that the return to conventional monetary policy was planned for mid-2017.[2][3] After higher-than-expected inflation and other figures, the national bank removed the cap on a special monetary meeting on April 6, 2017. The koruna avoided significant volatility and City Index Group stated: "If you want to drop a currency peg, then the ČNB can show you how to do it".[4]

Euro adoption discussion

The Czech Republic planned to adopt the euro in 2010, but its government suspended that plan indefinitely in 2005.[5] Although the country is economically well positioned to adopt the euro, there is considerable opposition to the move within the Czech Republic.[6] According to a survey conducted in April 2014, only 16% of the Czech population was in favour of replacing the koruna with the euro.[7] As reported by an April 2018 survey by CVVM (Public Opinion Research Center), this value has remained at nearly identical levels over the past four years, with only 20% of the Czech population above 15 years old supporting euro adoption.[8]

Coins

The coins of the Czech koruna increase in size and weight with value.

In 1993, coins were introduced in denominations of 10, 20 and 50 haléřů, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 korun. The 10- and 20-haléřů coins were taken out of circulation by 31 October 2003 and the 50-haléřů coins by 31 August 2008 due to their diminishing purchasing power and circulation.[9] However, financial amounts are still written with the accuracy of 1-haléř (CZK 0.01); prices in retail shops are usually multiples of CZK 0.10. When transactions are made, the amount is rounded to the nearest integer.

In 2000, the 10- and 20-korun coins were minted with different obverses to commemorate the millennium. In 1993 and 1994, coins were minted in Winnipeg and Hamburg, then in the Czech Republic. The 10- and 50-korun coins were designed by Ladislav Kozák (1934–2007).

Since 1997, sets for collectors are also issued yearly with proof-quality coins. Also, a tradition exists of issuing commemorative coins – including silver and gold coins – for numismatic purposes.

For a complete listing, see Commemorative coins of the Czech Republic.

Circulation coins[10]
Image Value Technical parameters Description Date of
Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse first minting issue withdrawal
10h CZK 10 h 15.5 mm 1.7 mm 0.6 g 99% aluminium
1% magnesium
Plain "ČESKÁ REPUBLIKA", the Czech lion, year of minting Value, stylized river 1993 1993 2003
20h CZK 20 h 17 mm 0.74 g Milled Value, linden leaf 1993 1993 2003
50h CZK 50 h 19 mm 0.9 g Alternately plain and milled Value 1993 1993 2008
1 CZK 1 Kč 20 mm 1.85 mm 3.6 g Nickel-plated steel Milled Value, St. Wenceslas crown 1993 1993 Current
2 CZK 2 Kč 21.5 mm,
11-sided
3.7 g Rounded, plain Value, a Great Moravian button-jewel 1993 1993 Current
5 CZK 5 Kč 23 mm 4.8 g Plain Value, Charles Bridge, Vltava, linden leaf 1993 1993 Current
10 CZK 10 Kč 24.5 mm 2.55 mm 7.62 g Copper-plated steel Milled Value, Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul at Petrov monument in Brno 1993 1993 Current
20 CZK 20 Kč 26 mm,
13-sided
8.43 g Brass-plated steel Rounded, plain Value, the St. Wenceslas monument on Wenceslas Square, inscription from the monument: "SVATÝ VÁCLAVE NEDEJ ZAHYNOUT NÁM I BUDOUCÍM" 1993 1993 Current
50 CZK 50 Kč 27.5 mm
center: 17 mm
9.7 g Outer ring: Copper-plated steel
Center plug: Brass-plated steel
Plain "PRAGA MATER URBIUM" (Prague, the Mother of Towns), view of Prague 1993 1993 Current

Banknotes

The first Czech banknotes were issued on 8 February 1993 and consisted of Czechoslovak notes with adhesive stamps affixed to them. Only the 100-, 500- and 1,000-korun notes were overstamped, the lower denominations circulated unchanged during this transitional period. Each stamp bears a Roman and Arabic numeral identifying the denomination of the banknote to which it is affixed (C and 100, D and 500, M and 1,000). Subsequent issues of the 1,000-korun note replaced the adhesive stamp with a printed image of same.[11]

A newly designed series of banknotes in denominations of 20-, 50-, 100-, 200-, 500-, 1,000 and 5,000-korun were introduced later in 1993 and are still in use at present – except for 20, 50 and the first versions of 1,000 and 5,000 korun notes, since the security features of 1,000 and 5,000 notes were upgraded in the subsequent issues (The 2,000 korun note, which was introduced in 1996, is still valid in all versions, with and without the new security features). These banknotes feature renowned Czech persons on the obverse and abstract compositions on the reverse. Modern protective elements can be found on all banknotes.

Stamped banknotes

Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Language Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse printing issue withdrawal
Czechoslovak banknotes
10 Czechoslovakan koruna 1985-1989 Issue Obverse 10 Czechoslovakan koruna 1985-1989 Issue Reverse 10 Kčs 133 × 67 mm Brown Slovak Pavol Országh-Hviezdoslav Orava scene 1986 7 February 1993 31 July 1993
20 Czechoslovakan koruna 1985-1989 Issue Obverse 20 Czechoslovakan koruna 1985-1989 Issue Reverse 20 Kčs 138 × 67 mm Blue Czech Comenius Illustration related to culture and education 1988 7 February 1993 31 July 1993
50 Czechoslovakan koruna 1985-1989 Issue Obverse 50 Czechoslovakan koruna 1985-1989 Issue Reverse 50 Kčs 143 × 67 mm Red Slovak Ľudovít Štúr View of Bratislava with the castle (from the restaurant on the top of the pylon of the Nový Most) 1987 7 February 1993 31 July 1993
Overstamped Czechoslovak banknotes
100 Czechoslovakan koruna 1993 Provisional Issue Obverse 100 Czechoslovakan koruna 1993 Provisional Issue Reverse 100 Kč 165 × 81 mm Green Czech Peasant couple View of Prague with the castle and the Charles Bridge 1961 7 February 1993 31 August 1993
500 Czechoslovakan koruna 1993 Provisional Issue Obverse 500 Czechoslovakan koruna 1993 Provisional Issue Reverse 500 Kč 153 × 67 mm Brown Slovak Partisans of the SNP 1944 Devín Castle 1973 7 February 1993 31 August 1993
1000 Czechoslovakan koruna 1993 Provisional Issue Obverse 1000 Czechoslovakan koruna 1993 Provisional Issue Reverse 1,000 Kč 158 × 67 mm Blue Czech Bedřich Smetana View of the Vltava at Vyšehrad 1985 7 February 1993 31 August 1993

Original Czech banknotes

The Greater coat of arms of the Czech Republic can be found on the reverse side of all denominations.

Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of
Obverse Reverse printing issue withdrawal lapse
First original (second 1993) series
20 Kč 128 × 64 mm Blue Přemysl Otakar I and his seal Crown 1994 20 April 1994 31 August 2008 31 August 2014[12]
50 Kč 134 × 64 mm Red Saint Agnes of Bohemia and the Sacred Heart St. Salvator's Church ceiling (part of Convent of St. Agnes of Bohemia in Prague) and ornamental letter A 1993 6 October 1993 31 January 2007 31 March 2017[13]
1994 21 December 1994 31 March 2011
1997 10 September 1997 31 March 2011
100 Kč 140 × 69 mm Green and pink Charles IV Seal of Charles University 1993 30 June 1993 31 January 2007 until further notice
1995 21 June 1995 current
1997 15 October 1997 current
200 Kč 146 × 69 mm Brown and orange John Amos Comenius Orbis Pictus, an adult's hand passing to a child's hand 1993 8 February 1993 31 January 2007 until further notice
1996 14 August 1996 current
1998 6 January 1999 current
500 Kč 152 × 69 mm Brown and pink Božena Němcová and rose Laureate woman symbolizing all woman characters in Němcová's books 1993 21 July 1993 31 January 2007 until further notice
1995 27 December 1995 current
1997 18 March 1998 current
2009 1 April 2009 current
1,000 Kč 158 × 74 mm Violet František Palacký, uprooted tree Eagle spread its wings over the Archbishop's Castle in Kroměříž, where a constitution preparing parliament of Austrian Empire was held in 1848 1993 12 May 1993 30 June 2001 until further notice
1996 6 December 1996 current
2008 1 April 2008 current
2,000 Kč 164 × 74 mm Green Emmy Destinn Euterpe and musical motifs like violin 1996 1 October 1996 current
1999 1 December 1999 current
2007 2 July 2007 current
5,000 Kč 170 × 74 mm Dark blue and violet Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk Gothic and Baroque buildings in Prague, in centre dominating St. Vitus Cathedral 1993 15 December 1993 30 June 2001 until further notice
1999 8 September 1999 current
2009 1 December 2009 current

Commemorative banknotes

Commemorative banknote series[14]
Image Value Dimensions Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark printing* issue withdrawal lapse
100 CZK obverse 2019 100 CZK reverse 2019 100 Kč 150 × 65 mm Alois Rašín Czech National Bank RČS 2019 25 February 2019 TBD
100 Kč Green and pink 140 × 69 mm Charles IV, overprint on watermark area Seal of Charles University TBD

For the 100th anniversary of the Czechoslovak koruna, a new banknote will be created, featuring the face of Czech politician Alois Rašín. There is also an overprint on the normal 100 Korun note as second commemorative note.

Exchange rates

Historic rates

Euro exchange rate to CZK
EUR–CZK exchange rate since 1999

Current rates

Current CZK exchange rates
From Google Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD
From Yahoo! Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD
From XE: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD
From OANDA: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD
From fxtop.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD

See also

References

  1. ^ "Czech Koruna Approaches Euro Cap: Intervention Policy Explained". 8 July 2015. Archived from the original on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018 – via www.bloomberg.com.
  2. ^ "Czech Central Bank Zeros In on Ending Koruna Cap in Mid-2017". 29 September 2016. Archived from the original on 19 January 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2018 – via www.bloomberg.com.
  3. ^ "Czech Central Banker Quashes Bets on Earlier Koruna Cap Exit". 13 September 2016. Archived from the original on 17 February 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2018 – via www.bloomberg.com.
  4. ^ "Czechs Trigger Long-Awaited Koruna Float Without Swiss Shock". 6 April 2017. Archived from the original on 18 June 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018 – via www.bloomberg.com.
  5. ^ "Finance Ministry backtracks on joining the Euro by 2012". Radio Praha. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2008.
  6. ^ "Euros in the wallets of the Slovaks, but who will be next?" (Press release). Sparkasse.at. 5 August 2008. Archived from the original on 4 September 2006. Retrieved 21 December 2008.
  7. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  9. ^ "The CNB decides 50-heller coins will cease to be legal tender". Archived from the original on 14 April 2008. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
  10. ^ Czech national bank. Available at: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 September 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ "Platidla ČR (1993–20..) – Papírová platidla, bankovky". Papirovaplatidla.cz. Archived from the original on 16 November 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  12. ^ "ČNB". www.cnb.cz. Archived from the original on 4 May 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  13. ^ "Czech Republic to replace 50-koruna note with coin 01.04.2011 - Banknote News". banknotenews.com. Archived from the original on 25 August 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  14. ^ "Rašín Alois". zlate-mince.cz. Zlatemince.cz. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
  15. ^ "Czech crown extends record run, eyes on CPI". Forbes. 7 July 2008. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011.
  16. ^ Czech national bank exchange rate fixing. Available at: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 February 2018. Retrieved 5 February 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

External links

Ber nebo neber

Ber nebo neber is the Czech Republic's version of Deal or No Deal airing on TV Prima. The show, hosted by Pavel Zuna, is filmed on a set similar to the United States set and uses the music from that version, but uses the case opening cue when a low amount is opened from the Canadian version. Players can win as little as 1 Kč (Czech koruna) (about 4¢ US, €0.04, 3p, and ¥4.5) to as much as 5,000,000 Kč (about US$197,000, €185,000, £160,000, and ¥22,500,000).

Big Brother (Czech TV series)

Big Brother, known as Velký Bratr in the Czech language, is a reality competition television series broadcast in the Czech Republic by TV Nova in 2005. The Czech version is based on the popular Dutch Big Brother international television franchise, produced by Endemol, where a number of contestants live in an isolated house for a certain period of time. At all times, housemates are under the control of Big Brother, a rule-enforcing authority figure who monitors the behaviour of the housemates, sets tasks and punishments, and provides the only link to the outside world for the contestants. The premiere saw thirteen housemates originally enter the house, with four additional people entering at various point during the programme.

The show caused controversity when contestant Filip Trojovský was recognized as gay porn star Tommy Hansen. Also a commercial model, Trjovský starred in a TV spot for a German milk-company prior to entering the house. A German tabloid revealed the scandal, causing the spot to be taken off air. When his past became known, Trojovský became the first person to be evicted, and as a result, the ratings quickly fell. He was quickly reinstated as a housemate a few weeks later. In the end, Trojovský, who started a heterosexual relationship in the house, finished in third place.The winner of this series was David Šin, who won the grand prize of 10,000,000 Czech koruna (400,000 Euro) after spending 113 days inside the Big Brother House.

The programme faced fierce competition from an identical show called VyVolení (Való Világ that aired simultaneously on rival network TV Prima. As a result, the show suffered in the ratings, and did not live up to network expectations. It was cancelled after only one season.

Crown (currency)

The crown is a currency used in the countries of Czech Republic, Denmark (including the territories of Faroe Islands and Greenland), Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

Currencies of the European Union

There are eleven currencies of the European Union as of 2018 used officially by member states. The euro accounts for the majority of the member states with the remainder operating independent monetary policies. Those European Union states that have adopted it are known as the eurozone and share the European Central Bank (ECB). The ECB and the national central banks of all EU countries, including those who operate an independent currency, are part of the European System of Central Banks.

Czech Mint

The Czech Mint (Česká mincovna) is a mint located in the Czech Republic which is responsible for producing coins of the Czech koruna. The mint was established in 1992 following the country's dissolution from Czechoslovakia where coins of the Czechoslovak koruna were produced at the Kremnica Mint in Slovakia.

Czech National Bank

The Czech National Bank, (Czech: Česká národní banka, ČNB) is the central bank and financial market supervisor in the Czech Republic with its headquarters in Prague, and a member of the European System of Central Banks. The Bank's governor is Jiří Rusnok. In accordance with its primary objective, the CNB sets monetary policy, issues banknotes and coins and manages the circulation of the Czech koruna, the payment system and settlement between banks. It also performs supervision of the banking sector, the capital market, the insurance industry, pension funds, credit unions and electronic money institutions, as well as foreign exchange supervision.

Czech Republic and the euro

The Czech Republic is bound to adopt the euro in the future and to join the eurozone once it has satisfied the euro convergence criteria by the Treaty of Accession since it joined the European Union (EU) in 2004. The Czech Republic is therefore a candidate for the enlargement of the eurozone and it uses the Czech koruna as its currency, regulated by the Czech National Bank, a member of the European System of Central Banks, and does not participate in European Exchange Rate Mechanism II (ERM II).

Although the Czech Republic is economically well positioned to adopt the euro, following the European debt crisis there has been considerable opposition among the public to the adoption of the euro currency. According to a poll conducted in April 2017, 29% of Czechs were in favour of introducing the euro while 70% were opposed and 1% undecided. As of 2017, there is no target date by the government for joining the ERM II or adopting the euro. The ruling cabinet that was formed following the 2017 legislative election does not plan to proceed with euro adoption within its term.

Czech State Award for Translation

The Czech State Award for Translation (Czech language: Státní cena za překladatelské dílo) is an award given by the Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic. The Czech State Award for Translation is awarded for the translation of a literary work from a foreign language into Czech. The prize consists of a certificate and 300,000 CZK Czech koruna. It is awarded each year on October 28, along with the Czech State Award for Literature.

Czechoslovak koruna

The Czechoslovak koruna (in Czech and Slovak: Koruna československá, at times Koruna česko-slovenská; koruna means crown) was the currency of Czechoslovakia from April 10, 1919, to March 14, 1939, and from November 1, 1945, to February 7, 1993. For a brief time in 1939 and again in 1993, it was also the currency in separate Czech and Slovak republics.

On February 8, 1993, it was replaced by the Czech koruna and the Slovak koruna, both at par.

The (last) ISO 4217 code and the local abbreviations for the koruna were CSK and Kčs. One koruna equalled 100 haléřů (Czech, singular: haléř) or halierov (Slovak, singular: halier). In both languages, the abbreviation h was used. The abbreviation was placed behind the numeric value.

Heller (money)

The Heller or Häller , originally a German coin valued at half a pfennig, took its name from the city of Hall am Kocher (today Schwäbisch Hall).

Mints produced the coin from the beginning of the 13th century, based on a previously produced silver pfennig (Häller Pfennig, sometimes called Händelheller for its depiction of a hand on the front face), but its composition deteriorated with the mixing in copper little by little so that it was no longer considered to be a silver coin. There were red, white and black Hellers. Beginning in the Middle Ages it became a symbol of low worth, and a common German byword is "keinen (roten) Heller wert", lit.: not worth a (red) Heller, or "not worth a red cent".

The term Heller came into wide use as a name for coins of small value throughout many of the German states up to 1873 when, after German unification, Bismarck's administration introduced the Mark and the pfennig as coinage throughout the German Empire.

The German Heller saw a resurrection in 1904 when the government took over responsibility for the currency of German East Africa from the German East Africa Company. The Heller was introduced as 1/100 of a rupie instead of the pesa which had so far been a 1/64 of a rupie.

In Austria-Hungary, Heller was also the term used in the Austrian half of the empire for 1/100 of the Austro-Hungarian krone (the other being fillér in the Hungarian half), the currency from 1892 until after the demise (1918) of the Empire.

The term heller (Czech: haléř, Slovak: halier) was also used for a coin valued at 1/100 of a koruna (crown) in the Czech Republic (Czech koruna) and Slovakia (Slovak koruna), as well as in former Czechoslovakia (Czechoslovak koruna).

Only the currency of the Czech Republic continues to use Hellers (haléře), although they survive only as a means of calculation — the Czech National Bank removed the coins themselves from circulation in 2008 and notionally replaced them with rounding to the next koruna.

In the 1920s the "Heller" currency was expanded to greater denominations in the German territories and printed bills were produced to represent their value for trade.

Hynek Bílek

Hynek Bílek (born 25 December 1981 in Olomouc) is a Czech former ice dancer. With partner Lucie Kadlčáková representing the Czech Republic, he placed as high as 10th at the World Junior Championships and won three ISU Junior Grand Prix medals. Bílek teamed up with Ivana Dlhopolčeková around 2003. Representing Slovakia, they won senior international medals at the 2004 Golden Spin of Zagreb, Ondrej Nepela Memorial, and Pavel Roman Memorial.

Following retirement from competition, Bílek worked at an Olomouc branch of the Komerční banka, however, in June 2010, he was sentenced to six years in prison for defrauding clients of 15 million Czech koruna.

Jiří Orten Award

The Jiří Orten Award is a Czech literary prize given to the author of a work of prose or poetry who is no older than 30 at the time of the work's completion. The award is named after Czech poet Jiří Orten. The winner is awarded a prize of 50,000 Czech koruna.

Kolowrat Palace

The Kolowrat Palace (Czech: Kolowratský palác) is a Baroque complex of two Gothic buildings, located at Ovocný trh 4 a 6 in the Old Town part of the Prague 1 district in Prague, Czech Republic.

The palace belongs to the Kolowrat family. The family bought the first building in 1670 and the second one in 1697. The original vaults from the early Baroque period are located on the ground floor, and the rooms on the first floor are decorated with Baroque painted-wood ceilings.

Around 1948, the palace was nationalized by the government, but after the Velvet Revolution in 1989, the property was returned to the family. In 1993, Count Jindrich Kolowrat-Krakowsky (1897–1996) rented out the palace to the National Theatre for a symbolic annual amount of one Czech koruna. The attic of the palace now houses the Kolowrat Theatre, one of the venues of the National Theatre.

Krona

Krona may refer to:

In monetary units, where krona and its variants mean crown:

Austro-Hungarian krone

Czech koruna

Czechoslovak koruna

Danish krone

Estonian kroon

Faroese króna

Icelandic króna

Norwegian krone

Slovak koruna

Swedish krona

Yugoslav kroneOther:

Krona (comics), alien villain in DC Comics

Charlotte Krona (born 1978), Swedish model and violinist

Krona, or Crona, character in Soul Eater (manga)

Krona space object recognition station, Russian military satellite detection station in Zelenchukskaya

Krona-N the second Krona satellite detection station, in Nakhodka

List of currencies in Europe

There are 25 currencies currently used in the 50 countries of Europe, all of which are members of the United Nations, except Vatican City, which is an observer. All de facto present currencies in Europe, and an incomplete list of the preceding currency, are listed here.

A currency is a medium of exchange, such as money, banknotes, and coins. In Europe, the most commonly used currency is the euro (used by 25 countries); any country entering the European Union (EU) is expected to join the eurozone when they meet the five convergence criteria. Denmark is the only EU member which has been granted an exemption from using the euro. Sweden has also not adopted the Euro, although unlike Denmark, it has not formally opted out; instead, it fails to meet the ERM II (Exchange Rate Mechanism) which results in the non-use of the Euro. For countries which hope to join the eurozone, there are five guidelines that need to be followed, grouped in the Maastricht criteria.The pound sterling, used by the United Kingdom, is rated at fourth on Investopedia's list of the top 8 most tradable currencies, saying that it is a "little bit more volatile than the euro". It was ranked just ahead of the Swiss franc, ranked fifth, which is used in Switzerland and Liechtenstein, saying that the set up of the Swiss banking "emphasizes the economic and financial stability policies dictated by the governing board of the SNB". Both are in the top 8 major currencies on Bloomberg. Several countries use currencies which translate as "crown": the Czech koruna, the Norwegian krone, the Danish krone, the Icelandic króna, and the Swedish krona.At present, the euro is legal tender in 19 out of 28 European Union member states, in addition to 5 countries not part of the EU (Monaco, San Marino, Vatican City, Andorra and Montenegro). Kosovo also uses the euro, but is only partially recognised as an independent state.

Městský stadion (Benešov)

Městský stadion, also known as Stadion u Konopiště is a football stadium in Benešov, Czech Republic. It is the home stadium of SK Benešov. It hosted top-flight football in the 1994–95 season. The stadium holds 8,000 spectators.

The ground was the location of a pitch invasion by Sparta Prague fans on 4 March 1995, resulting in home team goalkeeper Martin Pařízek being rendered unconscious. The Czech Football Association fined the home team 30,000 Czech koruna for the incident and instructed the club to play its next home game at least 100 kilometres (62 mi) from Benešov.

Pavel Baudiš

Pavel Baudiš (born 15 May 1960) is a Czech software engineer, entrepreneur and the co-founder of Avast along with Eduard Kučera. As of 2017, he is the 8th wealthiest person in the Czech Republic, with a net worth of more than 21 billion Czech koruna according to Forbes.Born in Prague, he graduated in Information Technology from the Prague University of Chemical Technology. He then worked as a Graphics Specialist at the Mathematical Research Institute.He wrote his first antivirus program 1988, two years after the appearance of the first computer virus. He entered business began with his friend Eduard Kucera at the end of the communist regime in 1989, when he founded Alwil. In the early 1990s, the company was renamed Avast Software, based on its best known product, Avast Antivirus. It soon faced intense competition, especially from Symantec, which used an aggressive pricing policy in a bid to lead the market. In response Baudiš and Kucera took a radical defense strategy, offering its product for free. As a result, Avast ultimately emerged as the largest anti-virus firm in the world.

Pod Vinicí

Pod Vinicí is a football stadium in Pardubice, Czech Republic. It is the home stadium of FK Pardubice. The total capacity is 2,500, including 600 seated.In 2012 FK Pardubice invested over one million Czech koruna in the redevelopment of the seating in order to meet league requirements as the team was promoted to the Czech 2. Liga. In September 2011 a crowd of around 3,000 watched the third round 2011–12 Czech Cup match against Sparta Prague at the stadium.

SK Hranice

SK Hranice is a Czech football club located in Hranice (Přerov District) in the Olomouc Region. It currently plays in Divize E, which is in the Czech Fourth Division.

The club has taken part in the Czech Cup on a number of occasions, reaching the third round in 2001–02, 2002–03 and 2004–05.

Hranice played in the Regional Championship (fifth tier) for two years between 2010 and 2012 before winning promotion back to the Czech Fourth Division in June 2012.The club was given a state subsidy of 1 million Czech koruna in 2012 to help facilitate the reconstruction of their stadium, which was badly affected by the 1997 Central European flood, due to the stadium's proximity to the Bečva.

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