Częstochowa Ghetto uprising

The Częstochowa Ghetto uprising was an insurrection in Poland's Częstochowa Ghetto against German occupational forces during World War II. It took place in late June 1943, resulting in some 2,000 Jews being killed.

The first instance of armed resistance took place on January 4, 1943, at the so-called Large Ghetto established by the Germans in April 1941.[1] During the 'selection' of some 500 Jews to be deported to the ghetto in Radomsko, shooting broke out at the Warsaw Square (now, Ghetto Heroes Square) in which Mendel Fiszelewicz (Fiszelowicz) along with Isza Fajner were killed. 50 young Jews were executed in reprisal.[2]

Częstochowa Ghetto uprising
Czestochowa ghetto Rynek Warszawski circa 1944
Shelled Warsaw Square in Częstochowa circa 1944 after the Częstochowa Ghetto uprising, renamed as Ghetto Heroes Square after the war
LocationCzęstochowa Ghetto, Nazi occupied Poland
LaunchedJune 25, 1943
SuppressedJune 30, 1943

Full-scale insurgency

The final liquidation of the so-called Small Ghetto (work camp for munitions factory) commenced in June 1943,[3] after four months of mass executions at the Cemetery (Jewish elders, children, intellectuals) and 'selections' of Jews for deportations to slave labour camps including in Bliżyn.[2] On June 25 (or 26), 1943 a full uprising broke out, organized by the Organisation of Jewish Fighters,[4] even though the insurgents were weakly armed. They barricaded themselves in bunkers along the Nadrzeczna Street. In the fighting and subsequent massacres 1,500 Jews died. The leader of the uprising, Mordechaj Zylberberg, committed suicide as the Germans were about to capture his bunker on Nadrzeczna. The uprising was suppressed on June 30, 1943 with additional 500 Jews burned alive or buried beneath the rubble of the Small Ghetto. The remaining 3,900 fugitives were rounded up and sent to camp in Warta or incarcerated at the nearby work prisons, Hasag Pelcery and Huta Częstochowa.[2] However, the Częstochowa Ghetto was not liquidated. Some 10,000 Jews were brought in from Skarżysko-Kamienna in 1944. Around 5,200 of them were liberated by the Red Army in mid January 1945.[2]

References

  1. ^ The Jews of Czestochowa. Coexistence—Holocaust—Memory, 2004. PDF 875.6 KB. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d "Jewish community of Częstochowa. History". Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews. pp. 5 of 5. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
  3. ^ Andrew Rajcher (translated from Polish original), The Częstochowa Ghetto. World Society of Częstochowa Jews and Their Descendants (Home Page). Retrieved April 26, 2012.
  4. ^ Shmuel Krakowski (translated from Hebrew by David Fachler) (2010). "Armed Resistance". YIVO Institute for Jewish Research. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
  • "Ruch podziemny w częstochowskim getcie : wspomnienia" Liber Brener
Battle of Grotniki

The Battle of Grotniki took place on 4 May 1439 in the vicinity of Grotniki Duże, a village near Nowy Korczyn, currently in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship.

The battle was fought between the Hussite confederates under Spytko III of Melsztyn against the royal forces of King Władysław III of Poland under Hińcza of Rogów and de facto regent bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki. The defeat of the non-Catholic forces marked the end of militant Hussite movement in Poland and the beginning of a complete consolidation of power in the Polish Kingdom, led by bishop Zbigniew.

Battle of Kopychyntsi

Battle of Kopychyntsi (Ukrainian: Копичинці, Polish: Kopyczyńce), (May 12, 1651) was a battle of the Khmelnytsky Uprising. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth forces under the command of Marcin Kalinowski defeated the Cossacks and Tatars forces under the command of Asand Demka.

Battle of Mazyr

Battle of Mazyr (Belarusian: Мазыр, Polish: Mozyrz, Ukrainian: Мозир) (February 8-February 9, 1649), was a battle of the Khmelnytsky Uprising. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth forces under the command of Janusz Radziwiłł defeated the Ukrainian Cossacks and captured the city of Mazyr.

Battle of Płowce

The Battle of Płowce took place on 27 September 1331 between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Order.

Battle of Ustechko

The Battle of Ustechko (Polish: Uścieczko, Turkish: Yuvaniça) (October 6, 1694) was fought during the Polish–Ottoman War (1683–1699), between the armies of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on the one hand and of Khanate of Crimea and Ottoman Empire on the other. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth forces under the command of Stanisław Jan Jabłonowski defeated the Tatars and Ottomans forces commanded by Şehbaz Giray.

Battle of Żyrzyn

The Battle of Żyrzyn took place on August 8, 1863 in or near the village of Żyrzyn, Puławy County, Poland, between a small detachment of Russian troops and a force of Polish troops under the command of General Michal Heidenreich.

The Russian force of 500 soldiers and two cannon were escorting a load of 200,000 rubles for the Russian army, 140,000 of which was captured by the Polish forces, along with 282 prisoners of war. Of the remaining Russian troops, 181 were killed, and 87 men escaped along with the remaining 60,000 rubles. The embarrassing defeat was widely reported on by the European press, and throughout the January Uprisings the Polish insurgents counted the engagement, one of many similar small battles, as a "great victory".

Białystok Ghetto uprising

The Białystok Ghetto uprising was an insurrection in the Jewish Białystok Ghetto against the Nazi German occupation authorities during World War II. The uprising was launched on the night of August 16, 1943 and was the second-largest ghetto uprising organized in Nazi-occupied Poland after the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of April–May 1943. It was led by the Anti-Fascist Military Organisation (Antyfaszystowska Organizacja Bojowa), a branch of the Warsaw Anti-Fascist Bloc.The revolt began upon the German announcement of mass deportations from the Ghetto. The main objective was to break the German siege and allow the maximum number of Jews to escape into the neighboring Knyszyn (Knyszyński) Forest. A group of about 300 to 500 insurgents armed with 25 rifles and 100 pistols as well as home-made Molotov cocktails for grenades, attacked the overwhelming German force with a great loss of life. Leaders of the uprising committed suicide. Several dozen combatants managed to break through and run into the Knyszyn Forest where they joined other guerrilla groups.

Częstochowa Ghetto

The Częstochowa Ghetto was a World War II ghetto set up by Nazi Germany for the purpose of persecution and exploitation of local Jews in the city of Częstochowa during the German occupation of Poland. The approximate number of people confined to the ghetto was around 40,000 at the beginning and in late 1942 at its peak – right before mass deportations – 48,000. Most ghetto inmates were delivered by the Holocaust trains to their deaths at the Treblinka extermination camp. In June 1943, the remaining ghetto inhabitants launched the Częstochowa Ghetto uprising, which was extinguished by the SS after a few days of fighting.

Denisko uprising

The Denisko uprising, (Polish: Insurekcja Deniski), named after Joachim Denisko, was the first Polish rebellion after the failed Kosciuszko Uprising. It took place in late June 1797 in the regions of Pokucie and Podole, which after the Partitions of Poland became part of Austrian Galicia.

Joachim Mokosiej Denisko was born in ca. 1756, in a Polish szlachta family of Volhynia. A Jacobin, he took part in the Kosciuszko Uprising, as a political and military commandant of the County of Krzemieniec. In 1794, he carried out a failed rebel raid on Volhynia, after which he fled to the Ottoman Empire, a traditional enemy of the Russian Empire. While in Turkey, Denisko worked on another rebellion, cooperating with a patriotic organization from Lwów, Centralizacja Lwowska.

Centralizacja Lwowska was founded in January 1796 in Krakow, but soon afterwards its office was moved to Lwów. Its members were mainly rich landowners from Austrian and Russian occupied parts of Poland, with bulk of them living in Galicia. Centralizacja also had members in Volhynia and former Grand Duchy of Lithuania: its target was a general insurrection, with support of Turkey and revolutionary France. The organization was commanded by Walerian Dzieduszycki, while Joachim Denisko was one of key members.

First Polish military units were organized in Podole, Bucovina and Wallachia in 1795. Polish patriots hoped for an armed conflict between Russia and Turkey (see History of the Russo-Turkish wars), in which they supported the Ottomans. The number of Polish military personnel in northern provinces of the Ottoman Empire was about 1700; their camps were visited by French and English officers.

In early March 1797, a group of Polish officers created Zwiazek Wojskowy (Military Association), commanded by Joachim Denisko. An Act of Insurrection was published, in which the abolition of social divisions and serfdom was promised. Walerian Dzieduszycki was named military leader of the rebellion, while Karol Kniaziewicz became its civilian leader, and speaker of the National Assembly.

In May 1797, after an internal conflict, Denisko was forced to give up his post. Furthermore, as a result of activities of Russian intelligence services, several members of Centralizacja Lwowska were arrested, including Dzieduszycki. Despite these setbacks, on June 26, Denisko with 200 supporters crossed the Austrian - Turkish border near Zaleszczyki. Four days later, on June 30 after the Battle of Debronowice (the only major battle of the uprising), Austrian forces destroyed the Polish detachment. Some Poles managed to return to Turkey; those captured were hanged on July 11 near Czerniowce. By the end of July, all Polish military camps were destroyed.

Denisko himself fled to Turkey. In 1798 he returned to Volhynia, after the Russian government declared an amnesty. He died in 1812 in Saint Petersburg.

Ghetto uprisings

The ghetto uprisings during World War II were a series of armed revolts against the regime of Nazi Germany between 1941 and 1943 in the newly established Jewish ghettos across Nazi-occupied Europe. Following the German and Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939, Polish Jews were targeted from the outset. Within months inside occupied Poland, the Germans created hundreds of ghettos in which they forced the Jews to live. The new ghettos were part of the German official policy of removing Jews from public life with the aim of economic exploitation. The combination of excess numbers of inmates, unsanitary conditions and lack of food resulted in a high death rate among them. In most cities the Jewish underground resistance movements developed almost instantly, although ghettoization had severely limited their access to resources.The ghetto fighters took up arms during the most deadly phase of the Holocaust known as Operation Reinhard (launched in 1942), against the Nazi plans to deport all prisoners – men, women and children – to camps, with the aim of their mass extermination.

Greater Poland uprising (1806)

Greater Poland uprising of 1806 was a military insurrection by Poles in Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) against the occupying Prussian forces after the Partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1772–1795).

The uprising was organized by General Jan Henryk Dąbrowski to help advancing French forces under Napoleon in liberating Poland from Prussian occupation. The Wielkopolska Uprising was a decisive factor that allowed the formation of the Duchy of Warsaw (1806) and the inclusion of Wielkopolska in the Duchy of Warsaw.

It was one of the three most successful uprisings in the history of Poland, in addition to the Greater Poland uprising of 1918–1919 and Sejny Uprising in 1919.

Greater Poland uprising (1846)

The 1846 Wielkopolska uprising (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1846 roku) was a planned military insurrection by Poles in the land of Greater Poland against the Prussian forces, designed to be part of a general Polish uprising in all three partitions of Poland, against the Russians, Austrians and Prussians.

Kraków Uprising (1944)

The Kraków Uprising was a planned but never realized uprising of the Polish Resistance against the German occupation in the city of Kraków during World War II.

Kraków uprising

The Kraków Uprising of February 1846 was an attempt, led by Polish insurgents such as Jan Tyssowski and Edward Dembowski, to incite a fight for national independence. The uprising was centered on the city of Kraków, the capital of a small state of Free City of Krakow. It was directed at the powers that partitioned Poland, in particular the nearby Austrian Empire. The uprising lasted about nine days, and ended with Austrian victory.

List of battles of the Polish–Soviet War

List of battles of the Polish-Soviet War by chronology:

Soviet "Target Vistula" offensive (January–February 1919)

Battle of Bereza Kartuska (February 9, 1919: the first battle of the conflict)

Vilna offensive: Polish offensive to Vilna (April 1919)

First Battle of Lida (April 1919)

Battle of Berezina (1919)

Operation Minsk: Polish offensive to Minsk (July–August 1919)

Battles of Chorupań and Dubno (19 July 1919)

Battle of Daugavpils: joint Polish-Latvian operation (3 January 1920)

Battle of Latyczów (18-22 February 1920)

Battle of Koziatyn (25–27 April 1920)

Battle of Czarnobyl (27 April 1920)

Battle of the Berezina (1920) (15 May 1920)

Kiev Offensive (May–June 1920)

Battle of Wołodarka (29 May 1920)

Battle of Bystryk (31 May 1920)

Battle of Boryspil (2 June 1920)

Battle of Borodzianka (11-13 June 1920)

Battle of Głębokie (4-6 July 1920)

Battle of Mironówka

Battle of Olszanica

Battle of Żywotów

Battle of Miedwiedówka

Battle of Dziunków

Battle of Wasylkowce

Battle of Grodno (19-20 July 1920)

Battle of Brody (29 July – 2 August 1920)

Battle of Serock

Battle of Ostrołęka (2-6 August 1920)

Battle of Lwów (July–September 1920)

Battle of Tarnopol (31 July - 6 August 1920)

Battle of Warsaw (15 August 1920)

Battle of Nasielsk, Battle of Radzymin, Battle of Ossów, Battle of Borkowo, Battle of Kock (14–15 August 1920)

Battle of Cyców (15–16 August 1920)

Battle of Dęblin and Mińsk Mazowiecki (16–18 August 1920)

Battle of Zadwórze: the "Polish Thermopylæ" (17 August 1920)

Battle of Przasnysz (21–22 August 1920)

Battle of Sarnowa Góra (21–22 August 1920)

Battle of Białystok (22 August 1920)

Battle of Zamość (29 August 1920) - Budyonny's attempt to take Zamość

Battle of Komarów: great cavalry battle, ending in Budyonny's defeat (31 August 1920)

Battle of Hrubieszów (1 September 1920)

Battle of Sejny (September 1920)

Battle of Kobryń (1920) (14–15 September 1920)

Battle of Dytiatyn (16 September 1920)

Battle of Brzostowica (20 September 1920)

Battle of the Niemen River (September 26–28, 1920)

Battles of Obuchowe and Krwawy Bór (27–28 September 1920)

Battle of Zboiska

Battle of Minsk (1920) (18 October 1920)

Lwów uprising

The Lwów uprising (Polish: powstanie lwowskie, akcja Burza) was an armed insurrection by the Home Army (Polish: Armia Krajowa) underground forces of the Polish resistance movement in World War II against the Nazi German occupation of the city of Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine) in the latter stages of World War II. It began on July 23, 1944 as part of a secret plan to launch the countrywide all-national uprising codenamed Operation Tempest ahead of the Soviet advance on the Eastern Front. The Lwów uprising lasted until July 27 and resulted in the liberation of the city. However, shortly afterwards the Polish soldiers were arrested by the invading Soviets. Some were forced to join the Red Army, others sent to the Gulag camps. The city itself was occupied by the Soviet Union.

Siege of Danzig (1577)

The Siege of the city of Danzig was a six-month siege in 1577 of the city of Danzig, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (today Gdańsk) by Stephen Báthory the head of state of the Commonwealth. The siege ended in a negotiated agreement. It is formed part of the Danzig rebellion

The conflict began when the city of Danzig, along with the Polish episcopate and a portion of the Polish szlachta, did not recognize the election of Bathory to the Commonwealth throne and instead supported the candidature of Emperor Maximilian. This led to a short conflict, of which the siege of Danzig was the last part.

After a siege of six months, the Danzig army of 5,000 mercenaries, among them a Scottish regiment, was utterly defeated in a field battle on 16 December 1577. However, since Báthory's armies, Commonwealth plus Hungarian and Wallachian forces, were unable to take the city itself, a compromise was reached: Báthory confirmed the city's special status and her Danzig law privileges granted by the earlier Polish kings. The siege was lifted in return for reparations and recognition of him as sovereign. The city recognised him as ruler of the Commonwealth and paid a large sum of 200,000 złotys.

Uprising of Polish political exiles in Siberia

Siberian Uprising or Baikal Insurrection (Polish: Powstanie zabajkalskie or Powstanie nad Bajkałem, Russian: Кругобайкальское восстание) was a short-lived uprising of about 700 Polish political prisoners and exiles (Sybiracy) in Siberia, Russian Empire, that started on 24 June 1866 and lasted for a few days, until their defeat on 28 June.

Zamość uprising

The Zamość uprising comprised World War II partisan operations, 1942–1944, by the Polish resistance (primarily the Home Army and Peasant Battalions) against Germany's Generalplan-Ost forced expulsion of Poles from the Zamość region (Zamojszczyzna) and the region's colonization by German settlers.The Polish defense of the Zamość region was one of Poland's largest resistance operations of World War II.

Polish uprisings
Partitions
Second Republic
World War II
People's Republic
Piast Poland
Jagiellon Poland
Commonwealth
Poland partitioned
Second Republic
Second World War
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