Cytorus (Greek Κύτωρος, Kytoros;[1] also Cytorum, Κύτωρον, Kytoron) was a settlement on the northern coast of Asia Minor. Mentioned by Homer, Cytorus survives in the name of Gideros, which is both

Gideros is 12 km west of the town of Cide, 15 km east of Kurucaşile.[2] Possibly the name of Cide itself is derived from Cytorus.[3]

Its mythical founder was Cytiorus, son of Phrixus, according to Ephorus.[4] In giving the Trojan battle order in Book 2 of the Iliad, Homer mentions Cytorus and Sesamon as Paphlagonian settlements, along with others around the river Parthenius, today's Bartın River.[5] Sesamon is today's Amasra. This town was Amastris for Strabo, who writes of its founding through a union of Cytorus, Sesamon, and two other settlements. He reports that Cytorus was the marketplace of Sinope and was a source for boxwood. He derives the name of Cytorus (he uses the neuter Cytorum) from Cytorus, a son of Phryxus and therefore one of the Argonauts.[6]

In the Argonautica, Apollonius of Rhodes mentions the settlement of Cytorus and related places in describing the voyage of the Argo. Unlike Strabo, he does not mention Cytorus as a son of Phryxus. Apollonius does apparently place Cytorus where Gideros Bay is today, between the Bartın River and the city of Sinop.[7]

Apollonius applies the epithet "woody" to Cytorus, alluding to the boxwood that Strabo mentions. In the 4th of the Carmina, Catullus addresses "Box-tree-clad Cytórus",[8] while in the Georgics, Virgil says, "Fain would I gaze on Cytorus billowy with boxwood".[9] The Homeric commentator Eustathius of Thessalonica mentions a saying, "carry boxwood to Cytorus," with the meaning of "carry coals to Newcastle".[10]

Strabo's etymology notwithstanding, Bilge Umar finds the origin of the name Cytorus in the Luwian for "Big wall".[3]

There is also reported a folk etymology for the modern name of Gideros, based on its resemblance to the Turkish gideriz (we go). Villagers say that Roman ships once sought shelter from a storm at Gideros Bay, and when the villagers asked the sailors if they would stay, the sailors replied, "Kalamazsak, gideros"—If we can't stay, we go. Pleased at the prospect of not having the Romans around, the villagers called the bay Gideros.[11]

Gideros Bay1
Gideros Bay


  1. ^ In the passage cited below, Homer uses the accusative case form Κύτωρον. Murray and also Richmond Lattimore translate this as if it is from the masculine Κύτωρος rather than the neuter Κύτωρον. Apollonius of Rhodes also uses only the ambiguous accusative case; but Strabo uses the nominative form τὸ Κύτωρον. The EUSTATHIUS THESSALONICENSIS EPISCOPUS INDEX IN EUSTATHII COMMENTARIOS IN HOMERII ILIADEM ET ODYSSEAM gives both Κύτωρος and Κύτωρον. In line 13 of the 4th carmen, Catullus addresses Cytore buxifer, using the vocative case of Cytorus. (The text is available from the Perseus Project.)
  2. ^ Article "Gideros" in Umar, Bilge (1993). Türkiye'deki Tarihsel Adlar [historical names in Turkey]. Istanbul: İnkılâp. ISBN 975-10-0539-6.
  3. ^ a b Article "Cide" in the cited work of Umar.
  4. ^ Strabo. Geographica. p. 544. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  5. ^ In the Loeb Classical Library translation of Homer's Iliad by A. T. Murray (first published 1924), lines 2.851–5, available from the Perseus Project, read thus:

    And the Paphlagonians did Pylaemenes of the shaggy heart lead from the land of the Eneti, whence is the race of wild she-mules. These were they that held Cytorus and dwelt about Sesamon, and had their famed dwellings around the river Parthenius and Cromna and Aegialus and lofty Erythini.

    The reference, along with the references below to Strabo and Apollonius of Rhodes, is given in the cited work of Umar.

  6. ^ In the 1924 translation by H. L. Jones of the Geography of Strabo, apparently from the Loeb Classical Library and available from the Perseus Project, paragraph 12.3.10 reads:

    After the Parthenius River, then, one comes to Amastris, a city bearing the same name as the woman who founded it. It is situated on a peninsula and has harbors on either side of the isthmus. Amastris was the wife of Dionysius the tyrant of Heracleia and the daughter of Oxyathres, the brother of the Dareius whom Alexander fought. Now she formed the city out of four settlements, Sesamus and Cytorum and Cromna (which Homer mentions in his marshalling of the Paphlagonian ships) and, fourth, Tieium. This part, however, soon revolted from the united city, but the other three remained together; and, of these three, Sesamus is called the acropolis of Amastris. Cytorum was once the emporium of the Sinopeans; it was named after Cytorus, the son of Phryxus, as Ephorus says. The most and the best box-wood grows in the territory of Amastris, and particularly round Cytorum.

  7. ^ In the (presumably Loeb) 1912 translation of the Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius by R. C. Seaton, available from Project Gutenberg, lines 2.930–65 include:

    And lo, they passed by the stream of Parthenius as it flows into the sea, a most gentle river, where the maid, daughter of Leto, when she mounts to heaven after the chase, cools her limbs in its much-desired waters. Then they sped onward in the night without ceasing, and passed Sesamus and lofty Erythini, Crobialus, Cromna and woody Cytorus. Next they swept round Carambis at the rising of the sun, and plied the oars past long Aegialus, all day and on through the night.

    And straightway they landed on the Assyrian shore where Zeus himself gave a home to Sinope, daughter of Asopus, and granted her virginity, beguiled by his own promises.

  8. ^ Line 4.13, translated by Richard Francis Burton (1894), available from the Perseus Project. This example from Catullus, as well as the ensuing example from Virgil, are given by George W. Mooney in the note to line 2.942 in his 1912 edition of the Argonautica of Apollonius, available from the Perseus Project.
  9. ^ Line 2.437 of the Georgics, in Virgil; J. W. MacKail (1950). Virgil's Works. New York: The Modern Library. p. 320.
  10. ^ Mooney, in the work cited, mentions the saying without giving a reference. The Liddell–Scott–Jones lexicon gives the reference to Eustathius under πύξος.
  11. ^ "Küçük bir Gideros Şakası" [a little Gideros joke], Mutluay, Gündüz (2006). Köşe Bucak Karadeniz [the Black Sea: every nook and cranny]. Istanbul: Ekin grubu. p. 63. ISBN 975-9132-10-9.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Cytorus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Coordinates: 41°51′34″N 32°51′29″E / 41.85942°N 32.85803°E

Adriatic Veneti

The Veneti (in Latin, also Heneti) were an Indo-European people who inhabited northeastern Italy, in an area corresponding to the modern-day region of Veneto.In Italy, these ancient people are also referred to as Paleoveneti to distinguish them from the modern-day inhabitants of the Veneto region, called Veneti in Italian.


Amasra (from Greek Amastris Ἄμαστρις, gen. Ἀμάστριδος) is a small Black Sea port town in the Bartın Province, Turkey, formerly known as Amastris.

The town is today much appreciated for its beaches and natural setting, which has made tourism the most important activity for its inhabitants. In 2010 the population was 6,500. Amasra has two islands: the bigger one is called Büyük ada ('Great Island'), the smaller one Tavşan adası ('Rabbit Island').


Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.


Carambis or Karambis (Ancient Greek: Κάραμβις) was a town of ancient Paphlagonia, on a promontory of the same name. The town is mentioned in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax (under the name Caramus or Karamos) and by Pliny the Elder. The name occurs as Carambas in the Peutinger Table.The promontory is now known as Kerembe Burnu. Its site is tentatively located near Fakas, Asiatic Turkey.

Catullus 4

Catullus 4 is a poem by the ancient Roman writer Catullus. The poem concerns the retirement of a well-traveled ship (referred to as a "phaselus", also sometimes cited as "phasellus", a variant spelling). Catullus draws a strong analogy with human aging, rendering the boat as a person that flies and speaks, with palms (the oars) and purpose.

The poem is complex, with numerous geographic references and elaborate litotic double negatives in a list-like manner. It borrows heavily from Ancient Greek vocabulary, and also uses Greek grammar in several sections. The meter of the poem is unusual — iambic trimeter, which was perhaps chosen to convey a sense of speed over the waves.

Scholars remain uncertain whether the story of the construction and voyages of this phasellus (ship, yacht, or pinnace), as described or implied in the poem, can be taken literally. Professor A. D. Hope in his posthumous book of translations from Catullus is one translator who takes it so. His introduction calls the phasellus “his yacht, in which he [Catullus] must have made the return voyage [from Bithynia]” and the translation ends

Until she made landfall in this limpid lake. /

But that was aforetime and she is laid up now . . .

However Hope also left, in his final collection of poetry Aubade, a much freer translation, adaptation, or erotic parody, in which the phasellus seems to be, in effect, a phallus. This version says that the phasellus

claims that in his hey-day with mainsail and spanker / He outsailed all vessels;

and the ending becomes:

At his last landfall now, beyond all resurgence, /

View him careened upon a final lee-shore; /

. . . Sing for the captain who will put to sea no more!

Among a number of other interpretations, Catullus 4 has also been interpreted as a parody of epic poetry, or the boat as a metaphor for the Ship of state.


Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Climax (Paphlagonia)

Climax or Klimax (Ancient Greek: Κλίμαξ) was a town on the Black Sea coast of ancient Paphlagonia between Cytorus and Cape Carambis (modern Kerembe Burnu). Marcian of Heraclea places it 50 stadia east of Crobialus. Ptolemy mentions it in his Galatia, and it is the first place after Cytorus which he mentions on this coast. It flourished during Roman and Byzantine eras.Its site is located near Kazallı in Asiatic Turkey.


Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.


Crobialus or Krobialos (Ancient Greek: Κρωβίαλος) was a town on the Black Sea coast of ancient Paphlagonia, mentioned by Apollonius Rhodius, with Cromna and Cytorus; and Gaius Valerius Flaccus has the same name. Stephanus of Byzantium quotes the verse of Apollonius. We may assume that it was in the neighbourhood of Cromna and Cytorus. Strabo observes of the line in Homer's Iliad "Κρῶμνάν τ᾽ Αἰγιαλόν τε καὶ ὑψηλοὺς Ἐρυθίνους" that some persons write Κώβιαλον, meaning 'at Cobialus', in place of Αἰγιαλόν, meaning 'at Aegialus'. Crobialus and Cobialus seem to be the same place. However, Crobialus and Aegialus were distinct.Its site is unlocated.

Cromna (Paphlagonia)

Cromna or Kromna (Ancient Greek: Κρῶμνα) was a town on the Paphlagonian coast, now in modern Turkey. It is mentioned by Homer in the Iliad. It was 60 stadia east of Erythini and 90 west of Cytorus. There are autonomous coins of Cromna.

The site of Cromna has been the subject of some disagreement among sources: Amasra and Kurucaşile both being suggested. However, modern scholars place its site near modern Tekeönü.

Cycladic culture

Cycladic culture (also known as Cycladic civilisation or, chronologically, as Cycladic chronology) was a Bronze Age culture (c. 3200–c. 1050 BC) found throughout the islands of the Cyclades in the Aegean Sea. In chronological terms, it is a relative dating system for artefacts which broadly complements Helladic chronology (mainland Greece) and Minoan chronology (Crete) during the same period of time.

Heraclea Pontica

Heraclea Pontica (; Greek: Ἡράκλεια Ποντική, romanized: Hērakleia Pontikē), in Byzantine and later times known as Pontoheraclea (Greek: Ποντοηράκλεια, romanized: Pontohērakleia), was an ancient city on the coast of Bithynia in Asia Minor, at the mouth of the river Lycus. It was founded by the Greek city-state of Megara in approximately 560–558 and was named after Heracles whom the Greeks believed entered the underworld at a cave on the adjoining Archerusian promontory (Cape Baba). The site is now the location of the modern city Karadeniz Ereğli, in the Zonguldak Province of Turkey.

The colonists soon subjugated the native Mariandynians but agreed to terms that none of the latter, now helot-like serfs, be sold into slavery outside their homeland. Prospering from the rich, fertile adjacent lands and the sea-fisheries of its natural harbor, Heraclea soon extended its control along the coast as far east as Cytorus (Gideros, near Cide), eventually establishing Black Sea colonies of its own (Cytorus, Callatis and Chersonesus).

The prosperity of the city, rudely shaken by the Galatians and the Bithynians, was utterly destroyed in the Mithridatic Wars. It was the birthplace of the philosopher Heraclides Ponticus.

The Greek historical author Memnon of Heraclea (fl. 1st century AD) wrote a local history of Heraclea Pontica in at least sixteen books. The work has perished, but Photius's Bibliotheca preserves a compressed account of books 9–16, seemingly the only ones extant in his day. These books run from the rule of the tyrant Clearchus (c. 364–353 BC) to the later years of Julius Caesar (c. 40 BC) and contain many colorful accounts including the Bithynian introduction of the barbarian Gauls into Asia where they first allied themselves with the Heracleans and later turned violently against them.


Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.


In the culture of ancient Greece, the term paideia (also spelled paedeia) (; Greek: παιδεία, paideía) referred to the rearing and education of the ideal member of the polis. It incorporated both practical, subject-based schooling and a focus upon the socialization of individuals within the aristocratic order of the polis. The practical aspects of this education included subjects subsumed under the modern designation of the liberal arts (rhetoric, grammar, and philosophy are examples), as well as scientific disciplines like arithmetic and medicine. An ideal and successful member of the polis would possess intellectual, moral and physical refinement, so training in gymnastics and wrestling was valued for its effect on the body alongside the moral education which the Greeks believed was imparted by the study of music, poetry, and philosophy. This approach to the rearing of a well-rounded Greek male was common to the Greek-speaking world, with the exception of Sparta where a rigid and militaristic form of education known as the agoge was practiced.

Stephane (Paphlagonia)

Stephane (Ancient Greek: Στεφάνη) was a small port town on the coast of ancient Paphlagonia, according to Arrian 180 stadia east of Cimolis, but according to Marcian of Heraclea only 150. The place was mentioned as early as the time of Hecataeus of Miletus as a town of the Mariandyni, under the name of Stephanis (Στεφανίς). The town is also mentioned in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax and by the geographer Ptolemy. The name is written Stefano in the Peutinger Table.Its site is located near Istifan, Asiatic Turkey.


Tium (Greek: Τῖον) was an ancient settlement, also known as Filyos (Greek: Φίλειος), on the south coast of the Black Sea at the mouth of the river Billaeus in present-day Turkey. Ancient writers variously assigned it to ancient Paphlagonia or Bithynia.

Apart from Tium, Latinized forms of the name are Teium, Tieium and Tius, corresponding to the Greek names Τεῖον (Teion), Τιεῖον (Tieion), Τῖον (Tion) and Τῖος (Tios).


Virbia is a genus of tiger moths in the family Erebidae.

Virbia latus

Virbia latus is a moth in the family Erebidae. It was described by Augustus Radcliffe Grote in 1866. It is found on Cuba.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia

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