Cyrtonyx is a genus of bird in the Odontophoridae family. It contains the following species:

Cyrtonyx montezumaeEBP20A
Cyrtonyx montezumae
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Galliformes
Family: Odontophoridae
Genus: Cyrtonyx
Gould, 1844
American tree sparrow

The American tree sparrow (Spizelloides arborea), also known as the winter sparrow, is a medium-sized sparrow.

It had been classified under the genus Spizella, but multilocus molecular evidence suggested placement in its own genus.

Adults have a rusty cap and grey underparts with a small dark spot on the breast. They have a rusty back with lighter stripes, brown wings with white bars and a slim tail. Their face is grey with a rusty line through the eye. Their flanks are splashed with light brown. They are similar in appearance to the chipping sparrow.

Their breeding habitat is tundra or the northern limits of the boreal forest in Alaska and northern Canada. They nest on the ground.

These birds migrate into southern Canada and the United States to spend the winter. Usually, chipping sparrows are moving south around the same time as these birds arrive.

These birds forage on the ground or in low bushes, often in flocks when not nesting. They mainly eat seeds and insects, but also eat some berries. They are commonly seen near feeders with dark-eyed juncos.

This bird's song is a sweet high warble descending in pitch and becoming buzzy near the finish.


The bluebirds are a group of medium-sized, mostly insectivorous or omnivorous birds in the order of Passerines in the genus Sialia of the thrush family (Turdidae). Bluebirds are one of the few thrush genera in the Americas. They have blue, or blue and rose beige, plumage. Female birds are less brightly colored than males, although color patterns are similar and there is no noticeable difference in size between the two sexes.


Galliformes is an order of heavy-bodied ground-feeding birds that includes turkey, grouse, chicken, New World quail and Old World quail, ptarmigan, partridge, pheasant, francolin, junglefowl and the Cracidae. The name derives from "gallus", Latin for "cock" or "rooster". Common names are gamefowl or gamebirds, landfowl, gallinaceous birds, or galliforms. "Wildfowl" or just "fowl" are also often used for the Galliformes, but usually these terms also refer to waterfowl (Anseriformes), and occasionally to other commonly hunted birds. This group has about 290 species, one or more of which are found in essentially every part of the world's continents (except for the innermost deserts and perpetual ice). They are rarer on islands, and in contrast to the closely related waterfowl, are essentially absent from oceanic islands—unless introduced there by humans. Several species have been domesticated during their long and extensive relationships with humans.

This order contains five families: Phasianidae (including chicken, quail, partridges, pheasants, turkeys, peafowl and grouse), Odontophoridae (New World quails), Numididae (guineafowl), Cracidae (including chachalacas and curassows), and Megapodiidae (incubator birds like mallee fowl and brush-turkeys). They are important as seed dispersers and predators in the ecosystems they inhabit, and are often reared as game birds by humans for their meat and eggs and for recreational hunting. Many gallinaceous species are skilled runners and escape predators by running rather than flying. Males of most species are more colorful than the females. Males often have elaborate courtship behaviors that include strutting, fluffing of tail or head feathers, and vocal sounds. They are mainly nonmigratory.

List of birds of North America (Galliformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Galliformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of the Reserva de la Biosfera Manantlan

This page contains a list of birds found in the Reserva de la Biosfera Manantlan which straddles the states of Colima and Jalisco, in Mexico. The reserve is located in the transition of the Nearctic and Neotropical realms and encompasses parts of the Sierra Madre del Sur, with a wide range of altitudes, climates and soils. The effects of tectonic and volcanic activities and erosion are notable within the reserve.

Forest types in the reserve including mesophytic, cloud, and dry deciduous and semi-deciduous tropical forests. Anthropologists know the region as Zona de Occidente, an area notably different to the rest of Mesoamerica. Some ceramic remnants, figurines and graves have been found, but there is little other material evidence. As of 1995 almost 8,000 people lived in the Reserva de la Biosfera Manantlan, engaged mainly in agriculture (corn, beans, tomatoes, sugar cane, watermelon, mangoes), livestock grazing, timber production, and extraction of wood for fuel and mining of coal or minerals. Another 30,000 lived in the surrounding communities and almost 700,000 in the surrounding region of influence.

Ecological characteristics

The Reserva de la Biosfera Manantlan is located to the extreme north of the inter-tropical zone. The climate in the region is influenced by various factors in addition to its latitude, such as its proximity to the coast, the effect of its landform – orographic shade – and the breadth of the altitudinal range, which partly goes to explain the high regional biodiversity and the presence of numerous plant formations ranging from tropical forests to those of temperate-cold climates.

The Reserva de la Biosfera Manantlan's varied and complex plant cover harbors a great wealth of flora. There are over 2900 species of vascular plants belonging to 981 genera. Wildlife is one of the important components of the high biodiversity in this reserve. Among the main values of the Reserva de la Biosfera Manantlan, in addition to its great wealth of species and its unique biogeographical characteristics, particular mention should be made of the presence of endangered or useful endemic species. So far 110 species of mammals have been reported, among which the Mexican vole Microtus mexicanus neveriae and the pocket gopher Cratogeomys gymnurus russelli, in addition to other mammals such as the oncilla, the jaguarandi, the ocelot, the puma, the bobcat, the jaguar and four species of nectarivorous bats.

Three hundred and thirty-six species of birds have been reported, among them thirty-six which are endemic to Mexico, such as the charismatic species: the crested guan (Penelope purpurascens), the military macaw (Ara militaris), the red-lored amazon (Amazona autumnalis) and the Mexican national symbol, the golden eagle. In terms of herpetofauna, 85 species have been recorded. Of these it is known that 13 are endemic to the western and central region of Mexico: the rattlesnake, the black iguana, the frog Shyrrhopus modestus, the beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum) and the Autlan rattlesnake (Crotalus lannomi), an endemic species only reported for the area of Puerto de Los Mazos. Of the 16 species of fish identified, 13 are native and four are endemic to the region.

List of birds of the Sierra Madre Occidental

This is a list of birds whose range includes, at least in part, the Sierra Madre Occidental, a mountain range in western Mexico and the extreme southwest of the United States.

Bright-rumped attila, Attila spadiceus

Lazuli bunting, Passerina amoena

Bushtit, Psaltriparus minimus

Mexican chickadee, Poecile sclateri

American dipper, Cinclus mexicanus

Blue-hooded euphonia, Euphonia elegantissima

Cordilleran flycatcher, Empidonax occidentalis

Hammond's flycatcher, Empidonax hammondii

Pine flycatcher, Empidonax affinis

Evening grosbeak, Coccothraustes vespertinus

Yellow grosbeak, Pheucticus chrysopeplus

Rusty-crowned ground-sparrow, Melozone kieneri

Blue-throated hummingbird, Lampornis clemenciae

Broad-tailed hummingbird, Selasphorus platycercus

Magnificent hummingbird, Eugenes fulgens

White-eared hummingbird, Hylocharis leucotis

Mexican jay, Aphelocoma ultramarina

White-tailed kite, Elanus leucurus

Black-throated magpie-jay, Calocitta colliei

Purple martin, Progne subis

Buff-collared nightjar, Antrostomus ridgwayi

Pygmy nuthatch, Sitta pygmaea

Elf owl, Micrathene whitneyi

Flammulated owl, Otus flammeolus

Spotted owl, Strix occidentalis

Whiskered screech-owl, Megascops trichopsis

Thick-billed parrot, Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha

Western wood pewee, Contopus sordidulus

Band-tailed pigeon, Patagioenas fasciata

Elegant quail, Callipepla douglasii

Montezuma quail, Cyrtonyx montezumae

Eared quetzal, Euptilotis neoxenus

Painted redstart, Myioborus pictus

Townsend's solitaire, Myadestes townsendi

Five-striped sparrow, Amphispiza quinquestriata

Rufous-crowned sparrow, Aimophila ruficeps

Plain-capped starthroat, Heliomaster constantii

Vaux's swift, Chaetura vauxi

White-throated swift, Aeronautes saxatalis

Flame-colored tanager, Piranga bidentata

Hepatic tanager, Piranga flava

Red-headed tanager, Piranga erythrocephala

Bridled titmouse, Baeolophus wollweberi

Spotted towhee, Pipilo maculatus

Hutton's vireo, Vireo huttoni

Plumbeous vireo, Vireo plumbeus

Yellow-green vireo, Vireo flavoviridis

Golden-browed warbler, Basileuterus belli

Grace's warbler, Setophaga graciae

Hermit warbler, Setophaga occidentalis

Red warbler, Cardellina ruber

Red-faced warbler, Cardellina rubrifrons

Yellow warbler, Setophaga petechia

Acorn woodpecker, Melanerpes formicivorus

Arizona woodpecker, Picoides arizonae

Malaysian plover

The Malaysian plover (Charadrius peronii) is a small (c. 35–42 g) wader that nests on beaches and salt flats in Southeast Asia.

Montezuma quail

The Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae) is a stubby, secretive New World quail of Mexico and some nearby parts of the United States. It is also known as Mearns's quail, the harlequin quail (for the male's striking pattern), and the fool quail (for its behavior).

Mountain bluebird

The mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides) is a medium-sized bird weighing about 30 g (1.1 oz) with a length from 16–20 cm (6.3–7.9 in). They have light underbellies and black eyes. Adult males have thin bills and are bright turquoise-blue and somewhat lighter underneath. Adult females have duller blue wings and tail, grey breast, grey crown, throat and back. In fresh fall plumage, the female's throat and breast are tinged with red-orange, brownish near the flank contrasting with white tail underparts. Their call is a thin 'few'; while their song is warbled high 'chur chur'. It is the state bird of Idaho and Nevada. It is an omnivore and it can live 6 to 10 years in the wild. It eats spiders, grasshoppers, flies and other insects, and small fruits. The mountain bluebird is a relative of the eastern and western bluebirds.

New World quail

The New World quails or Odontophoridae are small birds only distantly related to the Old World quail, but named for their similar appearance and habits. The American species are in their own family Odontophoridae, whereas Old World quail are in the pheasant family Phasianidae. The family ranges from Canada through to southern Brazil, and two species, the California quail and the bobwhite quail, have been successfully introduced to New Zealand. The stone partridge and Nahan's partridge, both found in Africa, seem to belong to the family. Species are found across a variety of habitats from tropical rainforest to deserts, although few species are capable of surviving at very low temperatures. Thirty-four species are placed in ten genera.

The legs of most New World quails are short but powerful, with some species having very thick legs for digging. They lack the spurs of many Old World galliformes. Although they are capable of short bursts of strong flight New World quails prefer to walk, and will run from danger (or hide), taking off explosively only as a last resort. Plumage varies from dull to spectacular, and many species have ornamental crests or plumes on the head. There is moderate sexual dichromism in plumage, with males having brighter plumage.

Ocellated quail

The ocellated quail (Cyrtonyx ocellatus) is a species of bird in the family Odontophoridae. It is found in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Nicaragua. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests and subtropical or tropical high-altitude shrubland. It is threatened by habitat loss. It is extremely similar to the Montezuma quail, and some authorities consider them to be conspecific.

Olive-sided flycatcher

The olive-sided flycatcher (Contopus cooperi) is a passerine bird. It is a medium-sized tyrant flycatcher.


Quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized birds generally placed in the order Galliformes.

Old World quail are placed in the family Phasianidae, and New World quail are placed in the family Odontophoridae. The species of buttonquail are named for their superficial resemblance to quail, and form the family Turnicidae in the order Charadriiformes. The king quail, an Old World quail, often is sold in the pet trade, and within this trade is commonly, though mistakenly, referred to as a "button quail". Many of the common larger species are farm-raised for table food or egg consumption, and are hunted on game farms or in the wild, where they may be released to supplement the wild population, or extend into areas outside their natural range. In 2007, 40 million quail were produced in the U.S.The collective noun for a group of quail is a flock, covey, or bevy.


Rallus is a genus of wetland birds of the rail family. Sometimes, the genera Lewinia and Gallirallus are included in it. Six of the species are found in the Americas, and the three species found in Eurasia, Africa and Madagascar are very closely related to each other, suggesting they are descended from a single invasion of a New World ancestor.These are slim, long-billed rails with slender legs. Their laterally flattened bodies are an adaptation to life in wet reedbeds and marshes, enabling them to slip easily through the dense semi-aquatic vegetation. Typically these birds have streaked brown upperparts, blue-grey on the face or breast, and barred flanks. Only the African rail has a plain back, and the plain-flanked rail lacks any blue-grey in its plumage and has no flank bars.Three endemic South American species are endangered by habitat loss, and the Madagascan rail is becoming rare.

Red-kneed dotterel

The red-kneed dotterel (Erythrogonys cinctus) is a species of plover in a monotypic genus in the subfamily Vanellinae. It is often gregarious and will associate with other waders of its own and different species, even when nesting. It is nomadic and sometimes irruptive.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 1

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a study of birds conducted by Charles Sibley and Burt Monroe. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

The Sibley-Monroe assignment of individual species to families, and of families to orders remains controversial however. Critics maintain that while it marks a great leap forward so far as the evidence from DNA-DNA hybridisation goes, it pays insufficient attention to other forms of evidence, both molecular and on a larger scale. There is no true consensus, but the broad middle-ground position is that the Sibley-Monroe classification, overall, is "about 80% correct". Research and debate concerning bird classification continue.

There are 9,994 species on the checklist, which is begun below and continues in several parts.

Streaked spiderhunter

The streaked spiderhunter (Arachnothera magna) is a species of bird in the family Nectariniidae.


The Tadorninae is the shelduck-sheldgoose subfamily of the Anatidae, the biological family that includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl such as the geese and swans.

This group is largely tropical or Southern Hemisphere in distribution, with only two species, the common shelduck and the ruddy shelduck breeding in northern temperate regions, though the crested shelduck (presumed extinct) was also a northern species.

Most of these species have a distinctive plumage, but there is no pattern as to whether the sexes are alike, even within a single genus.


The whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) is a wader in the large family Scolopacidae. It is one of the most widespread of the curlews, breeding across much of subarctic North America, Asia and Europe as far south as Scotland.

The whimbrel is a migratory bird wintering on coasts in Africa, southern North America, South America, and South Asia into Australasia. It is also a coastal bird during migration. It is fairly gregarious outside the breeding season.

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