Cyrrhus (/ˈsɪrəs/; Greek: Κύρρος Kyrrhos) is a city in ancient Syria founded by Seleucus Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals. Other names for the city include Hagioupolis, Nebi Huri (Arabic: نبي حوري), Khoros (حوروس Ḳūrus). A false etymology of the sixth century connects it to Cyrus, king of Persia due to the resemblance of the names. The former Roman/Byzantine (arch)bishopric is now a double Catholic titular see.
View of Cyrrhus.
Shown within Syria
|Location||Aleppo Governorate, Syria|
|Builder||Seleucus I Nicator|
Its ruins are located in northern Syria, near the Turkish border.
The Cyrrhus in Syria was founded by Seleucus Nicator shortly after 300 BC, and was named after the Macedonian city of Cyrrhus. It was taken by the Armenian Empire in the 1st century BC, then became Roman when Pompey took Syria in 64 BC. By the 1st century AD, it had become a Roman administrative, military, and commercial center on the trade route between Antioch and the Euphrates River crossing at Zeugma, and minted its own coinage. It was the base of the Roman legion Legio X Fretensis. The Sassanid Persian Empire took it several times during the 3rd century.
In the 6th century, the city was embellished and fortified by Byzantine Emperor Justinian. It was however taken by the Muslims in 637 and known at that time under the name of Qorosh and later by the Crusaders in the 11th century. Nur ad-Din Zangi recaptured it in 1150. Muslim travelers of the 13th and 14th century report it both as a large city and as largely in ruins.
The city has been excavated by the Lebanese Syrian Archaeological Mission of Cyrrhus. Initial results indicate a square layout with Hippodamian grid road plan and a central main road with Colonnades typical of the Hellenistic east . The road layout seems to have survived until into the Islamic times. Remains in Cyrrhus include two Roman Bridge s in working order, a dilapidated theatre outside the town and foundations of a Basilica church and some city fortifications. In the 6th century a Byzantine citadel was built on the top of the hill behind the theatre. with evidence of Greek and Egyptian influences in the design work.  This citadel is still largely unexcavated.
Cyrrhus became a Christian bishopric at an early date, a suffragan of Hierapolis Bambyce, capital and metropolitan see of the Roman province of Euphratensis. Under Justinian, it became an autocephalous ecclesiastical metropolis subject directly to the Patriarch of Antioch but without suffragans. Its bishop Syricius was present at the First Council of Nicaea in 325. The Arian Abgar (Latinized as Abgarus or Augarus) was at the Council of Seleucia (360). Theodoret mentions as another Arian a bishop called Asterius of the time of the Roman Emperor Valens (364–378). Isidorus attended the First Council of Constantinople in 381. The most celebrated of the bishops of Cyrrhus is Theodoret himself (423-458), a prolific writer, well known for his rôle in the history of Nestorianism, Eutychianism, and Marcionism. He tells us that his small diocese (about forty miles square) contained 800 churches, which supposes a very dense population. In 476, a bishop named Ioannes held a synod against Peter the Fuller. At the close of that century the bishop was a Nestorian named Sergius, who was replaced by another of the same name who was of the directly opposite theological opinion, being a Jacobite, and was deposed by Emperor Justin I in 518. Michael the Syrian lists 13 other Jacobite bishops of the see.
A magnificent basilica held the relics of Saints Cosmas and Damian, who had suffered martyrdom in the vicinity about 283, and whose bodies had been transported to the city, whence it was also called Hagioupolis. Many holy personages, moreover, chiefly hermits, had been or were then living in this territory, among them Saints Acepsimas, Zeumatius, Zebinas, Polychronius, Maron (the patron of the Maronite Church), Eusebius, Thalassius, Maris, James the Wonder-worker, and others. Bishop Theodoret devoted an entire work to the illustration of their virtues and miracles.
|Syricius||325||at First Council of Nicaea|
|Abgar||360||Arian||at Council of Seleucia (360)|
|Isidorus||381||at First Council of Constantinople|
|Theodoret of Cyrrhus||423-458|
|Ioannes||476||held a synod against Peter the Fuller|
|Sergius I of Cyrrhus||late 5th century||Nestorian||was deposed by Byzantine Emperor Justin I|
|Sergius II of Cyrrhus.||518||Jacobite||exiled about AD 522.|
|John of Cyrrhus||c628||Orthodox???|
|12 Jacobite Bishops|
|John of Cyrrhus|
No longer a residential bishopric, Cyrrhus is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see, in two different rite-specific traditions, in the apostolic succession of the Byzantine archdiocese.
Established no later then as Titular archbishopric of Cyrrhus (Latin) / Cirro (Curiate Italian) / Cyrrhen(sis) (Latin adjective), alias Cyrrhus of the Latins
It has been vacant for decades, having had the following incumbents, of the fitting Archepiscopal rank with an Episcopal (lowest) exception:
In 1956 it was suppressed, having had only these incumbents, both of the fitting Archiepiscopal (intermediate) rank and without actual prelature :
Saint Abraham (Cyrrhus, Syria, c. 350–Constantinople, 422) (also known as Abraham of Charres and Abraham the Apostle of Lebanon was a Syrian hermit and bishop of Harran. He was born and educated at Carrhae (modern Harran) in Syria, and preached the Gospel in the valley of Mount Lebanon, where he lived as a hermit. His life was described by Theodoret of Cyr (393-466 A.D.), the Bishop of Cyrrhus, who named him among the other thirty holy men and women in his book "Historia Religiosa" (Religious History).
He spent the first part of his life in the desert of Chalcis where he lived an ascetic life, he tried his body by fasting and still standing and was so exhausted that could not move. But then he left for Lebanon as a merchant and helped the inhabitants of the village where he stayed to pay the taxes with the help of his friends. The name of the village is not known but it is believed to be Aqura- Afka. "It was probably located in Aqura near the river Adonis." He was asked by the villagers to become their tutor and he accepted providing they would build the Christian church. He stayed in this village for three years as a priest and then returned to his ascetic life as a hermit.He was later elected bishop of Harran in Mesopotamia (Carrhae), where he worked vigorously to reduce the existing abuses. He died in Constantinople in 422 after going there to consult with Theodosius II, although some argue that it may have instead occurred in 390 under Theodosius II's predecessor, Theodosius I. His body was transferred back to Harran, to the city of Antioch where he was buried. His feast day is 14 February.Andronicus of Cyrrhus
Andronicus of Cyrrhus or Andronicus Cyrrhestes (Greek: Ἀνδρόνικος Κυρρήστου, Andrónikos Kyrrhēstou), son of Hermias, was a Macedonian astronomer who flourished about 100 BC.Avidius Cassius
Gaius Avidius Cassius (c.130 – July 175 AD) was a Roman general and usurper. He was born in Cyrrhus, and was the son of Gaius Avidius Heliodorus, who served as Praefectus augustalis (prefect of Roman Egypt), and Julia Cassia Alexandra, who was related to a number of royal figures, including her descent from both Augustus and Herod the Great. He began his military career under Antoninus Pius, rising to the status of legatus. He served during the Parthian War of Lucius Verus, in which he distinguished himself, for which he was elevated to the Senate, and later made Imperial legate. During the Bucolic War, he was given the extraordinary title of Rector Orientis, giving him Imperium over all of the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire.
In 175 AD, Cassius declared himself emperor, because he had received news, from Marcus Aurelius' wife, that the Emperor Marcus Aurelius was about to die. He received broad support in the eastern provinces of Egypt, Syria, Syria Palaestina and Arabia Petraea, especially Syria, which was his homeland. Despite his control of the vital grain production of Egypt, and his command of seven legions, he was heavily outmatched by Aurelius. While Aurelius was amassing a force to defeat Cassius, a centurion of one of Cassius' legions murdered Cassius, sending his head to Aurelius as proof.Bagrat Pakrad
Bagrat Pakrad (died 1116), also known as Bagrat or Pakrad, was an Armenian adventurer and brother of Kogh Vasil. He befriended Baldwin I in his march to the Euphrates and was given command of the critical fortress Ravendel. Out of jealousy, Fer, the Armenian noble who ruled Turbessel, reported to Baldwin that Bagrat was conspiring against him. Suspected of collaboration with the Turks, he was arrested and tortured, only to escape to the mountains with his brother. Bagrat became lord of Khoros (Cyrrhus) in 1116 and was defeated by Baldwin.Baradates
St Baradates (died circa 460) was a hermit who lived in the Diocese of Cyrrhus in Syria, and whose bishop, Theodoret, called him "the admirable Baradates."
Baradates lived in a tiny hut, too small for him to stand upright, and he wore a leather garment that exposed only his mouth and nose. He was said to have been very learned, particularly in theology. Emperor Leo wrote him, asking his advice regarding the Council of Chalcedon.
In the Roman Catholic Church, the Feast of St Baradates is February 22.Carolus Polodig
Carolus Polodig, O.C.D. (1671–1714) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Vicar Apostolic of Izmir (1713–1714) and Titular Archbishop of Cyrrhus (1713–1714).Cyrrhestica
Cyrrhestica (Greek: Κυρρηστική) is a district of Greater Syria which appears to have owed its name to the Macedonian occupation of the country. It lies to the east of the plain of Antioch and Amanus, and was bounded on the east by the Euphrates and Commagene to the north, it extended as far as the desert. This fertile, well-watered, and thickly peopled district occupied the right bank of the Euphrates, where the river inclines rather eastward of south. It was the scene of the campaign in which Ventidius defeated the Parthian Pacorus and avenged Crassus and the Roman army which had fallen at Carrhae. Constantine I united it with Commagene under the name of Provincia Euphratensis. The chief towns of Cyrrhestica were Hierapolis Bambyce, Zeugma, Europus, Birtha?, Beroea (modern Aleppo), Batnae, and Cyrrhus.Cyrrhus (Macedonia)
Cyrrhus or Kyrros (Ancient Greek: Κύρρος), also known as Cyrius or Kyrius (Κύριος), was a town in ancient Macedonia. Sitalces penetrated into Macedonia to the left of Cyrrhus and Pella.It is located near the modern Aravissos.Domnina of Syria
Saint Domnina of Syria, also known as Domnina the Younger, was a 5th-century ascetic. Her name is mentioned in the Byzantine Synaxarium. and according to Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus, Domnina was born to a rich Syrian family.Domnus II of Antioch
Domnus II, was Patriarch of Antioch between 442 and 449 and a friend of the influential Bishop of Cyrrhus, Saint Theodoret.Iyad ibn Ghanm
ʿIyāḍ ibn Ghanm ibn Zuhayr al-Fihrī (Arabic: عياض بن غنم بن زهير الفهري) (died 641) was an Arab general who played a leading role in the Muslim conquests of al-Jazira (Upper Mesopotamia) and northern Syria. He was among the handful of Qurayshi tribesmen to embrace Islam before the mass conversion of the tribe in 630, and was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. In 634, under Caliph Abu Bakr, he governed the north Arabian oasis town of Dumat al-Jandal. Later, in 637, he became governor of al-Jazira (Upper Mesopotamia), but was dismissed by Caliph Umar (r. 634–644) for alleged improprieties. Afterward, he became a close military aide of his cousin and nephew, Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah, under whose direction Iyad subjected much of Byzantine-held northern Syria, including Aleppo, Manbij and Cyrrhus.
When Abu Ubayda died in 639, Iyad succeeded him as governor of Hims, Qinnasrin and al-Jazira. In the latter territory, he launched a campaign to assert Muslim rule, first capturing Raqqa after besieging it and plundering its countryside. This was followed by the conquests of Edessa, Harran and Samosata under similar circumstances. With the exception of heavy fighting at Ras al-Ayn and Dara, Iyad received the surrenders of a string of other Mesopotamian towns with relatively little blood spilled. Overall, Iyad's conquest of Upper Mesopotamia left much of the captured towns intact and their inhabitants unharmed to maintain their tax payments to the nascent caliphate. According to historian Leif Inge Ree Petersen, Iyad "has received little attention" but was "clearly of great ability".James the Solitary
James the Solitary was a hermit saint of the fifth century and a student of St. Maron, patriarch of the Maronite Catholic Church. He is commemorated on November 26.
James of Cyrrhus had been taught by Maron and later went off to live by himself. James lived his ascetic life as a man without bodily shelter, on a mountain not far from the city of Cyrrhus in Syria. James was known for his wisdom and powerful gift of intercession. He was even called upon to counsel Byzantine Emperor Leo regarding matters relating to the Council of Chalcedon.
Saint James the Solitary is commemorated 26 November in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Western Rite Orthodox communities, and in Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine Rite.Kyrros
Kyrros (Greek: Κύρρος; in classical contexts also transliterated Cyrrhus) is a former municipality in the Pella regional unit, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pella, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 181.415 km2. Population 6,479 (2011). The seat of the municipality was in Mylotopos. The municipality took its name from the ancient Macedonian town Cyrrhus, which was located near ancient Pella.Maron
Maron, also called Maroun or Maro, (Syriac: ܡܪܘܢ, Morōn; Arabic: مارون; Latin: Maron; Greek: Μάρων) was a 4th-century Syriac Christian hermit monk in the Taurus Mountains whose followers, after his death, founded a religious Christian movement that became known as the Syriac Maronite Church, in full communion with the Holy See and the Catholic Church. The religious community which grew from this movement are the modern Maronites.
Saint Maron is often portrayed in a black monastic habit with a hanging stole, accompanied by a long crosier staffed by a globe surmounted with a cross. His feast day in the Maronite Church is February 9.Nestorius
Nestorius (; in Greek: Νεστόριος; c. 386 – 450) was Archbishop of Constantinople from 10 April 428 to August 431, when Emperor Theodosius II confirmed his condemnation by the Council of Ephesus on 22 June.
His teachings included a rejection of the long-used title of Theotokos, "Mother of God", for Mary, mother of Jesus, and they were considered by many to imply that he did not believe that Christ was truly God. That brought him into conflict with other prominent churchmen of the time, most notably Cyril of Alexandria, who accused him of heresy.
Nestorius sought to defend himself at the First Council of Ephesus in 431 but instead found himself formally condemned for heresy by a majority of the bishops and was subsequently removed from his see. On his own request, he retired to his former monastery, in or near Antioch. In 435, Theodosius II sent him into exile in Upper Egypt, where he lived on until 450, strenuously defending his orthodoxy. His last major defender within the Roman Empire, Theodoret of Cyrrhus, finally agreed to anathematize him in 451 during the Council of Chalcedon.
From then on, he had no defenders within the empire, but the Church of the East never accepted his condemnation. That led later to western Christians giving the name Nestorian Church to the Church of the East where his teachings were deemed Orthodox and in line with its own teachings. Nestorius is revered as among three "Greek Teachers" of the Church (in addition to Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia). Parts of the Church of the East's Eucharistic Service, which is known to be among the oldest in the world, is contributed to with prayers attributed to Nestorius himself.
The Second Council of Constantinople of AD 553 confirmed the validity of the condemnation of Nestorius, refuting the letter of Ibas of Edessa that affirms that Nestorius was condemned without due inquiry.The discovery, translation and publication of his Bazaar of Heracleides at the beginning of the 20th century have led to a reassessment of his theology in western scholarship. It is now generally agreed that his ideas were not far from those that eventually emerged as orthodox, but the orthodoxy of his formulation of the doctrine of Christ is still controversial.Peter of Jerusalem
Peter of Jerusalem was the Patriarch of Jerusalem from 524 to 544. He held to the Orthodox belief.Patriarch Peter, as John III's successor and following in his Orthodox position, convened in September 536 a synod in Jerusalem in which he proclaimed his orthodoxy and adherence to the Council of Chalcedon. He agreed in the deposition of Anthimus I, the Monophysite patriarch of Constantinople who was deposed that year.
In 544, emperor Justinian issued an edict condemning Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theoderet of Cyrrhus, and Ive of Edessa, who supposedly were Nestorians, but who were never excommunicated and who had died in the fifth century. Peter signed the edict but included a proviso that if it would not be signed by the Pope of Rome, his signature would be invalid. Eventually, the emperor forced the Pope sign the edict.
Patriarch Peter died in 544.Theodoret
Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus (Greek: Θεοδώρητος Κύρρου; c. AD 393 – c. 458/466) was an influential theologian of the School of Antioch, biblical commentator, and Christian bishop of Cyrrhus (423–457). He played a pivotal role in several 5th-century Byzantine Church controversies that led to various ecumenical acts and schisms. He wrote against Cyril of Alexandria's 12 Anathemas which were sent to Nestorius and did not personally condemn Nestorius until the Council of Chalcedon. His writings against Cyril were included in the Three Chapters Controversy and were condemned at the Second Council of Constantinople. Some Chalcedonian and East Syriac Christians regard him as a "full" saint. Although the Eastern Orthodox Protopresbyter Michael Pomazansky repeatedly refers to him as "Blessed", there is no evidence in his work that this is the official position of any Eastern Orthodox jurisdiction.Tower of the Winds
The Tower of the Winds or the Horologion of Andronikos Kyrrhestes is an octagonal Pentelic marble clocktower in the Roman Agora in Athens that functioned as a horologion or "timepiece". It is considered the world's first meteorological station. Unofficially, the monument is also called Aerides (Greek: Αέρηδες), which means Winds. The structure features a combination of sundials, a water clock, and a wind vane. It was supposedly built by Andronicus of Cyrrhus around 50 BC, but according to other sources, might have been constructed in the 2nd century BC before the rest of the forum. In summer of 2014, the Athens Ephorate of Antiquities began cleaning and conserving the structure; restoration work was completed in August 2016.Zephirium
Zephirium is a titular Bishopric of the Roman Catholic Church located in Cilicia.There are five known bishops of the Seat.
Hypatus, attended the Council of Chalcedon.
Zenobus, an associate of Theodoret of Cyrrhus
Jean-Jacques Crouzet (1 Oct 1888 Appointed - 8 Jan 1933).
Antonin Eltschkner (10 Feb 1933 Appointed - 22 Feb 1961)
André Collini (7 Sep 1962 Appointed - 26 Jul 1966)