Cyrene (/saɪˈriːniː/; Ancient Greek: Κυρήνη, romanized: Kyrēnē) was an ancient Greek and later Roman city near present-day Shahhat, Libya. It was the oldest and most important of the five Greek cities in the region. It gave eastern Libya the classical name Cyrenaica that it has retained to modern times. Located nearby is the ancient Necropolis of Cyrene.
Cyrene lies in a lush valley in the Jebel Akhdar uplands. The city was named after a spring, Kyre, which the Greeks consecrated to Apollo. It was also the seat of the Cyrenaics, a famous school of philosophy in the fourth century BC, founded by Aristippus, a disciple of Socrates.
The ruins of Cyrene
Shown within Libya
|Location||Shahhat, Jabal al Akhdar, Cyrenaica, Libya|
|Builder||Colonists from Thera led by Battus I|
|Abandoned||4th century AD|
|Periods||Archaic Greece to Roman Empire|
|Official name||Archaeological Site of Cyrene|
|Criteria||ii, iii, vi|
|Designated||1982 (6th session)|
Grinus, son of Aesanius a descendant of Theras, and king of the island of Thera, had visited the Pythia, the oracle of Delphi, and offered a hecatomb to the Pythia on sundry matters. The Pythia had offered the advice to found a new city in Libya.
Many years passed and the advice was not taken, and Thera had succumbed to a horrific drought and all of the crops and trees had perished. They again sent to Delphi and were reminded that the Pythia had said several years before to settle in the country of Libya, but this time she specifically said to found a settlement in the land of Cyrene.
Not knowing how to get to Libya, they sent a messenger to Crete to find someone to lead them on their journey. They found a dealer in purple dyes named Corobius. He had once traveled to an island across from Libya called Platea [or Plataea, modern Jazirat Barda`ah]. Grinus and Corobius sailed to Platea, when they reached their destination they left Corobius with months of supplies and Grinus went back to Thera to collect men to settle the newly made colony. After two years of settling the colony, they had little success and went back to the Pythia to get advice. The Pythia had repeated her advice to move directly to the country of Libya instead of across from Libya. So they moved to a place called Aziris. They settled there for six years, and were very successful until the Libyans visited the settlement of Aziris to convince the people to move further inland. They were swayed by the Libyans to move and settled into what is now Cyrene. The current king of that time Battus reigned for 40 years, until he passed on and his son, Arcesilaus, took over and reigned for 16 years, with no more or less population change until the Oracle had told the third king, another Battus, to bring Greek citizens to the settlement and with that expansion the Libyans had lost a lot of land surrounding Cyrene.
According to Greek tradition, Cyrene was founded in 631 BC as a settlement of Greeks from the island of Thera, traditionally led by Battus I, at a site 16 kilometres (10 mi) from its associated port, Apollonia (Marsa Sousa). Traditional details concerning the founding of the city are contained in Herodotus' Histories IV. Cyrene promptly became the chief town of Libya and established commercial relations with all the Greek cities, reaching the height of its prosperity under its own kings in the 5th century BC. Soon after 460 BC it became a republic. In 413 BC, during the Peloponnesian War, Cyrene supplied Spartan forces with two triremes and pilots. After the death of Alexander the Great (323 BC), the Cyrenian republic became subject to the Ptolemaic dynasty.
Ophellas, the general who occupied the city in the name of Ptolemy I Soter's, ruled the city almost independently until his death, when Ptolemy's son-in-law Magas received governorship of the territory. In 276 BC Magas crowned himself king and declared de facto independence, marrying the daughter of the Seleucid emperor and forming with him an alliance in order to invade the Ptolemaic Kingdom.
The invasion was unsuccessful and in 250 BC, after Magas' death, the city was reabsorbed into Ptolemaic Egypt. Cyrenaica became part of the Ptolemaic empire controlled from Alexandria, and became Roman territory in 96 BC when Ptolemy Apion bequeathed Cyrenaica to Rome. In 74 BC the territory was formally transformed into a Roman province.
In 74 BC Cyrene was created a Roman province; but, whereas under the Ptolemies the Jewish inhabitants had enjoyed equal rights, they were allegedly increasingly oppressed by the now autonomous and much larger Greek population. Tensions came to a head in the insurrection of the Jews of Cyrene under Vespasian (73 AD, the First Jewish–Roman War) and especially Trajan (117 AD, the Kitos War). This revolt was quelled by Marcius Turbo, but not before huge numbers of civilians had been brutally massacred by the Jewish rebels. According to Eusebius of Caesarea, the Jewish rebellion left Libya so depopulated to such an extent that a few years later new colonies had to be established there by the emperor Hadrian just to maintain the viability of continued settlement.
The famous "Venus of Cyrene", a headless marble statue representing the goddess Venus, a Roman copy of a Greek original, was discovered by Italian soldiers here in 1913. It was transported to Rome, where it remained until 2008, when it was returned to Libya. A large number of Roman sculptures and inscriptions were excavated at Cyrene by Captain Robert Murdoch Smith and Commander Edwin A. Porcher during the mid nineteenth century and can now be seen in the British Museum. They include the Apollo of Cyrene and a unique bronze head of an African man.
Christianity is reputed from its beginning to have links with Cyrene. All three synoptic Gospels mention a Simon of Cyrene as having been forced to help carry the cross of Jesus. In the Acts of the Apostles there is mention of people from Cyrene being in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost. According to the tradition of the Coptic Orthodox Church, its founder, Saint Mark was a native of Cyrene and ordained the first bishop of Cyrene. The Roman Martyrology mentions under 4 July a tradition that in the persecution of Diocletian a bishop Theodorus of Cyrene was scourged and had his tongue cut out. Earlier editions of the Martyrology mentioned what may be the same person also under 26 March. Letter 67 of Synesius tells of an irregular episcopal ordination carried out by a bishop Philo of Cyrene, which was condoned by Athanasius. The same letter mentions that a nephew of this Philo, who bore the same name, also became bishop of Cyrene. Although Cyrene was by then ruined, a bishop of Cyrene name Rufus was at the Robber Council of Ephesus in 449. And there was still a bishop of Cyrene, named Leontius, at the time of Greek Patriarch Eulogius of Alexandria (580–607).
Cyrene's chief local export through much of its early history was the medicinal herb silphium, used as an abortifacient; the herb was pictured on most Cyrenian coins. Silphium was in such demand that it was harvested to extinction; this, in conjunction with commercial competition from Carthage and Alexandria, resulted in a reduction in the city's trade. Cyrene, with its port of Apollonia (Marsa Susa), remained an important urban center until the earthquake of 262, which damaged the Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephon in Cyrene. After the disaster, the emperor Claudius Gothicus restored Cyrene, naming it Claudiopolis, but the restorations were poor and precarious. Natural catastrophes and a profound economic decline dictated its death, and in 365 another particularly devastating earthquake destroyed its already meager hopes of recovery. Ammianus Marcellinus described it in the 4th century as a deserted city, and Synesius, a native of Cyrene, described it in the following century as a vast ruin at the mercy of the nomads. Ultimately, the city fell under Arab conquest in 643, by which time little was left of the opulent Roman cities of Northern Africa; the ruins of Cyrene are located near the modern village of Shahhat.
Cyrene contributed to the intellectual life of the Greeks, through renowned philosophers and mathematicians. Philosophy flourished at the Cyrenaican plateau, the School of Cyrene, known as Cyrenaics developed here, a minor Socratic school founded by Aristippus (perhaps the friend of Socrates, though according to some accounts a grandson of Aristippus with the same name). Cyrene was the birthplace of Eratosthenes, who later went to Alexandria. Statues of philosophers, poets, and The Nine Muses, and a bust of Demosthenes were found in Cyrene.
Cyrene is referred to in the deuterocanonical book 2 Maccabees. The book of 2 Maccabees itself is said by its author to be an abridgment of a five-volume work by a Hellenized Jew by the name of Jason of Cyrene who lived around 100 BC.
Cyrene is also mentioned in the New Testament. A Cyrenian named Simon carried the cross of Christ (Mark 15:21 and parallels). See also Acts 2:10 where Jews from Cyrene heard the disciples speaking in their own language in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost; 6:9 where some Cyrenian Jews disputed with a disciple named Stephen; 11:20 tells of Jewish Christians originally from Cyrene who (along with believers from Cyprus) first preached the Gospel to non-Jews; 13:1 names Lucius of Cyrene as one of several to whom the Holy Spirit spoke, instructing them to appoint Barnabas and Saul (later Paul) for missionary service.
Cyrene is now an archeological site near the village of Shahhat. One of its more significant features is the temple of Apollo see lists of temples in Libya which was originally constructed as early as 7th century BC. Other ancient structures include a temple to Demeter and a partially unexcavated temple to Zeus There is a large necropolis approximately 10 km between Cyrene and its ancient port of Apollonia. Since 1982, it has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
In 2005, Italian archaeologists from the University of Urbino discovered 76 intact Roman statues at Cyrene from the 2nd century AD. The statues remained undiscovered for so long because “during the earthquake of 375 AD, a supporting wall of the temple fell on its side, burying all the statues. They remained hidden under stone, rubble and earth for 1,630 years. The other walls sheltered the statues, so we were able to recover all the pieces, even works that had been broken."
Beginning in 2006, Global Heritage Fund, in partnership with the Second University of Naples (SUN, Italy), the Libyan Department of Antiquities, and the Libyan Ministry of Culture, has been working to preserve the ancient site through a combination of holistic conservation practices and training of local skilled and unskilled labor. Apart from conducting ongoing emergency conservation on a theater inside the Sanctuary of Apollo through the process of anastylosis, the GHF-led team is in the process of developing a comprehensive master site management plan.
In 2007 Muammar Gaddafi's son planned safeguarding Libya's archaeological sites and to prevent overdevelopment of Mediterranean coastlines.
In May 2011, a number of objects excavated from Cyrene in 1917 and held in the vault of the National Commercial Bank in Benghazi were stolen. Looters tunnelled into the vault and broke into two safes that held the artefacts which were part of the so-called 'Benghazi Treasure'. The whereabouts of these objects are currently unknown.
The 262 Southwest Anatolia earthquake devastated the Roman city of Ephesus along with cities along the west and south coasts of Anatolia in year 262, or possibly 261. The epicenter was likely located in the southern Aegean Sea. Reports note that many cities were flooded by the sea, presumably due to a tsunami.Nicholas Ambraseys, who performed the most comprehensive assessment of ancient earthquakes in the Mediterranean, traces the original source of most literary references to this quake to an account in the Augustan History purportedly written by Trebellius Pollio. This source is problematic, as the veracity of much of its supposed biographical details is doubtful. However, there is some reason to give credence to the history's accounts of natural disasters. Trebellius's account also reports the southwest Anatolia earthquake in conjunction with one that hit Cyrene, Libya the same year. The two events appears to have been unrelated, but it has been difficult for historians to disentangle the exact effects of each based on the classical sources.Apollo of Cyrene
The Apollo of Cyrene is a colossal Roman statue of Apollo found at the ancient city of Cyrene, Libya. It was unearthed at the site along with a large number of other ancient sculptures and inscriptions which were presented to the British Museum in 1861.Aretaphila of Cyrene
Aretaphila of Cyrene (c. 50 BC, Cyrene, an ancient Greek colony in North Africa) was a Cyrenean noblewoman who according to Plutarch in his work De mulierum virtutes (On the Virtues of Women), deposed the tyrant Nicocrates.Nicocrates forced Aretaphila to marry him after murdering her husband, Phaedimus. Under his rule, the citizens of Cyrene were brutalized, their property was seized, and their homes were destroyed. Aretaphila was determined to free her people from the violent ruler and conspired to poison him. Nicocrates mother, Calbia, suspected her plans and convinced him to have Aretaphila tortured Aretaphila's forced second marriage produced one daughter, whom she encouraged to seduce her father's brother, Leander, in an effort to depose of her tyrannical father. Aretaphila was able to convince Leander to murder Nicocrates. Unfortunately, Leander proved to be as much of a tyrant as his brother, prompting Aretaphila to craft a new plan to free her people of oppressive foreign rulers. She bribed the Libyan Prince Anabus to capture Leander and arrest him. Aretaphila was praised by the Cyrenean public and offered a role in the new government, but declined. She is written to have spent the rest of her life in the women's quarters of her home, at her loom. Historians have debated Aretaphila's role as a cult figure for women in her time.Arete of Cyrene
Arete of Cyrene (; Greek: Ἀρήτη; fl. 5th–4th century BC) was a Cyrenaic philosopher who lived in Cyrene, Libya. She was the daughter of Aristippus of Cyrene.Berenice II of Egypt
Berenice II (267 or 266 BC – 221 BC) was a ruling queen of Cyrene, Libya (an ancient Greek colony) by birth, and a queen and co-regent of Ptolemaic Egypt by marriage to her cousin Ptolemy III Euergetes, the third ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty.Callimachus
Callimachus (; Greek: Καλλίμαχος, Kallimakhos; c. 310/305–c. 240 BC) was a native of the Greek colony of Cyrene, Libya. He was a poet, critic and scholar at the Library of Alexandria and enjoyed the patronage of the Egyptian–Greek Pharaohs Ptolemy II Philadelphus and Ptolemy III Euergetes. Although he was never made chief librarian, he was responsible for producing a bibliographic survey based upon the contents of the Library. This, his Pinakes, 120 volumes long, provided the foundation for later work on the history of ancient Greek literature. He is among the most productive and influential scholar-poets of the Hellenistic age.Claudiopolis
Claudiopolis (Ancient Greek: Κλαυδιόπολις, city of Claudius) is the name of a number of ancient cities named after Roman emperor Claudius or another person bearing that name (in the case of Cluj-Napoca), notably:
in TurkeyClaudiopolis (Bithynia) or Claudiopolis in Honoriade or Bithynium, Ancient city, capital of Roman province Honorias and Metropolitan Archbishopric, now modern Bolu, Bolu Province and Latin titular archbishopricClaudiopolis in Honoriade, a titular see of the Roman Catholic ChurchClaudiopolis (Cilicia), an ancient city in Cilicia, formerly called Ninica, now in Mut district, Mersin Province and a Latin titular bishopric as Claudiopolis in IsauriaClaudiopolis in Isauria, a titular see of the Roman Catholic ChurchClaudiopolis (Cappadocia), an ancient city in Cappadocia
Claudiopolis (Cataonia), an ancient city in Cataonia
Claudiopolis (Galatia), an ancient city in GalatiaElsewhereAbila Lysaniou, an ancient city in Syria also called Claudiopolis
Cluj-Napoca, a city in Romania
The Ancient town of Cyrene, Libya, renamed after 262 AD, in honor of the 3rd-century Roman emperor Claudius IICleopatra of Macedon
Cleopatra of Macedonia (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα; c. 355/354 BC – 308 BC), or Cleopatra of Epirus, was a Greek Epirote-Macedonian princess and later queen regent of Epirus. The daughter of Philip II of Macedon and Olympias of Epirus, she was the only full sibling of Alexander the Great. Her other siblings include half sisters Thessalonike and Cynane, and half-brother Philip III of Macedon.
Cleopatra grew up in the care of her mother in Pella. In 338 BC, Cleopatra stayed in Pella with her father while her mother Olympias fled to exile in Epirus with her Molossian brother Alexander I of Epirus (Cleopatra's uncle), and Cleopatra's brother Alexander fled to Illyria. Soon Philip felt he had to ally himself to Alexander I by offering his daughter's hand in marriage. A large wedding between Cleopatra and her uncle Alexander I of Epirus was held in 336 BC. It was at the celebration of her nuptials, which took place on a magnificent scale at Aegae in Macedon, that Philip II was murdered.
Immediately after her father's murder, Cleopatra and Alexander went from Macedon back to Epirus. Soon after, the couple had two children, Neoptolemus II of Epirus and Cadmeia. It is believed that Alexander and Cleopatra kept in close contact while he was on his conquest to the east. In 332 BC Alexander had sent booty home for both his mother and sister, as well as his close friends.
In 334 BC, Cleopatra's husband crossed the Adriatic Sea to the Italian peninsula to campaign against several Italic tribes, the Lucanians and Bruttii, on behalf of the Greek colony Taras, leaving her as regent of Epirus. She was involved as recipient and sender of official shipments of grain during a widespread shortage around 334 BC. According to an inscription from Cyrene, Libya she was the recipient of 50,000 'medimni' of grain, and shipped the surplus to Corinth. Alexander I conquered Heraclea, took Sipontum, and captured both Consentia and Terin, but was eventually killed in battle in 331 BC, leaving the young heir, Neoptolemus too young for the throne.
Cleopatra ruled Epirus in the meantime. It was an Epirote custom that the woman of a family became head of household when her husband died and their son(s) were too young, unlike the rest of Greece. It was only fitting for the powerful queen to assume control. When her husband was killed, an embassy from Athens was dispatched to deliver condolences.
Cleopatra was seemingly acting as the religious head of state for the people of Molossia. Her name appears on a list of Theorodokoi ("welcomers of sacred ambassadors"), in the recently established Epirote alliance. Cleopatra was significantly the only female on the list. Her position as official welcomer would have allowed her to keep a finger on whatever was happening anywhere in Greece.
After the death of her brother, Cleopatra was sought in marriage by several of his generals, who thought to strengthen their influence with the Macedonians by a connection with the sister of Alexander the Great. Leonnatus is first mentioned as putting forward a claim to her hand, and he represented to Eumenes that he received a lettered promise of marriage if he came to Pella. Cleopatra had extended her hand because she knew Leonnatus had the ambition and ability to overthrow the new mentally unfit king Philip III of Macedon if they married. Nonetheless before his arrival, Leonnatus in an attempt enhance his claim to the throne, lifted the siege from the rebellious Greeks in Lamia and rescued Antipater, however he was killed in action, so the marriage never occurred.
Perdiccas next attempted to win her marriage. After his death, her hand was sought by Cassander, Lysimachus, and Antigonus. She refused, however, all these offers. She escaped to Sardis, where she was kept for years in a sort of honourable captivity by Antigonus.
An interesting event took place in Sardis. A frustrated Antipater publicly accused Cleopatra of being involved with Perdiccas in her half sister Cynane's death. Cleopatra would not submit so easily, however, and fought back.
Eventually, Cleopatra acceded to a proposal from Ptolemy, but before it occurred, she was captured. After being brought back to Sardis, Cleopatra was assassinated in 308 BC, reputedly by order of Antigonus. Despite afterwards executing the assassins and giving her a beautiful funeral in her honor, he knew she represented too much power to remain alive.Cyrene
Cyrene may refer to:
Cyrene (mythology), an ancient Greek mythological figure
Cyrene, Libya, an ancient Greek colony in North Africa (modern Libya)
Cyrenaica, the region around the city
Cyrenaics, an ancient Greek school of philosophy
Cyrene, Georgia, a community in the United States
Cyrene, Missouri, a community in the United States
Cyrene (Xena: Warrior Princess), a fictional character in the television series Xena: Warrior Princess
Cyrene (steamboat), a steamboat that ran on Puget Sound and Lake Washington, 1891–1912
USS Cyrene (AGP-13) (AGP-13), a 1944 motor torpedo boat tender
Crete and Cyrenaica, a province of the Roman Empire
133 Cyrene, an asteroid
a synonym for Nycerella, a genus of spiders
Cyrene (Creative Kingdom), a setting in the online game Entropia Universe
Cyrene, a trade name for dihydrolevoglucosenoneCyrene, Missouri
Cyrene is an unincorporated community in Pike County, in the U.S. state of Missouri.Extramural Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone at Cyrene, Libya
The Extramural Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone at Cyrene, Libya is located on a coastal plateau of Libya, beyond the boundaries of the city (extramural). In approximately 630 BC Greeks from the island of Thera colonized Cyrene. Other Greek colonists not long after increased the population, thus transforming Cyrene into what was regarded as both the largest and wealthiest Greek colony of North Africa. Archaeological excavations of Cyrene's Extramural Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone, also known as Kore, daughter of Demeter and legendary Queen of the Underworld and consort of Hades, began in 1969 under the sponsorship of the University of Michigan. Between 1973 and 1981 the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology continued the excavations at Cyrene under the direction of Professor Donald White (Museum Curator Emeritus, Mediterranean Section). Following the renewal of relations between Libya and the United States in 2004, the Cyrenaica Archaeological Project (CAP), under the direction of Professor Susan Kane of Oberlin College, was granted permission to resume the work of its predecessors.The grounds of the Sanctuary to Demeter and Persephone, which include a temple and theater complex, elevate on terraces across the slope of a ravine, specifically the wadi (Arabic: وادي wādī; also: Vadi) bel Gadir, southwest of the walled city. The Sanctuary comprised structures sprawled out over twenty miles and divided into three primary structures: the Lower, Middle and Upper Sanctuaries. The archaeological remains of the walled complex span approximately 850 years of religious activity, dating from ca. 600 BC through the mid third century AD. During the time of this sacred activity at the Sanctuary a voluminous amount of votive material was accumulated in its interior: pottery, lamps, coinage, stone sculpture, jewellery, inscriptions, glass, as well as bronze and terracotta figurines. The pottery excavated at the Sanctuary does provide useful evidence concerning both the question of its foundation and type of religious activity.Global Heritage Fund
Global Heritage Fund (GHF) is a non-profit organization empowering communities through historic conservation and heritage-driven local development. Since 2002, GHF has helped local communities to save 28 sites in 19 countries with over 100 partner organizations. Using their Preservation by Design methodology of community-based planning, conservation science, and strategic partnerships, GHF has invested over $30 million and secured $25 million in co-funding to ensure sustainable preservation and responsible development.Intraurban Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone at Cyrene, Libya
The Intraurban Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone was an intraurban sanctuary in ancient Cyrene in Libya, dedicated to Demeter and Persephone.The sanctuary was located on the north-west edge of the agora. It was founded in 7th-century BC, and the predecessor of the larger and more monumental Extramural Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone at Cyrene, Libya, which was founded somewhat later. Initially, it was a small temple, hypaethral, and consisting of a peribolos wall and two altars. In the 6th-century BC, the temenos of the temple was enlarged until it surrounded an area of c 13 x 13m. The Intraurban Sanctuary was used at least until the Extramural Sanctuary was completed and fully operational.Jean Bourgeois
Jean Bourgeois de Montibus was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Auxiliary Bishop of Cologne (1506–?).Lucius Pinarius
Lucius Pinarius Scarpus (flourished 1st century BC) was a Roman who lived during the late Republic and the early Empire. He served as the Roman governor of Cyrene, Libya during the Final War of the Roman Republic. He was originally loyal to Mark Antony, but eventually switched sides and joined Octavian following the latter's victory at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC.Necropolis of Cyrene
The Necropolis of Cyrene is a necropolis located between Cyrene, Libya and the ancient port of Apollonia, at the western slope of the Wadi Haleg Shaloof hill. It is around 10 square kilometres in size. With terraced archaic tombs, the cemetery is near the ancient road to Appolonia. The necropolis is today partially lost, parts were bulldozed in 2013. The UNESCO classified the site in 1982 as a World Heritage site, and added Cyrene in 2017 to its List of World Heritage in Danger.Quryna
Quryna (Arabic: قورينا), formerly known as Yosberides (Arabic: يوسبريدس), is a privately owned Libyan newspaper published in print and on the internet. It is based in Benghazi, the country's second largest city. Reuters described it as "Libya's most reliable media outlet" during the Libyan Civil War.Its chief editor is Ramadan Briki. Technical staff are Ahmad Bin Jaber and Hani Altli.Theodorus of Cyrene
Theodorus of Cyrene (Greek: Θεόδωρος ὁ Κυρηναῖος) was an ancient Libyan Greek and lived during the 5th century BC. The only first-hand accounts of him that survive are in three of Plato's dialogues: the Theaetetus, the Sophist, and the Statesman. In the former dialogue, he posits a mathematical theorem now known as the Spiral of Theodorus.Vincent Gaffney
Vincent Gaffney is a British archaeologist and the Anniversary Chair in Landscape Archaeology at the University of Bradford.
Gaffney has directed research projects around the world. Most recently, he has become known for his work on Doggerland, a submerged landmass that existed in the North Sea in the early Holocene. Other recent work includes the Anglo-Austrian “Stonehenge Hidden Landscapes Project", The Curious Travellers Project, the Adriatic islands Project, and the pit alignment at Warren Fields He was Co-PI on the EPSRC GG-TOP Gravity Gradient Project. Other fieldwork has included analysis of Roman villas on the Berkshire Downs (UK), survey at Roman Wroxeter, Diocletian's Palace, the Cetina Valley in Croatia, Forum Novum and Cyrene, Libya.