Cyclorrhapha is an unranked taxon within the infraorder Muscomorpha. They are called "Cyclorrhapha" ('circular-seamed flies') with reference to the circular aperture through which the adult escapes the puparium. This is a circumscriptional name that has significant historical familiarity, but in the present classification, this name is synonymous with the more recent "Muscomorpha";

Cyclorrhapha underwent major adaptive radiation that led to the creation of over 72 000 species. These species share multiple attributes such as the 360-degree rotation of the male terminalia.[1]

Musca domestica
Musca domestica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Suborder: Brachycera
Infraorder: Muscomorpha
(unranked): Eremoneura
(unranked): Cyclorrhapha


  1. ^ de Oliveira, Janaina Lima; Sobrinho-Junior, Iderval Silva; Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; de Brito, Reinaldo Alves (11 September 2017). "Evolutionary coincidence of adaptive changes in exuperantia and the emergence of bicoid in Cyclorrhapha (Diptera)". Development Genes and Evolution. 227 (5): 355–365. doi:10.1007/s00427-017-0594-3. PMC 5597691. PMID 28894941.

The Asiloidea comprise a very large superfamily insects in the order Diptera, the true flies. It has a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring worldwide, with many species living in dry, sandy habitat types. It includes the family Bombyliidae, the bee flies, which are parasitoids, and the Asilidae, the robber flies, which are predators of other insects. Members of the other families are mainly flower visitors as adults and predators as larvae.It is not entirely clear that this superfamily is monophyletic. It is closely related to the Empidoidea and the Cyclorrhapha.


The Brachyceran infraorder Asilomorpha is a large and diverse group of flies, containing the bulk of the nonmuscoid Brachycera. The larvae of asilomorphs are extremely diverse in habits, as well.


Calyptratae is a subsection of Schizophora in the insect order Diptera, commonly referred to as the calyptrate muscoids (or simply calyptrates). It consists of those flies which possess a calypter that covers the halteres, among which are some of the most familiar of all flies, such as the house fly.

About 18,000 described species are in this group, or about 12% of all the flies yet described.

E. C. M. d'Assis-Fonseca

Evelyn Cecil Muschamp d’Assis Fonseca (1899 – 1993) was a British dipterist. He was responsible for formally naming a number of fly species, including:

Dolichopus subpennatus

Fannia collini

Fannia pseudonorvegica

Fannia subatripes

Alliopsis similaris

Heterostylodes caledonicusHe authored two volumes in the Royal Entomological Society of London's Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects series:

Handbooks for the Ident. of British Insects. Cyclorrhapha Calyptrata section (b) Muscidae (1968)

Handbooks for the Ident. of British Insects. Brachycera : Dolichopodidae (1978)His extensive Diptera collection is now in the Hope Entomological Collections of the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.

Fonseca's seed fly, the rarest endemic insect in the UK, is named after Fonseca, who described the type specimen.

Eduard Becher

Eduard Becher (30 September 1856, Vienna - 11 November 1886, Vienna) was an Austrian entomologist who worked on Diptera.

He was the author of an article entitled 'Zur Kenntnis der Kopfbildung der Dipteren' ("Contribution to the knowledge of the head formation of the Diptera") Wiener Entomologische Zeitung, 1: 49-54 (1882). In this he identified the divisions of the Cyclorrhapha, Aschiza and Schizophora, a division he based on differences in the frontal region of the head. Aschiza have no ptilinum or associated suture, Schizophora have both ptilinum and its suture.

Becher's collection of Austrian Diptera is in the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna.

Elwood Zimmerman

Elwood Curtin Zimmerman (born in Spokane, Washington on December 8, 1912; died in Tura Beach, New South Wales on June 18, 2004) was an American entomologist best known for his two multivolume series: Insects of Hawaii published by the University of Hawaiʻi Press and Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) published by Australia's CSIRO.


The Empidoidea are a large monophyletic superfamily of true flies, the sister taxon to the Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha). These two groups are sometimes united in the unranked taxon Eremoneura. There are some 10,000 known species within Empidoidea, which are represented on all continents except Antarctica. They are known to have existed since the Jurassic period.Empidoidea has been subject to much debate regarding its phylogeny. Based on morphology alone, three major hypotheses had been proposed up until 2007 and seemed to be consensus for some time—however, in 2018, Wahlberg & Johanson published the most current phylogeny supported by extensive genetic data, changing the relationship between quite a few families and tribes.

Friedrich Moritz Brauer

Friedrich Moritz Brauer (12 May 1832, Vienna – 29 December 1904) was an Austrian entomologist who was Director of the Naturhistorisches Hofmuseum, Vienna, at the time of his death. He wrote many papers on Diptera and Neuroptera.From an assistant in the Entomological Museum at the University of Vienna, Brauer became Custodian of the collections in 1873 and in the following year was appointed Professor of zoology in the University. He was elected an Honorary Fellow of the Entomological Society of London in 1900.

Brauer’s first work on the order Neuroptera, and his first entomological publication, in 1850, was a revision of the genus Chrysopa. This was followed during the next few years by numerous papers on the biology of the order which established his reputation as one of the foremost European authorities on the Neuroptera.

1858 he began studies of the life history of the Dipterous family Oestridae; the result was the publication in 1863 of “Monographie der Oestriden”. An outcome of these researches was the erection of two divisions of the Diptera, based mainly on the form of the pupa. The divisions are Orthorrhapha and Cyclorrhapha.

Subsequent investigations into the metamorphoses of the entire order resulted in the publication of System of Diptera “based upon recent advances in anatomy and embryology”,which appeared in 1883. This was generally regarded as the best arrangement of the Diptera yet proposed. The system which with a review by Dr. Sharp appears in the “Cambridge Natural History” Insects part 1 p. 175 divides the class into no fewer than 17 orders, the old Linnean “Neuroptera” furnishing 7 of these.

Brauer next worked on Tachinidae and other parasitic Diptera on which he published a treatise, in collaboration with Herr. Julius von Bergenstamm.

Brauer identified the Phorid flies collected by the German medical doctor Hermann Reinhard, associated with exhumated bodies from Saxonia, thus contributing to a classic early work of forensic entomology Beiträge zur Gräberfauna. (Contributions on the fauna of graves.) Verh. k. & k. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 31 (1882) 207-210.

Insects of Hawaii

The Insects of Hawaii series, now under the editorship of James K. Liebherr of Cornell University, aims to provide a collaborative, comprehensive, taxonomy of all known Hawaiian insect fauna. So far, more than 5,000 native arthropod species have been described. Only vols. 1, 16, and 17 are still in print, but the out-of-print volumes are being scanned and added to the University of Hawaii's digital repository.

1. Reissue of the Introduction. Elwood C. Zimmerman, with new Foreword by James K. Liebherr and short biography of the author by James O. Juvik. (2001) - Geological History of Hawaii: Derivation, Dispersal, and Distribution. Evolution and Development, Analyses and Summaries of Biota

16. Hawaiian Carabidae (Coleoptera). James K. Liebherr and Elwood C. Zimmerman. (2000) - Part 1: Introduction and Tribe Platynini

17. Hawaiian Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) Bees. Howell V. Daly and Karl N. Magnacca. (2003) - Hymenoptera: ApoideaThe out-of-print volumes follow:

1. Introduction. Elwood C. Zimmerman. (1947) - Geological History of Hawaii: Derivation, Dispersal, and Distribution. Evolution and Development, Analyses and Summaries of Biota

2. Apterygota to Thysanoptera. Elwood C. Zimmerman. (1948) - Thysanura, Diplura, Protura, Collembola, Orthoptea, Isoptera, Embioptera, Dermaptera, Zoraptera, Corrondentia, Mallophaga, Anoplura, Odonata, Thysanoptera

3. Heteroptera. Elwood C. Zimmerman. (1948) - Cydnidae, Pentatomidae, Coreidae, Lygaeidea, Tingidae, Enicocephalidae, Reduviidea, Nabidae, Cimicidae, Anthocoridae, Cryptostemmatidae, Miridae, Saldidae, Hebridae, Mesoveliidae, Veliidae, Gerridae, Notonectidae, Corixidae

4. Homoptera: Auchenorhyncha. Elwood C. Zimmerman. (1948) - Cercopidae, Cicadellidae, Membracidae, Cixiidae, Delphacidae, Flatidae

5. Homoptera: Sternorhyncha. Elwood C. Zimmerman. (1948) - Psylloidea, Aleyrodoidea, Aphidoidea, Coccoidea

6. Ephemeroptera-Neuroptera-Trichoptera and Supplement to Volumes 1-5. Elwood C. Zimmerman. (1957, out of print)

7. Macrolepidoptera. Elwood C. Zimmerman. (1958) - Geometridae, Noctuidae, Sphingidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Danaidae, Lycaenidae

8. Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea. Elwood C. Zimmerman. (1958) - Galleriinae, Pyraustinae, Scopariinae, Nymphulinae, Pyralinae, Crambinae, Phycitinae, Pterophoridae, Alucitidae

9. Microlepidoptera. Elwood C. Zimmerman. (1978) - Monotrysia, Tineoidea, Tortricoidea, Gracillarioidea, Yponomeutoidea, Alucitoidea, Gelechioidea

10. Diptera: Nematocera-Brachycera (except Dolichopodidae). D. Elmo Hardy. (1960) - Tipulidae, Psychodidae, Culicidae, Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Scatopsidae, Mycetophilidae, Sciaridae, Cecidomyiidae, Stratiomyidae, Bombyliidae, Scenopinidae, Empididae

11. Diptera: Brachycera II-Cyclorrhapha. I. D. Elmo Hardy. (1964) - Dolichopodidae, Phoridae, Lonchopteridae, Pipunculidae, Syrphidae

11, Supplement. Diptera: Dolichopodidae and Appendix (Phoridae). JoAnn M. Tenorio. (1969)

12. Diptera: Cyclorrhapha II. D. Elmo Hardy. (1965) - Series Schizophora, Section Acalypterae I, Family Drosophilidae

13. Diptera: Cyclorrhapha III. D. Elmo Hardy and M. D. Delfinado. (1980) - Series Schizophora, Section Acalypterae, Exclusive of Family Drosophilidae

14. Diptera: Cyclorrhapha IV. D. Elmo Hardy. (1981) - Series Schizophora, Section Calyptratae

15. Collembola. Kenneth Christiansen and Peter Bellinger. (1992) - Suborder Arthropleona; Suborder Symphypleona


Linnaemyini is a tribe of flies in the family Tachinidae.

List of obsolete names in Diptera

The higher-level classification of the insect order Diptera is in a constant state of flux, and over the last several decades, a vast number of names have been variously proposed, rejected, had their definitions changed, or altered spelling. Keeping track of all of these names is a challenging task, especially as there is no consensus as to the proper classification that should be used for this order, as well as reflecting a more fundamental challenge to the entire underlying principles of classification, which is especially evident among Dipteran systematists. The purpose of this article is to serve as a reference in situations where a reader may encounter an obsolete name in a printed or online resource, and otherwise be unable to find it.

Secondarily, this list also contains names referring to fossil taxa, whose placement into modern classifications is generally untenable, as classifications increasingly rely on molecular phylogenetics, which excludes fossils from consideration.

Morphology of Diptera

The Diptera is a very large and diverse order of mostly small to medium-sized insects. They have prominent compound eyes on a mobile head, and (at most) one pair of functional, membraneous wings, which are attached to a complex mesothorax. The second pair of wings, on the metathorax, are reduced to halteres. The order's fundamental peculiarity is its remarkable specialization in terms of wing shape and the morpho-anatomical adaptation of the thorax – features which lend particular agility to its flying forms. The filiform, stylate or aristate antennae correlate with the Nematocera, Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha taxa respectively. It displays substantial morphological uniformity in lower taxa, especially at the level of genus or species. The configuration of integumental bristles is of fundamental importance in their taxonomy, as is wing venation. It displays a complete metamorphosis (egg, larva, pupa, adult), or holometabolous development. The larvae are legless, and have head capsules with mandibulate mouthparts in the Nematocera. The larvae of "higher flies" (Brachycera) are however headless and wormlike, and display only three instars. Pupae are obtect in the Nematocera, or coarcate in Brachycera.


The Brachyceran infraorder Muscomorpha is a large and diverse group of flies, containing the bulk of the Brachycera, and, most of the known flies. It includes a number of the most familiar flies, such as the housefly, the fruit fly, and the blow fly. The antennae are short, usually three-segmented, with a dorsal arista. Their bodies are often highly setose, and the pattern of setae is often taxonomically important.

The larvae of muscomorphs (in the sense the name is used here; see below) have reduced head capsules, and the pupae are formed inside the exoskeleton of the last larval instar; exit from this puparium is by a circular line of weakness, and this pupal type is called "cyclorrhaphous"; this feature gives this group of flies their traditional name, Cyclorrhapha.


Oestroidea is a superfamily of Calyptratae including the blow flies, bot flies, flesh flies, and their relatives.The superfamily includes the families:


Mesembrinellidae (formerly included in Calliphoridae)



Rhiniidae (formerly included in Calliphoridae)






Orthorrhapha is a circumscriptional name which historically was used for an infraorder of Brachycera, one of the two suborders into which the order Diptera, the flies, are divided. As the group was paraphyletic, it has not been used in classifications in the last decade, and is effectively obsolete. However, many catalogs, checklists, and older works still contain the name. The taxa that used to be in the Orthorrhapha now comprise all of the infraorders in Brachycera excluding the Muscomorpha (= "Cyclorrhapha").

The recent revision of the taxonomy of the order Diptera by Pape et al. revived the name Orthorrhapha.


Phasiini is a tribe of flies in the family Tachinidae.


The Pyrgotidae are an unusual family of flies (Diptera), one of only two families of Cyclorrhapha that lack ocelli. Most species are "picture-winged" (i.e, have patterns of bands or spots on the wings), as is typical among the Tephritoidea, but unlike other tephritoids, they are endoparasitoids; the females pursue scarab beetles in flight, laying an egg on the beetle's back under the elytra where the beetle cannot reach it. The egg hatches and the fly larva enters the body cavity of the beetle, feeding and eventually killing the host before pupating. In the United States, some species of Pyrgota and Sphecomyiella can be quite common in areas where their host beetles (typically the genus Phyllophaga, or "June beetles") are abundant. Like their host beetles, these flies are primarily nocturnal, and are often attracted to artificial lights.

Royal Entomological Society Handbooks

Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects is a series of books produced by the Royal Entomological Society (RES). The aim of the Handbooks is to provide illustrated identification keys to the insects of Britain, together with concise morphological, biological and distributional information. The series also includes several Check Lists of British Insects. All books contain line drawings, with the most recent volumes including colour photographs. In recent years, new volumes in the series have been published by Field Studies Council, and benefit from association with the AIDGAP identification guides and Synopses of the British Fauna.

Theodor Becker

Theodor Becker (23 June 1840 in Plön – 30 June 1928 in Liegnitz) was a German civil engineer and entomologist primarily known for his work with flies.

He worked with Paul Stein, Mario Bezzi, and Kálmán Kertész on Katalog der Paläarktischen dipteren published in Budapest from 1903.


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