Lothar and Martin were violent European windstorms which swept across western and central Europe during a period of 36 hours in December 1999. The storms caused major damage in France, southern Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. Throughout the affected region, 140 people were killed and damage was estimated at €9.9 billion. Both of these storms were associated with an intense jet stream aloft and benefitted from latent heat release through atmosphere-ocean exchange processes. Lothar and Martin together left 3.4 million customers in France without electricity, and forced EdF to acquire all the available portable power generators in Europe, with some even being brought in from Canada. These storms brought down a quarter of France's high-tension transmission lines and 300 high-voltage transmission pylons were toppled. It was one of the greatest energy disruptions ever experienced by a modern developed country.
December 1999 saw a series of heavy winter storms cross the North Atlantic and western Europe. In early December, Great Britain and Denmark were hit by Cyclone Anatol which caused severe damage in Denmark. A second storm then crossed Europe on 12 December. A very deep and sizeable depression moved across Britain on the night of 24–25 December (analysed to have possibly reached a low of 938 mb between Scotland and Norway), this set up a large area of westerly flow into Europe which brought Lothar. This highly unstable situation inevitably meant low predictability, and saw an unusually straight and strong jet stream (similar circumstances were also noted the day before the arrival of the Great Storm of 1987). Storm Martin then struck France and central Europe from 26 to 28 December 1999. At the end of January 2000 two additional damaging storms crossed Denmark and the northern part of Germany.
Windstorm Lothar was not well predicted, with one meteorologist later claiming that forecasts could be split into those that were poor and those that were very poor. According to some forecasts, the storm was predicted to pass through the United Kingdom, while others failed to predict significant intensification at all. The strong jet stream that was the chief cause of the instability was well predicted by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts 9 days earlier. Approximately 24 hours before the storm hit France, Météo-France issued a warning of a strong storm with the correct path, but two hours before the storm hit Paris, inland windspeeds were still predicted to be between 90–130 km/h (56-81 mph), rather than the 125–175 km/h (80-110 mph) range actually experienced.
MeteoSwiss found the storm Lothar extremely difficult to predict, as even the large forecast models of international weather services initially overlooked the small disturbance above the Atlantic Ocean which formed the storm. Consequently, the power and extent of the storm was only recognized in the early morning of 26 December, which resulted in shorter warning times in Switzerland. In a number of places, officials failed to realize the importance of the warnings, so they were not passed on to the public as they should have been. It is presumed that this occurred because of the holidays.
The German Weather Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst) was criticised for not issuing a storm warning for Lothar in contrast to the weather services of other countries and private German services, apparently due to a software bug.
Track of the central low pressure of Lothar
|Formed||25 December 1999|
|Dissipated||27 December 1999|
|Lowest pressure||960 mb (28 inHg)|
|Highest gust||259 km/h (161 mph)|
|Areas affected||Western Europe|
During the first storm Lothar, wind speeds reached around 150 km/h (93 mph) in low-lying areas and more than 250 km/h (160 mph) on some mountains. In less than half a day the storm tore across France, Belgium and Germany, only finally beginning to weaken as it crossed Poland. The storm's compact internal pressure gradients generated winds which were comparable to those of a Category 2 hurricane.
The Paris region was strongly affected by the storm during the early morning. The Palace of Versailles and its monumental park were considerably damaged (over 10,000 trees were lost within two hours, including valuable specimens planted by Napoleon and Marie Antoinette). Other cultural heritage, forests and public gardens throughout the area were as severely affected by the hurricane-force winds. Public life was disrupted due to power outages and blocked infrastructure. Besides buildings and infrastructure, forests, such as the Black Forest in Germany, suffered major damage resulting in substantial economic loss.
A case study of the Manual of Synoptic Satellite Meteorology featured by the Austrian Meteorological Institute (ZAMG) identified an area of secondary cyclogenesis which brought gusts in excess of 90 km/h to Northern France, Belgium and Southwestern Germany. The system formed in the wake of Lothar, and crossed Europe before the arrival of the later storm Martin. The identification of this secondary area and its frontal systems contrasts with the analysis of the German Weather Service which suggested that solely a 'trough line' crossed Germany.
Clearing damage in Angoulême 28 December 1999
|Formed||26 December 1999|
|Dissipated||28 December 1999|
|Lowest pressure||963 mb (28.4 inHg)|
|Highest gust||200 km/h (120 mph)|
|Areas affected||Western Europe|
Martin was a violent European windstorm which crossed southern Europe (France, Spain, Switzerland and Italy) on 27–28 December 1999, one day after Lothar. Wind speeds reached around 200 km/h in French département of Charente-Maritime (198 km/h in Oleron island and 194 km/h in Royan), sustained winds of over 140 km/h were observed in Gironde (Cap Ferret, 173 km/h), Vendée (Île d'Yeu, 162 km/h) Haute-Vienne (Limoges, 148 km/h) and Haute-Garonne (Toulouse, 141 km/h). The storm caused 30 fatalities. Building and infrastructures suffered major damage, and mains power and safety systems were knocked out due to flooding at the Blayais Nuclear Power Plant, resulting in a 'level 2' event on the International Nuclear Event Scale.
These storms caused extensive damage to property and trees (13,000,000 m3/459,090,667 ft3 of wood in Switzerland and 140,000,000 m3/4,944,053,340 ft3 were felled in France.) The French and German national power grids were also left badly affected.
|France||Ploumanac'h||148 km/h (92 mph)||Switzerland||La Chaux-de-Fonds||134.6 km/h (83.6 mph)|
|Île de Groix||162 km/h (101 mph)||Chasseral||177.5 km/h (110.3 mph)|
|Rennes||126 km/h (78 mph)||La Dôle||201.2 km/h (125.0 mph)|
|Nantes||126 km/h (78 mph)||Geneva||103.7 km/h (64.4 mph)|
|Alençon||166 km/h (103 mph)||Col du Grand-Saint-Bernard||178.6 km/h (111.0 mph)|
|Rouen||140 km/h (87 mph)||Évolène||124.6 km/h (77.4 mph)|
|Chartres||144 km/h (89 mph)||Lucerne||141.5 km/h (87.9 mph)|
|Paris (Parc Montsouris)||169 km/h (105 mph)||Zurich||157.8 km/h (98.1 mph)|
|Paris Eiffel Tower||>216 km/h (134 mph)||Schaffhausen||162 km/h (101 mph)|
|Orly||173 km/h (107 mph)||Säntis||229.7 km/h (142.7 mph)|
|Dijon||126 km/h (78 mph)||Germany||Weinbiet||184 km/h (114 mph)|
|Metz||155 km/h (96 mph)||Stuttgart||144 km/h (89 mph)|
|Nancy||144 km/h (89 mph)||Karlsruhe||151 km/h (94 mph)|
|Colmar||165 km/h (103 mph)||Grosser Arber||162 km/h (101 mph)|
|Strasbourg||144 km/h (89 mph)|
|France||Saint-Denis-d'Oléron (17)||198 km/h|
|Royan (17)||194 km/h|
|Cap Ferret (33)||173 km/h|
|Île d'Yeu (85)||162 km/h|
|Clermont-Ferrand (63)||159 km/h|
|La Rochelle (17)||151 km/h|
|Limoges (87)||148 km/h|
|Bordeaux (33)||144 km/h|
|Toulouse (31)||141 km/h|
was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1999th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 999th year of the 2nd millennium, the 99th year of the 20th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1990s decade.
1999 was designated as the International Year of Older Persons.Great Storm of 1987
The Great Storm of 1987 was a violent extratropical cyclone that occurred on the night of 15–16 October, with hurricane-force winds causing casualties in England, France and the Channel Islands as a severe depression in the Bay of Biscay moved northeast. Among the most damaged areas were Greater London, the East Anglian coast, the Home Counties, the west of Brittany and the Cotentin Peninsula of Normandy, all of which weathered gusts typically with a return period of 1 in 200 years.Forests, parks, roads and railways were strewn with fallen trees as well as schools being closed. The British National Grid suffered heavy damage, leaving thousands without power. At least 22 people were killed in England and France. The highest measured gust of 117 kn (217 km/h; 135 mph) was recorded at Pointe Du Roc, Granville, France and the highest gust in the UK of 100 kn (190 km/h; 120 mph) was recorded at Shoreham-by-Sea. The storm has been termed a weather bomb due to its rapid development.That day's weather reports had failed to indicate a storm of such severity, an earlier, correct forecast having been negated by later projections. The apparent suggestion by the BBC's Michael Fish of a false alarm is celebrated as a classic gaffe, though he claims he was misquoted. As a result of this storm, major improvements were later implemented in atmospheric observation, relevant computer models, and the training of forecasters.List of disasters by cost
Disasters can be particularly notable for the high costs associated with responding to and recovering from them. This page lists the estimated economic costs of relatively recent disasters.
The costs of disasters vary considerably depending on a range of factors, such as the geographical location where they occur. When a large disaster occurs in a wealthy country, the financial damage may be large, but when a comparable disaster occurs in a poorer country, the actual financial damage may appear to be relatively small. This is in part due to the difficulty of measuring the financial damage in areas that lack insurance. For example, the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, with a death toll of over 230,000 people, cost a 'mere' $15 billion, whereas in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, in which 11 people died, the damages were six-fold.
Note: All damage figures are listed in billions of United States dollars.