Cycle polo

Cycle polo is a team sport, similar to traditional polo, except that bicycles are used instead of horses. There are two versions of the sport: grass and Hardcourt Bike Polo. The hardcourt game saw a sharp spike in interest in the first decade of the 21st century[1] and new teams are sprouting up across the world, in China, Canada, Ireland, Switzerland, France, India, Germany, Pakistan, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Hungary, Australia, New Zealand, Sweden, England, Scotland, Argentina, Italy, Spain, USA, Poland, Croatia, Slovenia, Lithuania, Nepal, Brazil and Cuba.

Cycle polo
Bike Polo AUT-HUN
Bike polo match in Budapest
Highest governing bodyInternational Bicycle Polo Federation, North American Bike Polo Association, European Hardcourt Bike Polo Association
First playedOctober 1891 - County Wicklow, Ireland. (Rathclaren Rovers V Ohne Hast Cycling Club)
Characteristics
Team membersFive or Three
TypeTeam sport
EquipmentBicycle, Mallet, Ball
Presence
OlympicLondon, 1908. (Demonstration Game – Ireland 3-v-1 Germany)

The Traditional game

Traditional cycle polo is played in a rectangular grass field, 150 by 100 metres (490 ft × 330 ft) officially, unofficially whatever field is big enough. Moreover, official dimensions can vary between 120 by 150 metres (390 ft × 490 ft) in length on 80 by 100 metres (260 ft × 330 ft) in width. The ball used approximately 2.5 inches (64 mm) in diameter and the mallet is of length 1 metre (3 ft 3 in).

There are six members (seven in France) in a team of which four (five in France) are on field at any one time. The other two are used as substitutes. International matches are played for a duration of 30 minutes divided into periods of 7.5 minutes each called as a chukkar. Extra time can be used to determine the winner in case the scores are tied at normal time.

If a deliberate foul is committed at the vicinity of the goal, the team that is fouled is automatically given a goal. Less severe fouls are awarded 15-metre and 25-metre free hits. In the event of deliberate fouls or dangerous fouls, the umpire can issue a yellow card (warning) and in case of repeated or severe fouls a red card (ejection). The ejected player can be replaced by a substitute after the end of the current chukkar if the umpire allows it.

The Hardcourt game

Video of cycle polo

In recent years, an alternate form of the game known as "Hardcourt Bike Polo" has grown in popularity.[1] In this variation, teams composed of three players compete on tennis courts, street hockey rinks, or whatever other surfaces are available. The rules vary slightly by city.

Generally this is a faster game with three members on a team and no substitutions, and with all members on the court at all times. A street hockey ball is used and matches are played until one team scores five points or time has expired, without playing chukkars. During tournament play, a time limit, such as 10 minutes, may be used to maximise the number of tournament rounds possible during the day.

There are three core rules of play:

In the case of a 'foot down' or 'dab' (touching the ground with one's foot) the player must "tap out" by riding to mid-court and hitting a designated area with their mallet. There is usually a tap-out located on either side of the court.

In order to score, the offensive player must hit the ball across the goal line using the narrow end of the mallet, called a "shot" or "hit." Hitting the ball across the goal line with the wide end of the mallet is called a "shuffle".

When a team scores a goal, the opposing team must retreat to their half and wait for the other team (player or ball, whichever comes first) to cross the halfway line before engaging in play again.

The North American Hardcourt Bike Polo Association has created an official ruleset,[2] which has helped standardise rules across the globe.

History

The game was invented in County Wicklow, Ireland, in 1891 by retired champion cyclist Richard J. Mecredy, editor of The Irish Cyclist magazine.[3] In October of that year the first cycle polo match was played at the Scalp (County Wicklow) between Rathclaren Rovers and the Ohne Hast Cycling Club.[4] Towards the end of the 19th century the game reached Great Britain, France, and the United States where the American Star Bicycle was a popular mount.[5] The first international match was played between Ireland and England in 1901. Cycle polo was a demonstration sport at the 1908 London Olympics with Ireland winning, beating Germany.[4][6][7]

The sport reached its peak of popularity in Great Britain during the 1930s with the introduction of the regional leagues. Cycle polo also flourished in France during this period with the establishment of the French league. Internationals between France and Great Britain were held regularly. However the Second World War marked the beginning of the demise of cycle polo in Britain. The sport remained in France though, with league championships held regularly until today.

The 1980s saw the rise of two new powers in cycle polo, India and the United States. The Bicycle Polo Association of America was created in 1994. International cycle polo matches staged a comeback in the 1990s with the first world championship organized in 1996 in the USA. Today there is organized cycle polo being played in Brazil, Argentina, Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, Ireland, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland and USA. Cycle polo was officially recognized by the Union Cycliste Internationale in 2001.

Cycle Polo in India

Cycle Polo 18 3
A Traditional Cycle Polo game in CC&FC, Kolkata

The Cycle Polo Association of India was officially created in 1966 it has its office in Jaipur, Rajasthan. The first men's nationals were played in 1970 in New Delhi, with the team from Rajasthan emerging victorious.

In the 2016–17 season, the men's nationals were held in Jodhpur, Rajasthan from 13–16 January 2017. Indian Air Force was the champion and the Indian Army the runners-up. The 2016-17 women's nationals were held at Dundlod, Rajasthan from 21–24 February 2017. Chhattisgarh defeated Karnataka in the finals.[8]

The Calcutta Cricket & Football Club hosted the first Merchant’s Cup Cycle Polo tournament in 1973. In 2012, the CC&FC had organised a Cycle Polo Legend's Tournament where great players of yesteryear such as Vijai Singh, Lakshman Singh and Bikram Das participated. [9] Currently, the CC&FC plays host to the March Mug, the Swaroop Bhanjdeo Memorial Tournament and the CC&FC Trophy. Since 2015 onwards, CC&FC has been hosting the CC&FC All India Invitation Cycle Polo Cup which is organised jointly by the CC&FC along with the Cycle Polo Association of Bengal.

In 2017, the CC&FC All India Invitation Cycle Polo Cup had seven teams in the men's section and five in the women's section. Territorial Army were the eventual champions in the men's section. They defeated Indian Air Force 14:6 in the final. In the women section Chhattisgarh defeating in Bengal in the final. 15:3 was the score line. [10]

In 2018, in the men's section, the defending champions Territorial Army successfully defended their title by defeating Bengal 12:10 in the final. In the women's section, Bengal easily overcame their opponents Uttar Pradesh 15:0 in the final.

International Bicycle Polo Championships

Year Host Gold Silver Bronze
1996 United States
Richland,
United States
India
India
United States
United States
Canada
Canada
1999 Canada
Vancouver,
Canada
India
India
United States
United States
Canada
Canada
2000 India
New Delhi,
India
India
India
Canada
Canada
United States
United States
2001 United Kingdom
London,
United Kingdom
India
India
Canada
Canada
France
France
2002 France
Paris,
France
Canada
Canada
France
France
India
India
2003 United States
Vero Beach,
United States
Canada
Canada
United States
United States
France
France
2004 Canada
Vancouver,
Canada
United States
United States
France
France
India
India
2006 United States
Kennewick,
United States
Canada
Canada
United States
United States
France
France

The UK based Pukka Chukkas won the 2012 Acumen Energy Bicycle Polo Cup held at Tiger Tops Karnali on the fringes of the Bardia National Park in Nepal, beating EFG Switzerland in a thrilling final in front of a crowd of over 5,000. The bicycles used in the tournament were donated to local schools and social clubs, and money was raised for the prevention and cure of elephant tuberculosis.

European Championships

The European Championships is an annual Bicycle Polo competition for European club teams. It is held over three legs each year in France, Ireland and Britain. The competition began in 2007 following the compromise between French and British/Irish traditional rules. V.C. Frileuse-Sanvic of France were crowned champions of the inaugural competition.

  • 2007 Won by V.C. Frileuse-Sanvic, France
  • 2008 Won by St-Pierre de Varengeville, France

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Polo's young punk cousin". BBC. 31 July 2009. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  2. ^ Official North American ruleset
  3. ^ Mahey, Arun; Brand, Jessica (23 July 2010). "Could a lost Olympic sport find its way back to London?". BBC. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  4. ^ a b polovelo. "Cycle polo story". Polo-velo.net. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  5. ^ Herlihy, David V. (2004). Bicycle, The History. Yale University Press. p. 372. ISBN 0-300-10418-9.
  6. ^ "Welcome to rediff.com : Sports - Athens 2004 History". Rediff.com. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  7. ^ "BBC SPORT | Olympics 2004 | History | London 1908". BBC News. 9 July 2004. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  8. ^ Cycle Polo Federation of India. "Official Website". Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  9. ^ Dey, Sreyoshi (12 June 2012). "The wheels of a royal sport were a turnin' at CC&fc" (The Telegraph). ABP. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  10. ^ Sarkar, Brinda (1 June 2017). "A power-packed cycle polo tourney at CC&FC" (The Telegraph). ABP. Retrieved 6 April 2018.

External links

1912 Summer Olympics

The 1912 Summer Olympics (Swedish: Olympiska sommarspelen 1912), officially known as the Games of the V Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Stockholm, Sweden, between 5 May and 22 July 1912.

Twenty-eight nations and 2,408 competitors, including 48 women, competed in 102 events in 14 sports. With the exception of tennis (starting on 5 May) and football and shooting (both starting on 29 June), the games were held within a month with an official opening on 6 July. It was the last Olympics to issue solid gold medals and, with Japan's debut, the first time an Asian nation participated. Stockholm was the only bid for the games, and was selected in 1909.

The games were the first to have art competitions, women's diving, women's swimming, and the first to feature both the decathlon and the new pentathlon, both won by Jim Thorpe. Electric timing was introduced in athletics, while the host country disallowed boxing. Figure skating was rejected by the organizers because they wanted to promote the Nordic Games.

United States won the most gold medals (25), while Sweden won the most medals overall (65).

Calcutta Cricket and Football Club

The Calcutta Cricket & Football Club (CC&FC) is a sports club based in Kolkata, India. It was founded in 1792 as a cricket institution, adding the football and rugby sections when it merged to Calcutta F.C. in 1965.Sports currently practised at CC&FC include cricket, field hockey, football, rugby, cycle polo and tennis. The football squad is currently playing in the 2nd Division of the Calcutta Football League.

Cycle ball

Cycle-ball, also known as "radball" (from German), is a sport similar to association football played on bicycles. The two people on each team ride a fixed gear bicycle with no brakes or freewheel. The ball is controlled by the bike and the head, except when defending the goal.

The sport was introduced in 1893 by a German-American, Nicholas Edward Kaufmann. Its first world championships were in 1929. Cycle-ball is popular in Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, Russia and Switzerland. The most successful players were the Pospíšil brothers of Czechoslovakia, world champions 20 times between 1965 and 1988.

Closely related is artistic cycling in which the athletes perform a kind of gymnastics on Cycles.

Cycle chic

Cycle chic or bicycle chic refers to cycling in fashionable everyday clothes. The fashion concept developed in popular culture to include bicycles and bicycle accessories as well as clothing. The phrase Cycle Chic was coined in 2007 by Mikael Colville-Andersen, who started the Copenhagen Cycle Chic blog in the same year.

Cycle polo at the 1908 Summer Olympics

Cycle polo was featured in the Summer Olympic Games unofficial programme in 1908.

Cycle sport

Cycle sport is competitive physical activity using bicycles. There are several categories of bicycle racing including road bicycle racing, time trialling, cyclo-cross, mountain bike racing, track cycling, BMX, and cycle speedway. Non-racing cycling sports include artistic cycling, cycle polo, freestyle BMX and mountain bike trials. The Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) is the world governing body for cycling and international competitive cycling events. The International Human Powered Vehicle Association is the governing body for human-powered vehicles that imposes far fewer restrictions on their design than does the UCI. The UltraMarathon Cycling Association is the governing body for many ultra-distance cycling races.

Bicycle racing is recognised as an Olympic sport. Bicycle races are popular all over the world, especially in Europe. The countries most devoted to bicycle racing include Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland. Other countries with international standing include Australia, Luxembourg, the United Kingdom and the United States.

Demonstration sport

A demonstration sport is a sport which is played to promote it, most commonly during the Olympic Games, but also at other sporting events.

Demonstration sports were officially introduced in the 1912 Summer Olympics, when Sweden decided to include glima, traditional Icelandic wrestling, in the Olympic program, but with its medals not counting as official. Most organizing committees then decided to include at least one demonstration sport at each edition of the Games, usually some typical or popular sport in the host country, like baseball at the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Games and taekwondo at the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games. From 1912 to 1992, only two editions of the Summer Olympics did not have demonstration sports on their program. Some demonstration sports eventually gained enough popularity to become an official sport in a subsequent edition of the Games. Traditionally, the medals awarded for the demonstration events followed the same design as the Olympic medals, but of a smaller size. They are never included in the medal count.

Demonstration sports were suspended after the 1992 Summer Olympics, as the Olympic program grew bigger and it became more difficult for the organizing committees to give them the appropriate attention, since the IOC required the same treatment to be dispensed for official and demonstration sports. It is unlikely that they will be reintroduced as a requirement for future Olympic organizing committees. However, the Beijing Olympic Committee received permission from the IOC to run a wushu (martial arts) competition parallel to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, Wushu Tournament Beijing 2008.From the 1984 Summer Olympics until the 2004 Summer Olympics, two Paralympic events (a men's and a women's wheelchair racing event) were included in the athletics programme of each Games. These events are considered by many as a demonstration sport, but are, in fact, used to promote the Paralympic Games. Disabled events in alpine and Nordic skiing (1988 only) were also held as demonstration sports at the 1984 and 1988 Winter Olympics.

Footdown

Footdown is a group bicycle game where the objective is to avoid put your foot on the ground. Participants cycle around until there is only one person who has not put his or her foot down on the floor, whether it be the full foot, or just a toe. Rules vary, sometimes hands may be used to knock opponents off their bike, sometimes feet may be used, or hands on and feet on is a more polite game.The playing area is usually flat area such as basketball courts or tennis courts, once a player has set a foot down on the ground and is eliminated they use their bike as a border, all the eliminated players will create the circular border making the area smaller and smaller as the final participants battle to the end.

It is quite legitimate to steer a competitor into the curb so they have no choice but to put their foot down. Note that this game favors those with a good sense of balance. Footdown may be played on any type of bike. A variant of footdown called 'derby' is played by the SCUL bicycle chopper gang.

On November 3, 2007 Circuit BMX shop, located in Pawtucket, RI, recently hosted the 1st Footdown World Championships. Twenty six contestants entered the event with George Costa taking home the overall win and cash purse to become the 2007 Footdown World Champion.

German Cycling Federation

The German Cycling Federation or BDR (in German: Bund Deutscher Radfahrer) is the national governing body of cycle racing in Germany.

The BDR is a member of the UCI and the UEC.

Hardcourt Bike Polo

Hardcourt Bike Polo is a variation of traditional Bicycle Polo in which teams of players ride bicycles and use mallets to strike a small ball into a goal. It may also be referred to as "Hardcourt", "Urban Bike Polo" or simply "Bike Polo".

Hobby horse polo

Hobby horse polo (German: Steckenpferdpolo) is a mixed team sport played on hobby horses. It is similar to other polo variants, such as canoe polo, cycle polo, camel polo, elephant polo, golfcart polo, Segway polo, auto polo, and yak polo, in that it uses parts of the polo rules, however it has its own specialities.

Kī-o-rahi

Kī-o-rahi is a ball sport played in New Zealand with a small round ball called a 'kī'. It is a fast-paced game incorporating skills similar to rugby union, netball and touch. Two teams of seven players play on a circular field divided into zones, and score points by touching the 'pou' (boundary markers) and hitting a central 'tupu' or target. The game is played with varying rules (e.g. number of people, size of field, tag ripping rules etc.) depending on the geographic area it is played in. A process called Tatu, before the game, determines which rules the two teams will use.

In 2005 kī-o-rahi was chosen to represent New Zealand by global fast-food chain McDonald's as part of its 'Passport to Play' programme to teach physical play activities in 31,000 American schools.

The programme will give instruction in 15 ethnic games to seven million primary school children.The New Zealand kī-o-rahi representative organisation, Kī-o-Rahi Akotanga Iho, formed with men's and women's national teams, completed a 14 match tour of Europe in September and October 2010. The men's team included 22-test All Black veteran Wayne Shelford who led the team to a 57–10 test win against Kī-o-Rahi Dieppe Organisation, the French Kī-o-Rahi federation.

Shelford's kī-o-rahi test jersey made him the first kī-o-rahi/rugby double international for NZ. The women's team coached by Andrea Cameron (Head of PE at Tikipunga High School) also won by 33–0. These were the first historic test matches between NZ and France.

List of sports

The following is a list of sports/games, divided by category.

According to the World Sports Encyclopedia (2003), there are 8,000 indigenous sports and sporting games.

Polo

Polo is a horseback mounted team sport. It is one of the world's oldest known team sports.A game of Central Asian origin, polo was first played in Persia (Iran) at dates given from the 6th century BC to the 1st century AD. Polo was at first a training game for cavalry units, usually the king’s guard or other elite troops. From there it spread to entire Persia and beyond. It is now popular around the world, with well over 100 member countries in the Federation of International Polo. It is played professionally in 16 countries. It was an Olympic sport from 1900 to 1936.

It is known as the sport of kings. It has become a spectator sport for equestrians and society, often supported by sponsorship.

The game is played by two opposing teams with the objective of scoring goals by using a long-handled wooden mallet to hit a small hard ball through the opposing team's goal. Each team has four mounted riders, and the game usually lasts one to two hours, divided into periods called chukkas (or "chukkers").

Arena polo has similar rules, and is played with three players per team. The playing area is smaller, enclosed, and usually of compacted sand or fine aggregate, often indoors. Arena polo has more maneuvering due to space limitations, and uses an air inflated ball, slightly larger than the hard field polo ball. Standard mallets are used, though slightly larger head arena mallets are an option.

Rawla Mandi

Rawla Mandi (in Hindi and Rajasthani:- रावला मंडी, in Punjabi:- ਰਾਵਲਾ ਮਂਡੀ, in Sindhi:- راولا منڊي) is a tehsil Rawla Mandi tehsil of Sri Ganganagar district of Rajasthan, India. It is located on Gharsana-Khajuwala road, 24 km away from Gharsana and 180 km from the district headquarters Sri Ganganagar. The state capital Jaipur is 480 km away, and national capital New Delhi is 600 km away. It is 55 km from Anupgarh, 33 km from Khajuwala and 122 km from Bikaner. It is 30 km far from Indo-Pak(India-Pakistan) border. Rawla mandi known as 8PSD (B) gram panchayt.

Richard J. Mecredy

Richard James Patrick Mecredy (May 1861–26 April 1924) was an Irish bicycle racer, journalist and writer. He is credited as being the inventor of Cycle polo, the rules of which he drew up in 1891.

SC Concordia von 1907

SC Concordia von 1907 was a German football club from Marienthal, a quarter in the Wandsbek borough of the city of Hamburg. In 2013, the club has merged with neighbours TSV Wandsbek-Jenfeld 81'(already having used their ground for a couple of years), renaming itself Wandsbeker TSV Concordia.

Sport in Pakistan

Sport in Pakistan is a significant part of Pakistan culture. Cricket is the most popular sport in Pakistan, while field hockey, polo, and squash are also popular. Traditional sports like kabaddi and other well-known games are also played. The Pakistan Sports Board was created in 1962 by the Ministry of Education as a corporate body for the purposes of promoting and developing uniform standards of competition in sports in Pakistan comparable to the standards prevailing internationally, and regulating and controlling sports in Pakistan on a national basis. The Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, now has control over the Pakistan Sports Board. The PSB controls all 39 sporting federations. The Pakistan Sports Board is supported by the Pakistan Sports Trust, which assists hard up players and associations so they can continue participating in sports.

Over recent years there has been an increase in sporting activity in Pakistan, with Pakistani sportsmen and women participating at many national and international events. Also, more international tournaments now take place in Pakistan. The size of the teams Pakistan sends, and the number of events they participate in, such as the Olympic Games, Asian Games, World Games, and Commonwealth Games has increased since the turn of the century.

Basket sports
Football codes
Bat-and-ball games
Stick and ball sports
Net sports
Other sports

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