Cybistra or Kybistra (Ancient Greek: τὰ Κύβιστρα) was a town of ancient Cappadocia or Cilicia. Its site is occupied by the modern town of Ereğli in Konya Province, Turkey.[1][2]

Strabo, after mentioning Tyana, says "that not far from it are Castabala and Cybistra, forts which are still nearer to the mountain," by which he means Taurus.[3] Cybistra and Castabala were in that division of Cappadocia which was called Cilicia. Strabo makes it six days' journey from Mazaca to the Pylae Ciliciae, through Tyana, which is about half way; then he makes it 300 stadia, or about two days' journey, from Tyana to Cybistra, which leaves about a day's journey from Cybistra to the Pylae. William Martin Leake observed, "We learn also from the Table that Cybistra was on the road from Tyana to Mazaca, and sixty-four Roman miles from the former." Ptolemy places Cybistra in Cataonia, but he mentions Cyzistra as one of the towns of the Cilicia of Cappadocia, and Mazaca as another.[4] It appears, then, that his Cyzistra corresponds to Strabo's Cybistra, which certainly is not in Cataonia.

When Cicero was proconsul of Cilicia (51/50 BCE), he led his troops southwards towards the Taurus through that part of Cappadocia which borders on Cilicia, and he encamped "on the verge of Cappadocia, not far from Taurus, at a town Cybistra, in order to defend Cilicia, and at the same time hold Cappadocia.[5] Cicero stayed five days at Cybistra, and on hearing that the Parthians were a long way off that entrance into Cappadocia, and were hanging on the borders of Cilicia, he immediately marched into Cilicia through the Pylae of the Taurus, and came to Tarsus.[6] This is quite consistent with Strabo. Whether Cyzistra is really a different place from Cybistra, as some geographers assume, may be doubted.


Cybistra was from an early stage a Christian bishopric, as shown by the participation of its bishop Timotheus in the First Council of Nicaea in 325. Cyrus took part in the Council of Chalcedon in 351 and was a signatory of the letter that the bishops of the Roman province of Cappadocia Secunda, to which Cybistra belonged, sent in 458 to Byzantine Emperor Leo I the Thracian after the murder of Proterius of Alexandria. The diocese no longer appears in Notitiae Episcopatuum from the end of the 15th century.[7][8]

No longer a residential bishopric, Cybistra is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[9]


  1. ^ Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 66, and directory notes accompanying.
  2. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.
  3. ^ Strabo. Geographica. p. 537. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  4. ^ Ptolemy. The Geography. 5.7.
  5. ^ Cicero, ad Fans. 15.2, 4.
  6. ^ Cicero, ad Att. 5.20
  7. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 401-404
  8. ^ Raymond Janin, v. Cybistra ou Cybista, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XIII, Paris 1956, coll. 1143-1144
  9. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 869

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Cybistra". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Coordinates: 37°39′45″N 34°13′37″E / 37.662456°N 34.226824°E

Alexander Paterson (bishop)

Alexander Paterson (1766–1831) was a Roman Catholic bishop who served as the Vicar Apostolic of the Lowland District from 1825 to 1827, then, following district name change, Vicar Apostolic of the Eastern District from 1827 to 1831.

Born in Pathhead, near Enzie in Banffshire, Scotland in March 1766, he was ordained a priest in 1791. He was appointed the Coadjutor Vicar Apostolic of the Lowland District and Titular Bishop of Cybistra by the Holy See on 14 May 1816. He was consecrated to the Episcopate on 18 August 1816. The principal consecrator was Bishop Alexander Cameron, and the principal co-consecrator was Bishop Aeneas Chisholm. On the retirement of Bishop Alexander Cameron on 20 August 1825, he automatically succeeded as the Vicar Apostolic of the Lowland District. On 13 February 1827, the Lowland District was renamed the Eastern District, with Bishop Paterson as the vicar apostolic. He died in office on 30 October 1831, aged 65.


Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).


Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.

Cappadocia (theme)

The Theme of Cappadocia (Greek: θέμα Καππαδοκίας) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) encompassing the southern portion of the namesake region from the early 9th to the late 11th centuries.


Cataonia (Ancient Greek: Kαταoνία) was one of the divisions of ancient Cappadocia.

It is described by Strabo, who had visited it, as a level plain surrounded by mountains: on the south by the Amanus, and on the west by the Antitaurus, which branches off from the Cilician Taurus and contains deep narrow valleys (in one of which was situated Comana, a considerable city on the river Sarus, which flows through the gaps of the Taurus into Cilicia and the Mediterranean). Through the plain of Cataonia flows the river Pyramus, which has its source in the middle of the plain, and also passes through the gaps of the Taurus into Cilicia. The plain is very productive, except that it has no evergreens. Strabo speaks of a temple of Zeus Dacius, where there is a salt-lake of considerable extent with steep banks, so that the descent to it is like going down steps; it was said that the water never increased, and had no visible outlet.

The plain of Cataonia contained no cities, but it had strong forts on the hills, such as Azamora and Dastarcum, round which the Carmalas flowed, probably the modern Zamantı River. It also contained a temple of Cataonian Apollo, which was in great repute in all Cappadocia. Ptolemy has a list of eleven places in his Cataonia, including Cabassus, an unknown site, and Heraclea Cybistra, which is far beyond the limits of Strabo's Cataonia. In fact Ptolemy's Cataonia, if there is truth in it, must be a different division of the country. Cataonia also contains Mut (Claudiopolis). Cucusus, mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary, is today Göksun, on the Göksu River, which flows from the west, and joins the Pyramus on the right bank lower down than the junction of the Carmalas and Pyramus. The inhabitants of Cataonia were distinguished by the ancients from the other Cappadocians as a different people, but Strabo could observe no difference in manners or in language.


Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.


Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.


Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.


Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.

Ereğli, Konya

Ereğli is a town and district of Konya Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. According to 2009 census, the population of the district is 135,008 of which 95,056 live in the town of Ereğli.

Heraclea Cybistra

Heraclea Cybistra (Ancient Greek: Ἡράκλεια Κύβιστρα), or simply Heraclea or Herakleia (Ἡράκλεια), also transliterated as Heracleia, was a town of ancient Cappadocia or Cilicia; located near modern Ereğli in Konya Province, Turkey). It had some importance in Hellenistic times owing to its position near the point where the road to the Cilician Gates enters the hills. It lay in the way of armies and was more than once sacked by the Arab invaders of Asia Minor (by Harun al-Rashid in 806 and al-Ma'mun in 832). Three hours’ ride south is the famous "Hittite" rock relief of a lynx, representing a king (probably of neighbouring Tyana) adoring a god. This was the first "Hittite" monument discovered in modern times (early 18th century, by the Swede Otter, an emissary of Louis XIV).


Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for an ancient city in modern day located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale. The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles. The archaeological site of Hisarlik is known in archaeological circles as a tell. A tell is an artificial hill, built up over centuries and millennia of occupation from its original site on a bedrock knob.

It is believed by many scholars to be the site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion.

List of Neo-Hittite kings

The Neo-Hittite states are sorted according to their geographical position.

All annual details are BC.

The contemporary sources name the language they are written in. Those can be:

Luwian (always using Luwian hieroglyphs)







Hebrew (from Old Testament)Also post-Neo-Hittite rulers and the Hittite viceroys of Carchemish are listed for completeness. Post-Neo-Hittite rulers are named as such.

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.


Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Olbasa (Lycaonia)

Olbasa (Ancient Greek: Ὄλβασα) was a town in the Antiochiana district of ancient Lycaonia southwest of Cybistra.Its site is unlocated.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

William II, Count of Nevers

William II, Count of Nevers (born prior to 1089, reigned 1098 – 21 August 1148), was a crusader in the Crusade of 1101.

Üçayaklı ruins

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Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia

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