Cyaneae (Ancient Greek: Κυανέαι; also spelt Kyaneai or Cyanae) was a town of ancient Lycia, or perhaps three towns known collectively by the name, on what is now the southern coast of Turkey. William Martin Leake says that its remains were discovered west of Andriaca. The place, which is at the head of Port Tristomo, was determined by an inscription. Leake observes that in some copies of Pliny it is written Cyane; in Hierocles and the Notitiae Episcopatuum it is Cyaneae. To Spratt and Forbes, Cyaneae appeared to be a city ranking in importance with Phellus and Candyba, but in a better state of preservation. No longer a residential bishopric, Cyanae is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.
Theatre at Cyaneae
Shown within Turkey
|Location||Antalya Province, Turkey|
It is said in Spratt and Forbes: Cyaneae is located on the high table land between port Tristomo and the inland valley of Kassabar, we found three ancient sites, which, from the inscriptions copied at each, appeared to be severally--or perhaps collectively--styled Cyaneae. At one of these places, called Tousa, a sarcophagus contained the feminine ethnic name Κυανειτις, if it is copied right. A pedestal found at another place, called Yarvu, contains a Greek inscription of the Roman period, with the usual formula, Κυανειτων ἡ Βουλη και ὁ Δημος. And at a third place, named Ghiouristan, a Greek inscription contained the form Κυανειτων: and it is added,--the words Κυανειτων γερουσια occur in the inscription on a sarcophagus at the same locality.
It is singular that three distinct sites seem to have had the name Cyaneae, for the plural form appears to be the genuine name of the place. Yarvu, which seems to be the chief place, is due north of the head of the port Tristomo: Ghiouristan is due north of Yarvu, and about 3 miles distant, according to the map in Spratt and Forbes's work. Tousa is west-northwest of Yarvu, and further distant than Ghiouristan. Yarvu is on a high platform, with a steep descent on two sides. The walls are in a good state of preservation, and from 5 to 15 feet high. There is a theatre 165 feet in diameter, many plain rock tombs, groups of sarcophagi, and confused heaps of ruins. The remains are of the Roman and middle age construction; and some of a doubtful age. There were none of the earlier Lycian tombs and inscriptions. At Tousa a Lycian inscription was found. The city was small, and surrounded by a rudely constructed Hellenic wall, very perfect in some parts, combining the polygonal and cyclopean styles in its construction.
To Spratt and Forbes, Cyaneae appeared to be a city ranking in importance with Phellus and Candyba, but in a better state of preservation. Tousa is nearly 5 hours from the sea. At Ghiouristan there are three Lycian rock tombs, one of which has a Lycian and Greek inscription. There are many tombs and sarcophagi here.
This is another example of the discovery of Lycian towns of which no historical record has been preserved except the names. It is not easy to conjecture why all these places had the same name, But it is very possible that one of them, Yarvu, was the chief place under the name of Cyaneae; and that the other two, which belonged to Cyaneae, might have other names, and yet be considered as dependent on the chief place, and might be comprehended under the same name.
In the Notitia Episcopatuum of Pseudo-Epiphanius, written in about 640 under Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, the bishopric of Cyanae is ranked 15th among the suffragans of the metropolitan see of Myra, the capital of Lycia. There are no extant records of the names of bishops of the see.
Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).Caloe
Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.Cestrus
Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.Cidyessus
Cidyessus (Κιδύησσος) was a city of some importance, west of Ammonia in west-central Phrygia, in the territory of the Setchanli Ova, or Mouse Plain; this large and fertile valley projects far into Phrygia Salutaris, but the city was in Phrygia Pacatiana.Its site has been determined by an inscription to be modern Küçükhüyük in Turkey, west of Afyonkarahisar. The old native name may have been Kydessos, though it is Kidyessos on its coins.Cotenna
Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.Docimium
Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.Drizipara
Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.Hisarlik
Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for an ancient city in modern day located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale. The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles. The archaeological site of Hisarlik is known in archaeological circles as a tell. A tell is an artificial hill, built up over centuries and millennia of occupation from its original site on a bedrock knob.
It is believed by many scholars to be the site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion.List of Mycosphaerella species
This is a list of fungi species belonging to the genus Mycosphaerella. The genus includes at least 10,000 species.List of aquarium fish by scientific name
This page lists all fish commonly kept in aquariums and ponds.Lyrbe
Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.Phellus
Phellus (Ancient Greek: Φέλλος, Turkish: Phellos) is an town of ancient Lycia, now situated on the mountainous outskirts of the small town of Kaş in the Antalya Province of Turkey. The city was first referenced as early as 7 BC by Greek geographer and philosopher Strabo in Book XII of his Geographica (which detailed settlements in the Anatolia region), alongside the port town of Antiphellus; which served as the settlement's main trade front.
Its exact location, particularly in regard to Antiphellus, was misinterpreted for many years. Strabo incorrectly designates both settlements as inland towns, closer to each other than is actually evident today. Additionally, upon its rediscovery in 1840 by Sir Charles Fellows, the settlement was located near the village of Saaret, west-northwest of Antiphellus. Verifying research into its location in ancient text proved difficult for Fellows, with illegible Greek inscriptions providing the sole written source at the site. However, Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt details in his 1847 work Travels in Lycia that validation is provided in the words of Pliny the Elder, who places Phellus north of Habessus (Antiphellus' pre-Hellenic name).Rhodiapolis
Rhodiapolis (Ancient Greek: Ῥοδιάπολις), also known as Rhodia (Ῥοδία) and Rhodiopolis (Ῥοδιόπολις), was a city in ancient Lycia. Today it is located on a hill northwest of the modern town Kumluca in Antalya Province, Turkey.Stratonicea (Lydia)
Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.Symplegades
The Symplegades (; Greek: Συμπληγάδες, Symplēgádes) or Clashing Rocks, also known as the Cyanean Rocks, were, according to Greek mythology, a pair of rocks at the Bosphorus that clashed together whenever a vessel went through. They were defeated by Jason and the Argonauts, who would have been lost and killed by the rocks except for Phineus' advice. Jason let a dove fly between the rocks; it lost only its tail feathers. The Argonauts rowed mightily to get through and lost only part of the stern ornament. After that, the Symplegades stopped moving permanently.
The European rock is usually identified with an islet, about 20 metres (66 ft) wide and 200 metres (660 ft) long, which stands about 100 metres (330 ft) off the shore of a village called Rumeli Feneri ('Lighthouse of Rumeli), and is connected to it by a modern concrete jetty. At its highest point, there is an ancient altar known as the Pillar of Pompey, though it has nothing to do with Pompey. Dionysius of Byzantium mentions a Roman shrine to Apollo on one of the Cyanean Rocks, and the 16th-century French traveller Petrus Gyllius thought the altar was a remnant of that shrine.The Asian rock is probably a reef off the Yum Burnu (north of Anadolu Feneri 'Lighthouse of Anatolia'), described by Gyllius:
The reef is divided into four rocks above water which, however, are joined below; it is separated from the continent by a narrow channel filled with many stones, by which as by a staircase one can cross the channel with dry feet when the sea is calm; but when the sea is rough, waves surround the four rocks into which I said the reef is divided. Three of these are low and more or less submerged, but the middle one is higher than the European rock, sloping up to an acute point and roundish right up to its summit; it is splashed by the waves but not submerged and is everywhere precipitous and straight.Trysa
Trysa was a town of ancient Lycia, located between Cyaneae and Myra. It has been archaeologically examined, and among the finds are Lycian tombs, most notably the Heroon of Trysa.Its site is located near the modern town of Gölbaşı, Asiatic Turkey.Tyana
Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.Tyinda
Tyinda was a town of ancient Lycia, between Cyaneae and Phellus. The name is not attested in history, but is derived from epigraphic and other evidence.Its site is located near the modern town of Bağlıca, Asiatic Turkey.Üçayaklı ruins
The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.