Cusco

Cusco (Spanish: Cuzco, Cusco [ˈkusko]; Quechua: Qusqu, Qosqo [ˈqʊsqʊ], [ˈqɔsqɔ]), often spelled Cuzco (/ˈkuːskoʊ/), is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region and of the Cusco Province. In 2017, the city had a population of 428,450. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cuzco, its elevation is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft).

The site was the historic capital of the Inca Empire from the 13th until the 16th-century Spanish conquest. In 1983, Cusco was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO with the title "City of Cuzco". It has become a major tourist destination, hosting nearly 2 million visitors a year. The Constitution of Peru designates it as the Historical Capital of Peru.[2]

Cusco
Cuzco/Cusco  (Spanish)
Qusqu/Qosqo  (Quechua)
Top: Plaza de Armas, Middle left: Qurikancha, Middle right: Sacsayhuamán, Bottom left: Museum, Bottom right: View of the colonial houses, Bottom: Aerial view of Cusco.
Top: Plaza de Armas, Middle left: Qurikancha, Middle right: Sacsayhuamán, Bottom left: Museum, Bottom right: View of the colonial houses, Bottom: Aerial view of Cusco.
Coat of arms of Cusco

Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
La Ciudad Imperial (The Imperial City)
Districts of Cusco
Districts of Cusco
Cusco is located in Peru
Cusco
Cusco
Location within Peru
Coordinates: 13°31′30″S 71°58′20″W / 13.52500°S 71.97222°WCoordinates: 13°31′30″S 71°58′20″W / 13.52500°S 71.97222°W
CountryPeru
RegionCusco
ProvinceCusco
Founded1100
Government
 • MayorVíctor G. Boluarte Medina
Area
 • Total385.1 km2 (148.7 sq mi)
Elevation
3,399 m (11,152 ft)
Population
 (2017)
 • Total428,450
 • Estimate 
(2015)[1]
427,218
 • Density1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
Demonym(s)cuzqueño/a – cusqueño/a
Time zoneUTC-5 (PET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-5 (PET)
Area code(s)84
Websitehttps://www.cusco.gob.pe/
CriteriaCultural: iii, iv
Reference273
Inscription1983 (7th Session)

Spelling and etymology

The indigenous name of this city is Qusqu. Although the name was used in Quechua, its origin is found in the Aymara language. The word is derived from the phrase qusqu wanka ('Rock of the owl'), related to the city's foundation myth of the Ayar Siblings. According to this legend, Ayar Awqa (Ayar Auca) acquired wings and flew to the site of the future city; there he was transformed into a rock to mark the possession of the land by his ayllu ("lineage"):[3]

Then Ayar Oche stood up, displayed a pair of large wings, and said he should be the one to stay at Guanacaure as an idol in order to speak with their father the Sun. Then they went up on top of the hill. Now at the site where he was to remain as an idol, Ayar Oche raised up in flight toward the heavens so high that they could not see him. He returned and told Ayar Manco that from then on he was to be named Manco Capac. Ayar Oche came from where the Sun was and the Sun had ordered that Ayar Manco take that name and go to the town that they had seen. After this had been stated by the idol, Ayar Oche turned into a stone, just as he was, with his wings. Later Manco Capac went down with Ayar Auca to their settlement...he liked the place now occupied in this city Cuzco. Manco Capac and his companion, with the help of the four women, made a house. Having done this, Manco Capac and his companion, with the four women, planted some land with maize. It is said that they took the maize from the cave, which this lord Manco Capac named Pacaritambo, which means those of origin because...they came out of that cave.[4]:15–16

The Spanish conquistadors adopted the local name, transliterating it into Spanish phonetics as Cuzco or, less often, Cozco. Cuzco was the standard spelling on official documents and chronicles in colonial times,[5] though Cusco was also used. Cuzco, pronounced as in 16th-century Spanish, seems to have been a close approximation to the Cusco Quechua pronunciation of the name at the time.[6] As both Spanish and Quechuan pronunciation have evolved since then, the Spanish pronunciation of 'z' is no longer close to the Quechuan pronunciation of the consonant represented by 'z' in "Cuzco". In 1976, the city mayor signed an ordinance banning the traditional spelling and ordering the use of a new one, Cusco, in municipality publications. Nineteen years later, on 23 June 1990, the local authorities formalized a new spelling related more closely to Quechuan: Qosqo.

There is no international, official spelling of the city's name. In English-language publications both "s"[7][8] and "z"[9][10] can be found. However, the Oxford Dictionary of English recognizes "Cuzco" but not "Cusco";[11] the Merriam-Webster Dictionary has "Cuzco", with "Cusco" only as a "variant";[12] and in scholarly writings "Cuzco" is employed more often than "Cusco".[13] The city's international airport code is still CUZ, reflecting the earlier Spanish spelling.

History

Killke culture

The Killke people occupied the region from 900 to 1200, prior to the arrival of the Inca in the 13th century. Carbon-14 dating of Saksaywaman, the walled complex outside Cusco, established that Killke constructed the fortress about 1100. The Inca later expanded and occupied the complex in the 13th century. In March 2008, archaeologists discovered the ruins of an ancient temple, roadway and aqueduct system at Saksaywaman.[14] The temple covers some 2,700 square feet (250 square metres) and contains 11 rooms thought to have held idols and mummies,[14] establishing its religious purpose. Together with the results of excavations in 2007, when another temple was found at the edge of the fortress, this indicates a longtime religious as well as military use of the facility.[15]

Inca history

Digital recreation of the original interior of the Qurikancha (The main Temple of the Sun of the Inca Empire) according to the description of Garcilaso de la Vega; and the current Qoricancha's wall remains below the Convento de Santo Domingo

Corigold
Cuzco 001
Sacsayhuamán, Cusco, Perú, 2015-07-31, DD 35
Sacsayhuamán is an Inca ceremonial fortress located two kilometers north from Cusco, is the greatest architectural work done by the Incas during its apogee.

Cusco was long an important center of indigenous people. It was the capital of the Inca Empire (13th century – 1532). Many believe that the city was planned as an effigy in the shape of a puma, a sacred animal.[16] How Cusco was specifically built, or how its large stones were quarried and transported to the site remain undetermined. Under the Inca, the city had two sectors: the urin and hanan. Each was divided to encompass two of the four provinces, Chinchasuyu (NW), Antisuyu (NE), Kuntisuyu (SW) and Qullasuyu (SE). A road led from each quarter to the corresponding quarter of the empire.

Each local leader was required to build a house in the city and live part of the year in Cusco, restricted to the quarter that corresponded to the quarter in which he held territory. After the rule of Pachacuti, when an Inca died, his title went to one son and his property was given to a corporation controlled by his other relatives (split inheritance). Each title holder had to build a new house and add new lands to the empire, in order to own land for his family to keep after his death.

According to Inca legend, the city was rebuilt by Sapa Inca Pachacuti, the man who transformed the Kingdom of Cuzco from a sleepy city-state into the vast empire of Tawantinsuyu.[17]:66–69 Archaeological evidence, however, points to a slower, more organic growth of the city beginning before Pachacuti. The city was constructed according to a definite plan in which two rivers were channeled around the city. Archaeologists have suggested that this city plan was replicated at other sites.

The city fell to the sphere of Huáscar during the Inca Civil War after the death of Huayna Capac in 1527. It was captured by the generals of Atahualpa in April 1532 in the Battle of Quipaipan. Nineteen months later, Spanish explorers invaded the city after kidnapping and murdering Atahualpa (see Battle of Cuzco), and gained control because of their arms and horses, employing superior military technology.

After the Spanish invasion

Capitulo-XCII
The first image of Cusco in Europe. Pedro Cieza de León. Crónica del Perú, 1553.

The first three Spaniards arrived in the city in May 1533, after the Battle of Cajamarca, collecting for Atahualpa's Ransom Room. On 15 November 1533 Francisco Pizarro officially arrived in Cusco. "The capital of the Incas ... astonished the Spaniards by the beauty of its edifices, the length and regularity of its streets." The great square was surrounded by several palaces, since "each sovereign built a new palace for himself." "The delicacy of the stone work excelled" that of the Spaniards'. The fortress had three parapets and was composed of "heavy masses of rock". "Through the heart of the capital ran a river ... faced with stone. ... The most sumptuous edifice in Cuzco ... was undoubtedly the great temple dedicated to the Sun ... studded with gold plates ... surrounded by convents and dormitories for the priests. ... The palaces were numerous and the troops lost no time in plundering them of their contents, as well as despoiling the religious edifices," including the royal mummies in the Coricancha.[18]:186–187, 192–193, 216–219

Pizarro ceremoniously gave Manco Inca the Incan fringe as the new Peruvian leader.[18]:221 Pizarro encouraged some of his men to stay and settle in the city, giving out repartimientos to do so.[19]:46 Alcaldes were established and regidores on 24 March 1534, which included the brothers Gonzalo Pizarro and Juan Pizarro. Pizarro left a garrison of 90 men and then departed for Jauja with Manco Inca.[18]:222, 227

1565 Cusco Ramusio Delle Navigationi vol3 pp411-412
Cusco and its city walls in 1565.
Hatunrumiyoc (7640968366)
An Inca wall along Hatunrumiyoc, Cusco

Pizarro renamed it the "very noble and great city of Cuzco". Buildings constructed after the Spanish invasion have a mixture of Spanish influence with Inca indigenous architecture, including the Santa Clara and San Blas neighborhoods. The Spanish destroyed many Inca buildings, temples and palaces. They used the remaining walls as bases for the construction of a new city.

Father Vincente de Valverde became the Bishop of Cusco and built his cathedral facing the plaza. He placed a St. Dominic monastery on the ruins of the House of the Sun and a nunnery where the House of the Virgins of the Sun was stood.[18]:222

The city was retaken from the Spanish during the Siege of Cuzco of 1536 by Manco Inca Yupanqui, a leader of the Sapa Inca. Although the siege lasted 10 months, it was ultimately unsuccessful. Manco's forces were able to reclaim the city for only a few days. He eventually retreated to Vilcabamba, the capital of the newly established small Neo-Inca State, which lasted for another 36 years but he was never able to return to Cuzco. Throughout the conflict and years of the Spanish colonization of the Americas, many Incas died of smallpox.

Cusco stands on layers of cultures, with the Tawantinsuyu (old Inca Empire) built on Killke structures and the Spanish replacing indigenous temples with Catholic churches and palaces with mansions for the invaders.

Cusco was the center for the Spanish colonization and spread of Christianity in the Andean world. It became very prosperous thanks to agriculture, cattle raising and mining, as well as its trade with Spain. The Spanish colonists constructed many churches and convents, as well as a cathedral, university and Archbishopric.

Calle Marqués - Cusco
Old streets in the city center
Cuzco Décembre 2007 - Balcons
A view of the Colonial Balconies of Cusco

Republican era

After Peru declared its independence in 1821, Cusco maintained its importance within Peru's administrative structure. Upon independence, the government created the Department of Cuzco, maintaining authority over territory extending to the Brazilian border. Cusco was made capital of the department; subsequently it became the most important city in the south-eastern Andean region.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the city's urban sprawl spread to the neighboring districts of Santiago and Wanchaq.

In 1911, explorer Hiram Bingham used the city as a base for the expedition in which he rediscovered the ruins of Machu Picchu.

Present

A major earthquake on 21 May 1950 caused the destruction of more than one third of the city's structures. The Dominican Priory and Church of Santo Domingo, which were built on top of the impressive Qurikancha (Temple of the Sun), were among the affected colonial era buildings. Inca architecture withstood the earthquake. Many of the old Inca walls were at first thought to have been lost after the earthquake, but the granite retaining walls of the Qurikancha were exposed, as well as those of other ancient structures throughout the city. Restoration work at the Santo Domingo complex exposed the Inca masonry formerly obscured by the superstructure without compromising the integrity of the colonial heritage.[20] Many of the buildings damaged in 1950 had been impacted by an earthquake only nine years previously.[21]

Since the 1990s, tourism has increased. Currently, Cusco is the most important tourist destination in Peru. Under the administration of mayor Daniel Estrada Pérez, a staunch supporter of the Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua, between 1983 and 1995 the Quechua name Qosqo was officially adopted for the city.

Honors

  • In 1933, the Congress of Americanists met in La Plata, Argentina, and declared the city as the Archeological Capital of the Americas.
  • In 1978, the 7th Convention of Mayors of Great World Cities met in Milan, Italy, and declared Cusco a Cultural Heritage of the World.
  • In 1983, UNESCO, in Paris, France, declared the city a World Heritage Site. The Peruvian government declared it the Tourism Capital of Peru and Cultural Heritage of the Nation.
  • In 2007, the New7Wonders Foundation designated Machu Picchu one of the New Seven Wonders of the World, following a worldwide poll.[22]

Geography and climate

Exploring Cusco…Plaza de armas, Centro Historico (8444500092)
Colonial houses

Cusco extends throughout the Huatanay (or Watanay) river valley. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cusco, its elevation is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft). To its north is the Vilcabamba mountain range with 4,000–6,000-metre-high (13,000–20,000-foot) mountains. The highest peak is Salcantay (6,271 metres or 20,574 feet) about 60 kilometres (37 miles) northwest of Cusco.[23]

Cusco has a subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb). It is generally dry and temperate, with two defined seasons. Winter occurs between April to September, with abundant sunshine and occasional nighttime freezes; July is the coolest month with an average of 9.7 °C (49.5 °F). Summer occurs between October and March, when the weather turns cloudy and wet; November is the warmest month which averages 13.3 °C (55.9 °F). Although frost and hail are common, the last reported snowfall was in June 1911. Temperatures usually range from 0.2 to 20.9 °C (32.4 to 69.6 °F), but the all-time temperature range is between −8.9 and 30 °C (16.0 and 86.0 °F). Sunshine hours peak in July; the equivalent of January in the Northern Hemisphere. In contrast, February, the equivalent of August in the Northern Hemisphere, has the least amount of sunshine.

Cusco was found in 2006 to be the spot on Earth with the highest average ultraviolet light level.[24]

Tourism

Tourism has been the backbone to the economy starting in the early 2000s, bringing in more than 1.2 million tourists per year.[29] In 2002, the income Cusco received from tourism was US$837 million. In 2009, that number increased to US$2.47 billion.

Main sights

Ruins of Sacsayhuamán
Ruins of Sacsayhuamán

The indigenous Killke culture built the walled complex of Sacsayhuamán about 1100. The Killke built a major temple near Saksaywaman, as well as an aqueduct (Pukyus) and roadway connecting prehistoric structures. Saksaywaman was expanded by the Inca.

The Spanish explorer Pizarro sacked much of the Inca city in 1535. Remains of the palace of the Incas, Qurikancha (the Temple of the Sun) and the Temple of the Virgins of the Sun still stand. Inca buildings and foundations in some cases proved to be stronger than the foundations built in present-day Peru. Among the most noteworthy Spanish colonial buildings of the city is the Cathedral of Santo Domingo, Cusco.

The major nearby Inca sites are Pachacuti's presumed winter home, Machu Picchu, which can be reached on foot by the Inca Trail to Machu Picchu or by train; and the "fortress" at Ollantaytambo.

Less-visited ruins include: Incahuasi, the highest of all Inca sites at 3,980 m (13,060 ft);[30] Vilcabamba, the capital of the Inca after the capture of Cusco; the sculpture garden at Ñusta Hisp'ana (aka Chuqip'allta, Yuraq Rumi); Tipón with working water channels in wide terraces; as well as Willkaraqay, Patallaqta, Chuqik'iraw, Moray, Vitos and many others.

The surrounding area, located in the Watanay Valley, is strong in gold mining and agriculture, including corn, barley, quinoa, tea and coffee.

Cusco's main stadium Estadio Garcilaso de la Vega was one of seven stadiums used when Peru hosted South America's continental soccer championship, the Copa América, in 2004. The stadium is home to one of the country's most successful soccer clubs, Cienciano.

The city is served by Alejandro Velasco Astete International Airport.

Arco de Santa Clara, Cuzco
Arco de Santa Clara

Architectural heritage

Cusco Peru Beautiful Building
Colonial civil building

Because of its antiquity and importance, the city center retains many buildings, plazas, streets and churches from colonial times, and even some pre-Columbian structures, which led to its declaration as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1983. Among the main sights of the city are:

Barrio de San Blas

This neighborhood houses artisans, workshops and craft shops. It is one of the most picturesque sites in the city. Its streets are steep and narrow with old houses built by the Spanish over important Inca foundations. It has an attractive square and the oldest parish church in Cusco, built in 1563, which has a carved wooden pulpit considered the epitome of Colonial era woodwork in Cusco.

The Quechua name of this neighborhood is Tuq'ukachi, which means the opening of the salt.

Hatun Rumiyuq

This street is the most visited by tourists. On the street Hatun Rumiyoq ("the one with the big stone") was the palace of Inca Roca, which was converted to the Archbishop's residence.

Along this street that runs from the Plaza de Armas to the Barrio de San Blas, one can see the Stone of Twelve Angles, which is viewed as a marvel of ancient stonework and has become emblematic of the city's history.

Calle Mantas - Cuzco
View of the bell tower of the Iglesia y Convento de La Merced.

Convento e Iglesia de la Merced

Its foundation dates from 1536. The first complex was destroyed by the earthquake of 1650. Its rebuilding was completed in 1675.

Its cloisters of Baroque Renaissance style, choir stalls, colonial paintings and wood carvings are highlights, now a popular museum.

Also on view is an elaborate monstrance made of gold and gemstones that weighs 22 kg (49 lb) and is 130 cm (51.18 in) in height.

Cathedral

The first cathedral built in Cusco is the Iglesia del Triunfo, built in 1539 on the foundations of the Palace of Viracocha Inca. Today, this church is an auxiliary chapel of the Cathedral.

The main basilica cathedral of the city was built between 1560 and 1664. The main material used was stone, which was extracted from nearby quarries, although some blocks of red granite were taken from the fortress of Saksaywaman.

This great cathedral presents late-Gothic, Baroque and plateresque interiors and has one of the most outstanding examples of colonial goldwork. Its carved wooden altars are also important.

The city developed a distinctive style of painting known as the "Cuzco School" and the cathedral houses a major collection of local artists of the time. The cathedral is known for a Cusco School painting of the Last Supper depicting Jesus and the twelve apostles feasting on guinea pig, a traditional Andean delicacy.

The cathedral is the seat of the Archdiocese of Cuzco.

Plaza de Armas de Cusco

Plaza de Armas de Cusco
Plaza de Armas de Cusco
Plaza de Armas de Cusco, at night
Plaza de Armas de Cusco, at night

Known as the "Square of the warrior" in the Inca era, this plaza has been the scene of several important events, such as the proclamation by Francisco Pizarro in the conquest of Cuzco.

Similarly, the Plaza de Armas was the scene of the death of Túpac Amaru II, considered the indigenous leader of the resistance.

The Spanish built stone arcades around the plaza which endure to this day. The main cathedral and the Church of La Compañía both open directly onto the plaza.

Iglesia de la Compañía de Jesús

This church (Church of the Society of Jesus), whose construction was initiated by the Jesuits in 1576 on the foundations of the Amarucancha or the palace of the Inca ruler Wayna Qhapaq, is considered one of the best examples of colonial baroque style in the Americas.

Its façade is carved in stone and its main altar is made of carved wood covered with gold leaf. It was built over an underground chapel and has a valuable collection of colonial paintings of the Cusco School.

Qurikancha and Convent of Santo Domingo

El Templo de Coricancha (o Koricancha)
Qurikancha, Convento de Santo Domingo and Intipanpa

The Qurikancha ("golden place") was the most important sanctuary dedicated to the Sun God (Inti) at the time of the Inca Empire. According to ancient chronicles written by Garcilaso de la Vega (chronicler), Qurikancha was said to have featured a large solid golden disc that was studded with precious stones and represented the Inca Sun God – Inti. Spanish chroniclers describe the Sacred Garden in front of the temple as a garden of golden plants with leaves of beaten gold, stems of silver, solid gold corn-cobs and 20 life-size llamas and their herders all in solid gold.[31]

The temple was destroyed by its Spanish invaders who, as they plundered, were determined to rid the city of its wealth, idolaters and shrines. Nowadays, only a curved outer wall and partial ruins of the inner temple remain at the site.

With this structure as a foundation, colonists built the Convent of Santo Domingo (St. Dominic) in the Renaissance style. The building, with one baroque tower, exceeds the height of many other buildings in this city.

Inside is a large collection of paintings from the Cuzco School.

Museums

Cusco has the following important museums:[32]

There are also some museums located at churches.

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±%
150045,000[35]—    
16145,000−88.9%
17616,600+32.0%
18126,900+4.5%
18209,000+30.4%
182715,000+66.7%
185016,000+6.7%
186115,000−6.2%
187717,000+13.3%
189018,900+11.2%
189620,000+5.8%
190025,000+25.0%
190833,900+35.6%
192030,500−10.0%
192532,000+4.9%
192733,000+3.1%
193135,900+8.8%
194040,600+13.1%
194545,600+12.3%
195150,000+9.6%
195354,000+8.0%
196180,100+48.3%
1969115,300+43.9%
1981180,227+56.3%
1993250,270+38.9%
1997275,318+10.0%
2000295,530+7.3%
2005375,066+26.9%
2006382,577+2.0%
2007390,059+2.0%
2008397,526+1.9%
2009405,000+1.9%
2010412,495+1.9%
2011420,030+1.8%
2012427,580+1.8%
2013435,114+1.8%
2015434,654−0.1%

The city had a population of about 434,114 people in 2013 and 434,654 people in 2015 according to INEI.

Mercedarian Friars in the procession Corpus Christ at the Main Square of Cusco. Santa Cruz Puma Callao. 17th century
Mercedarian Friars in the Corpus Christ procession at the Main Square of Cusco. 17th century. Cusco Colonial Painting School. Currently located at the Archbishop's Palace of Cusco
FinCenCusco
Financial Center of the City, Av. de la Cultura, Cusco
Population by district
City district Area
(km2)
Population
2007 census (hab)
Housing
(2007)
Density
(hab/km2)
Elevation
(amsl)
Cuzco 116.22 108,798* 28,476 936.1 3,399
San Jerónimo 103.34 28,856* 8,942 279.2 3,244
San Sebastián 89.44 85,472* 18,109 955.6 3,244
Santiago 69.72 66,277* 21,168 950.6 3,400
Wanchaq 6.38 54,524* 14,690 8,546.1 3,366
Total 385.1 358,052* 91,385 929.76
*Census data conducted by INEI[36]

Cuisine

As capital to the Inca Empire, Cusco was an important agricultural region. It was a natural reserve for thousands of native Peruvian species, including around 3,000 varieties of potato cultivated by the people.[37] Fusion and neo-Andean restaurants developed in Cusco, in which the cuisine is prepared with modern techniques and incorporates a blend of traditional Andean and international ingredients.[38]

Industry

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Cusco is twinned with:[39]

Partnerships

In modern culture

See also

References

  1. ^ Perú: Población estimada al 30 de junio y tasa de crecimiento de las ciudades capitales, por departamento, 2011 y 2015. Perú: Estimaciónes y proyecciones de población total por sexo de las principales ciudades, 2012–2015 (Report). Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. March 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
  2. ^ "Constitución del Perъ de 1993". Pdba.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  3. ^ Cerrón-Palomino, Rodolfo (2007). "Cuzco: La piedra donde se posó la lechuza. Historia de un nombre". Andina. Lima. 44: 143–174. ISSN 0259-9600.
  4. ^ Betanzos, J., 1996, Narrative of the Incas, Austin: University of Texas Press, ISBN 978-0292755598
  5. ^ Carrión Ordóñez, Enrique (1990). "Cuzco, con Z". Histórica. Lima. XVII: 267–270.
  6. ^ Cerrón-, Rodolfo. "Cuzco: la piedra donde se posó la lechuza. Historia de un nombre". Lexis. Año 2006, número XXX, volumen 1, pp. 151–52. Consulta: 24 de mayo de 2011. <http://revistas.pucp.edu.pe/lexis/sites/revistas.pucp.edu.pe.lexis/files/images/Lexis-XXX-1-2006-5-Cerron-Palomino.pdf>
  7. ^ "Cusco – Cusco and around Guide". roughguides.com.
  8. ^ "The World Factbook". cia.gov.
  9. ^ "City of Cuzco – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. 21 August 2007. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  10. ^ "Cuzco Travel Information and Travel Guide – Peru". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  11. ^ Oxford Dictionary of English, 2nd ed, revised, 2009, Oxford University Press, eBook edition, accessed 30 August 2017.
  12. ^ Merriam-Webster Online|[1], accessed 30 August 2017.
  13. ^ JSTOR (cuzco) AND la:(eng OR en) has 5,671 articles vs. only 1,124 articles for (cusco) AND la:(eng OR en); JSTOR accessed 30 August 2017.
  14. ^ a b Kelly Hearn, "Ancient Temple Discovered Among Inca Ruins", National Geographic News, 31 March 2008, accessed 12 January 2010
  15. ^ "News". Comcast.net<!. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  16. ^ "The history of Cusco". cusco.net<!. Retrieved 25 July 2009.
  17. ^ de Gamboa, P.S., 2015, History of the Incas, Lexington, ISBN 9781463688653
  18. ^ a b c d Prescott, W. H. (2011). The History of the Conquest of Peru. Digireads.com Publishing, ISBN 9781420941142
  19. ^ Pizzaro, P. (1571). Relation of the Discovery and Conquest of the Kingdoms of Peru, Vol. 1–2. New York: Cortes Society, RareBooksClub.com, ISBN 9781235937859
  20. ^ "Koricancha Temple and Santo Domingo Convent – Cusco, Peru". Sacred-destinations.com. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  21. ^ Erickson; et al. "The Cusco, Peru, Earthquake of May 21, 1950". Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. Bssa.geoscienceworld.org. p. 97. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  22. ^ "Opera House snubbed as new Wonders unveiled". abc.net.au. 8 July 2007.
  23. ^ "Map of the Andes". zoom-maps.com.
  24. ^ Liley, J. Ben and McKenzie, Richard L. (April 2006) "Where on Earth has the highest UV?" UV Radiation and its Effects: an update NIWA Science, Hamilton, NZ;
  25. ^ "Cusco Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  26. ^ "Station Alejandro Velasco" (in French). Météo Climat. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  27. ^ "Klimatafel von Cuzco, Prov. Cuzco / Peru" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  28. ^ Cappelen, John; Jensen, Jens. "Peru – Cuzco" (PDF). Climate Data for Selected Stations (1931–1960) (in Danish). Danish Meteorological Institute. p. 209. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 April 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  29. ^ PERU: New cusco airport will help boost tourism. (10 August 2010). Oxford Analytica Daily Brief Service Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/741070699
  30. ^ "Photo map of the sites in Upper Puncuyoc – Inca Wasi, cave group, reflection pond and abandoned pegs". bylandwaterandair.com. Archived from the original on 18 September 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  31. ^ "The Inca City of Cusco: A Fascinating Look at the Most Important City in the Inca Empire". totallylatinamerica.com. 5 July 2013. Archived from the original on 10 July 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  32. ^ Museums in Cusco theonlyperuguide.com
  33. ^ Museum of Sacred, Magical and Medicinal Plants, Cusco
  34. ^ Cacao and Chocolate Museum Archived 21 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Cusco
  35. ^ Chandler & Fox 1974, p. 189.
  36. ^ Censo 2005 INEI Archived 23 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ "Cusco, Peru Bans GM Products To Protect Diversity of Native Potatoes". scidev.net. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
  38. ^ "Restaurantes". archive.org. 20 November 2007. Archived from the original on 20 November 2007.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  39. ^ "Ciudades Hermanas (Sister Cities)" (in Spanish). Municipalidad del Cusco. Archived from the original on 3 August 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
  40. ^ "::Bethlehem Municipality::". bethlehem-city.org. Archived from the original on 24 July 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2009.
  41. ^ "Kraków – Miasta Partnerskie" [Kraków -Partnership Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.

Bibliography

  • Chandler, Tertius; Fox, Gerald (1974). 3000 Years of Urban Growth. New York and London: Academic Press.

External links

Media related to Cusco at Wikimedia Commons Cusco travel guide from Wikivoyage

Cienciano

Club Sportivo Cienciano is a professional football club based in Cusco, Peru. The club was founded in 1901 and was originally the team of the Faculty of Science of the University of Cusco (Ciencias meaning science in Spanish), from which it takes its name. It gained worldwide recognition after defeating River Plate from Argentina in the finals of the 2003 Copa Sudamericana and Boca Juniors in the 2004 Recopa Sudamericana.

Cusco School

The Cusco School (Escuela Cuzqueña) or Cuzco School, was a Roman Catholic artistic tradition based in Cusco, Peru (the former capital of the Inca Empire) during the Colonial period, in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. It was not limited to Cuzco only, but spread to other cities in the Andes, as well as to present day Ecuador and Bolivia.There are high amount of Cusco School's paintings preserved, currently most of them are located at Cusco, but also currently there are in the rest of Peru and in museums of Brazil, England and United States.

Cuzco Department

Cusco, also spelled Cuzco (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkusko]; Quechua: Qusqu suyu), is a department in Peru. It is bordered by the departments of Ucayali on the north; Madre de Dios and Puno on the east; Arequipa on the south; and Apurímac, Ayacucho and Junín on the west. Its capital is Cusco, the historical capital of the Inca Empire.

Inca Empire

The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, lit. "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. Its political and administrative structure is considered by most scholars to have been the most developed in the Americas before Columbus' arrival. The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in the city of Cusco. The Inca civilization arose from the Peruvian highlands sometime in the early 13th century. Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572.

From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods. At its largest, the empire joined Peru, southwest Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, a large portion of what is today Chile, and a small part of southwest Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia. Its official language was Quechua. Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas, but the Inca leadership encouraged the sun worship of Inti – their sun god – and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama. The Incas considered their king, the Sapa Inca, to be the "son of the sun."The Inca Empire was unique in that it lacked many features associated with civilization in the Old World. In the words of one scholar,

The Incas lacked the use of wheeled vehicles. They lacked animals to ride and draft animals that could pull wagons and plows... [They] lacked the knowledge of iron and steel... Above all, they lacked a system of writing... Despite these supposed handicaps, the Incas were still able to construct one of the greatest imperial states in human history.

Notable features of the Inca Empire include its monumental architecture, especially stonework, extensive road network reaching all corners of the empire, finely-woven textiles, use of knotted strings (quipu) for record keeping and communication, agricultural innovations in a difficult environment, and the organization and management fostered or imposed on its people and their labor.

The Incan economy has been described in contradictory ways by scholars:

... feudal, slave, socialist (here one may choose between socialist paradise or socialist tyranny)

The Inca empire functioned largely without money and without markets. Instead, exchange of goods and services was based on reciprocity between individuals and among individuals, groups, and Inca rulers. "Taxes" consisted of a labour obligation of a person to the Empire. The Inca rulers (who theoretically owned all the means of production) reciprocated by granting access to land and goods and providing food and drink in celebratory feasts for their subjects.

Machu Picchu

Machu Picchu (English: or , Spanish: [ˈmatʃu ˈpi(k)tʃu]; Quechua: Machu Pikchu [ˈmatʃʊ ˈpɪktʃʊ]) is a 15th-century Inca citadel, located in the Eastern Cordillera of southern Peru, on a 2,430-metre (7,970 ft) mountain ridge. It is located in the Cusco Region, Urubamba Province, Machupicchu District, above the Sacred Valley, which is 80 kilometres (50 mi) northwest of Cuzco and through which the Urubamba River flows, cutting through the Cordillera and creating a canyon with a tropical mountain climate.Most archaeologists believe that Machu Picchu was constructed as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacuti (1438–1472). Often mistakenly referred to as the "Lost City of the Incas", it is the most familiar icon of Inca civilization. The Incas built the estate around 1450 but abandoned it a century later at the time of the Spanish conquest. Although known locally, it was not known to the Spanish during the colonial period and remained unknown to the outside world until American historian Hiram Bingham brought it to international attention in 1911.

Machu Picchu was built in the classical Inca style, with polished dry-stone walls. Its three primary structures are the Intihuatana, the Temple of the Sun, and the Room of the Three Windows. Most of the outlying buildings have been reconstructed in order to give tourists a better idea of how they originally appeared. By 1976, 30% of Machu Picchu had been restored and restoration continues.Machu Picchu was declared a Peruvian Historic Sanctuary in 1981 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983. In 2007, Machu Picchu was voted one of the New Seven Wonders of the World in a worldwide Internet poll.

Mawk'allaqta, Espinar

Mawk'allaqta, also Mawk'a Llaqta (Quechua mawk'a ancient, llaqta place (village, town, city, country, nation), "ancient place", hispanicized spellings Maukallacta, Maukallaqta, Mauk'allaqta) is an archaeological site in Peru. It is located in the Cusco Region, Espinar Province, on the border of the districts Coporaque and Suykutambo. Mawk'allaqta is situated on the banks of the Hank'amayu and the Apurímac River at a height of 3,915 metres (12,844 ft).

Muyu Urqu

Muyu Urqu (Quechua muyu circle, urqu mountain, "circle mountain", Hispanicized spellings Muyuorco, Muyuorcco, Muyu Orcco, Muyu Orco, also Muyu Orqo, Muyuorqo, Muyu Urqo) is an archaeological site and a prominent hill in Peru. It is situated in the Cusco Region, Cusco Province, Santiago District, east of the mountain Araway Qhata, at the right bank of Watanay River. The mountain with the archaeological remains is about 3,400 metres (11,155 ft) high.

Provinces of Peru

The provinces of Peru (Spanish: provincias) are the second-level administrative subdivisions of the country. They are divided into districts (Spanish: distritos). There are 196 provinces in Peru, grouped into 25 regions except for the Lima Province which does not belong to any region. This makes an average of seven provinces per region. The region with the fewest provinces is Callao (one) and the region with the most is Ancash (twenty).

While provinces in the sparsely populated Amazon rain forest of eastern Peru tend to be larger, there is a large concentration of them in the north-central area of the country. The province with the fewest districts is Purús Province, with just one district. The province with the most districts is Lima Province, with 43 districts. The most common number of districts per province is eight, a total of 29 provinces share this number of districts.

Puka Pukara

Puka Pukara (Quechua puka red, pukara fortress, "red fortress", hispanicized spellings Pucapucara, Puca Pucara, Puca Pucará) is a site of military ruins in Peru situated in the Cusco Region, Cusco Province, Cusco District, near Cusco. This fort is made of large walls, terraces, and staircases and was part of defense of Cusco in particular and the Inca Empire in general.

The name probably comes from the red color of the rocks at dusk. Puka Pukara is an example of military architecture that also functioned as an administrative center.

Qenko

Q'enqo, Qenko, Kenko, or Quenco (all from Quechua for "zig-zag") is an archaeological site in the Sacred Valley of Peru located in the Cusco Region, Cusco Province, Cusco District, about 6 km north east of Cusco. The site was declared a Cultural Heritage (Patrimonio Cultural) of the Cusco Region by the National Institute of Culture.It is one of the largest huacas (holy places) in the Cusco Region. Many huacas were based on naturally occurring rock formations. It was believed to be a place where sacrifices and mummification took place.

Qurimarka, Cusco

Qurimarka (Quechua quri gold, marka village / storey) is an archaeological site in Peru. It is located in the Cusco Region, Urubamba Province, Ollantaytambo District. It is situated at the river Rayanniyuq (Rayanniyoc) and it belongs to the community Rayanniyuq.

Religion in the Inca Empire

In the heterogeneous Inca Empire, polytheistic religions were practiced. Some deities, such as Pachamama and Viracocha, were known throughout the empire, while others were localised.

Sacsayhuamán

Saqsaywaman, Sacsayhuamán, Sacsayhuaman, Sacsahuaman, Saxahuaman, Saksaywaman, Sasawaman, Saksawaman, Sacsahuayman, Sasaywaman or Saksaq Waman (possibly from Quechua language, waman falcon or variable hawk) is a citadel on the northern outskirts of the city of Cusco, Peru, the historic capital of the Inca Empire. Sections were first built by the Killke culture about 1100; they had occupied the area since 900. The complex was expanded and added to by the Inca from the 13th century; they built dry stone walls constructed of huge stones. The workers carefully cut the boulders to fit them together tightly without mortar. The site is at an altitude of 3,701 m (12,142 ft).

In 1983, Cusco and Sacsayhuamán together were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List for recognition and protection.

Siege of Cusco

The Siege of Cusco (May 6, 1536 – March 1537) was the siege of the city of Cusco by the army of Sapa Inca Manco Inca Yupanqui against a garrison of Spanish conquistadors and Indian auxiliaries led by Hernando Pizarro in the hope to restore the Inca Empire (1438–1533). The siege lasted ten months and was ultimately unsuccessful.

Tampukancha

Tampukancha (Quechua, tampu inn, kancha enclosure, enclosed place, yard, a frame, or wall that encloses, Hispanicized Tambocancha, also Tambokancha) is an ancient Incan religious center located in Peru. It is located in the Cusco Region, Anta Province, Zurite District, about 30 miles from Cusco, the historic capital of the Inca Empire.

Titiqaqa (Cusco)

Titiqaqa (Quechua titi lead, lead colored, qaqa rock, other spellings Teteqaqa, Teteq'aq'a) is an archaeological site in Peru. It is located in the Cusco Region, Cusco Province, Cusco District, in the northeast of Cusco.

Wanakawri (Cusco)

Wanakawri (Quechua, also spelled Guanacaure, Guanacauri, Huanacaure, Huanacauri, Wanacaure, Wanacauri, Wanakaure, Wanakauri) is an archaeological site and a legendary mountain in Peru. It is situated in the Cusco Region, Cusco Province, in the districts San Jerónimo and San Sebastián, and in the Paruro Province, Yaurisque District. The mountain with the archaeological remains is 4,089 metres (13,415 ft) high and one of the highest elevations near Cusco.Wanakawri was one of the most important wak'as of the Inca culture.

Wat'a, Cusco

Wat'a (Quechua for island) is an archaeological zone in Peru. It is situated in the Cusco Region, Anta Province, Huarocondo District, north of Huarocondo. The site consists of five sections,

Wat'aq'asa (Wataqasa) in the southwest and west of the area,

Willkapata (Willcapata), east of Wat'aq'asa,

Qhawarina, north of Willkapata

Qullqa, in the extreme east of the archaeological site of Wat'a,

Saksaywaman Pata, northeast of the village Huarocondo.Saksaywaman Pata was declared a National Cultural Heritage of Peru by Resolución Directoral Nacional No. 519/INC- 2003.

Wiraqucha (Cusco)

Wiraqucha (Quechua wira fat, qucha lake, wiraqucha or Wiraqucha mister, sir, gentleman / god / one of the greatest Andean divinities (Wiraqucha) / the eighth emperor of the Tawantinsuyu (Wiraqucha Inka), also spelled Wiracocha) or Wiraquchan (-n is a suffix, Hispanicized Huirajochan) is a mountain in the Andes of Peru, about 3,600 metres (11,811 ft) high. It is situated in the Cusco Region, Quispicanchi Province, in the districts Andahuaylillas, Huaro and Urcos, south-east of the higher mountain named Quri and north-west of Huaro (Waru). The Willkanuta River flows along the mountain. The lake Quyllur Urmana lies at its feet.

On top of Wiraqucha there is a pair of rocks which resemble two toads, one of them looking at "Apu" Ausangate and the other one looking at "Apu" Pachatusan. This pair, known as Wak'a Los Sapos de Wiraqucha (Spanish los sapos de the toads of), has been considered a wak'a by the local people.

Climate data for Cusco (Alejandro Velasco Astete International Airport) 1961–1990, extremes 1931–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27.8
(82.0)
26.7
(80.1)
25.3
(77.5)
26.9
(80.4)
27.0
(80.6)
24.2
(75.6)
24.2
(75.6)
25.8
(78.4)
25.9
(78.6)
27.2
(81.0)
26.6
(79.9)
29.9
(85.8)
29.9
(85.8)
Average high °C (°F) 18.8
(65.8)
18.8
(65.8)
19.1
(66.4)
19.7
(67.5)
19.7
(67.5)
19.4
(66.9)
19.2
(66.6)
19.9
(67.8)
20.1
(68.2)
20.9
(69.6)
20.6
(69.1)
20.8
(69.4)
19.8
(67.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.9
(55.2)
12.7
(54.9)
12.8
(55.0)
12.7
(54.9)
12.0
(53.6)
11.4
(52.5)
10.8
(51.4)
11.5
(52.7)
12.7
(54.9)
13.6
(56.5)
13.6
(56.5)
13.2
(55.8)
12.5
(54.5)
Average low °C (°F) 6.6
(43.9)
6.6
(43.9)
6.3
(43.3)
5.1
(41.2)
2.7
(36.9)
0.5
(32.9)
0.2
(32.4)
1.7
(35.1)
4.0
(39.2)
5.5
(41.9)
6.0
(42.8)
6.5
(43.7)
4.3
(39.7)
Record low °C (°F) 0.0
(32.0)
0.0
(32.0)
0.0
(32.0)
−2.0
(28.4)
−7.0
(19.4)
−4.5
(23.9)
−7.0
(19.4)
−6.0
(21.2)
−6.0
(21.2)
0.0
(32.0)
0.0
(32.0)
0.5
(32.9)
−7.0
(19.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 160.0
(6.30)
132.9
(5.23)
108.4
(4.27)
44.4
(1.75)
8.6
(0.34)
2.4
(0.09)
3.9
(0.15)
8.0
(0.31)
22.4
(0.88)
47.3
(1.86)
78.6
(3.09)
120.1
(4.73)
737.0
(29.02)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 19 15 13 9 2 1 1 2 5 9 13 16 106
Average relative humidity (%) 66 67 66 63 59 55 54 54 56 56 58 62 60
Mean monthly sunshine hours 143 121 170 210 239 228 257 236 195 198 195 158 2,350
Source #1: NOAA,[25] Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[26]
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (mean temperatures 1961–1990, precipitation days 1970–1990 and humidity 1954–1993)[27] Danish Meteorological Institute (sun 1931–1960)[28]
Cultural
Natural
Mixed
State flag of Peru Regional capitals of Peru
State flag of Peru Peruvian cities with a population of over 100,000
Notable
Historic Centers
Spanish Missions
concentrations
Cathedrals
Churches and monasteries
Fortifications
Bridges and roads
Other buildings types
Architecture types
Modern Revival styles

Languages

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