Curtonotidae

The Curtotonidae or quasimodo flies[1] are a small family of small grey to dark brown humpbacked flies (Diptera) with a worldwide distribution, but with very few species in the Nearctic, Australasian/Oceanian, and Palaearctic regions. Most members of the family are found in tropical to subtropical latitudes in Africa and the Neotropics. Many remain undescribed in collections, since little work on the family has been done since the 1930s.[2]

Curtonotidae
MacquartTab25
Curtonota gibbum (figures 9, 10) in Macquart, 1838 Insectes diptères exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Superfamily:
Family:
Curtonotidae
Genera

See text

Description

For terms see Morphology of Diptera

Medium-sized flies.The postvertical bristles on head are well developed and cruciate and there are three orbital bristles on head on each side of frons. Arista with long plumosity. Costa with two interruptions one more distal to the humeral crossvein and one before subcosta. Subcosta developed throughout its length up to costa.The posterior basal wing cell and discoidal wing cell are fused. The costa bears spinules.

Classification

The family has at various times been placed in the Drosophilidae, Diastatidae, and Ephydridae. In 1934 Duda proposed the family name Curtonotidae and nowadays family rank is now widely accepted.[3]

Genera and Species

  • Genus Axinota Wulp, 1886
    • A. kyphosis Kirk-Spriggs, 2010[4]
    • A. obscuripes Meijere, 1911
    • A. pictiventris Wulp, 1886
    • A. rufipes Okada, 1966
    • A. sarawakensis Delfinado, 1969
    • A. simulans Delfinado, 1969
  • Genus Curtonotum Macquart, 1844
    • C. adusticrus Klymko & Marshall, 2011[3]
    • C. atlanticum Klymko & Marshall, 2011[3]
    • C. balachowskyi Tsacas, 1974
    • C. bivittatum Klymko & Marshall, 2011[3]
    • C. boeny Tsacas, 1974
    • C. brunneum Klymko & Marshall, 2011. [3]
    • C. ceylonense Delfinado, 1969
    • C. coronaeformis Kirk-Spriggs, 2011[1]
    • C. curtispinum Klymko & Marshall, 2011 [3]
    • C. desperatum Klymko & Marshall, 2011[3]
    • C. flavisetum Klymko & Marshall, 2011[3]
    • C. floridense Klymko & Marshall, 2011[3]
    • C. gladiiformis Kirk-Spriggs, 2011[1]
    • C. gracile Klymko & Marshall, 2011 [3]
    • C. griveaudi Kirk-Spriggs, 2011[1]
    • C. hunkingi Klymko & Marshall, 2011[3]
    • C. irwini Kirk-Spriggs, 2011[1]
    • C. keiseri Tsacas, 1974
    • C. nigrum Klymko & Marshall, 2011[3]
    • C. papillatum Klymko & Marshall, 2011[3]
    • C. parkeri Kirk-Spriggs, 2011[1]
    • C. pauliani Tsacas, 1974
    • C. rinhatinana Kirk-Spriggs, 2011 [1]
    • C. sakalava Tsacas, 1974
    • C. scambum Klymko & Marshall, 2011 [3]
    • C. sternithrix Tsacas, 1974
    • C. stuckenbergi Tsacas, 1974
  • Genus Cyrtona Séguy, 1938
    • C. albomacula (Curran, 1933)
    • C. capensis Hackman, 1960
    • C. consobrina Hackman, 1960
    • C. pictipennis (Thomson 1869)
  • Genus Tigrisomyia Kirk-Spriggs, 2010[2]
    • T. amnoni Kirk-Spriggs, 2010[2]
    • T. kinskii Kirk-Spriggs, 2010[2]
    • T. rhayaderi Kirk-Spriggs, 2010[2]
    • T. scoliosis Kirk-Spriggs, 2010[2]

Distribution

Biology

Curtonotum simile oviposits into wet sand under a Acacia in the Al Marmoum Conservation Reserve, Dubai, UAE.

Greathead (1958) records the immature stages as scavengers within egg pods of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria . Cuthbertson (1936) reared an Afrotropical species, Cyrtona albomacula Curran, from human faeces in Zimbabwe. Others have been found in the burrows of warthogs and ant bears.

Fossils

Only one fossil species of Curtonotidae is known, Curtonotum gigas Théobald, from Oligocene deposits in France.

Identification

  • Duda, O. (1934), Curtonotidae 6, 1,58d, 1-5 In: Lindner, E. (Ed.). Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region 6: 1–115. Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision (in German).
  • A.A. Shtakel 'berg Family Curtonotidae in Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, 1988 Keys to the insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 (Diptera) Part 2 English edition.Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision.

Phylogeny

  Ephydroidea  

 Curtonotidae

 Drosophilidae+Camillidae

 Ephydridae

 Diastatidae sensu lato

  Ephydroidea  

 Curtonotidae+Drosophilidae

 Campichoetidae

 Ephydridae+Camillidae

 Diastatidae

McAlpine (1989)[5] Grimaldi (1990)[6]

Gallery

See images at [2] and at Diptera.info [3]

References and sources

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Kirk-Spriggs, A.H. (2011). "A revision of Afrotropical Quasimodo flies (Diptera: Schizophora; Curtonotidae). Part III - the Malagasy species of Curtonotum Macquart, with descriptions of six new species". African Invertebrates. KwaZulu-Natal: KwaZulu-Natal Museum. 52 (2): 391–456. doi:10.5733/afin.052.0212.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Kirk-Spriggs, A.H. (2010). "A revision of Afrotropical Quasimodo flies (Diptera: Curtonotidae: Schizophora). Part II – the East African Afromontane genus Tigrisomyia gen. n., with descriptions of four new species". African Entomology (pdf)|format= requires |url= (help). 18: 127–146. doi:10.4001/003.018.0111.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Klymko, John; Marshall, Stephen A. (2011). "Systematics of New World Curtonotum Macquart (Diptera: Curtonotidae)". Zootaxa (PDF)|format= requires |url= (help). Auckland, New Zealand: Magnolia Press. 3079: 1–110. ISBN 978-1-86977-802-6.
  4. ^ Kirk-Spriggs, A.H. (2010). "A revision of Afrotropical Quasimodo flies (Diptera: Curtonotidae: Schizophora). Part I – the genus Axinota van der Wulp, with the description of three new species". African Entomology (pdf)|format= requires |url= (help). 18: 99–126. doi:10.4001/003.018.0110.
  5. ^ McAlpine, J.F. 1989. Chapter 116. Phylogeny and classification of the Muscomorpha. In Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Vol. 3. Coordinated by J.F. McAlpine and D.M. Wood. Agriculture Canada Monograph, 32. pp. 1397–1518.
  6. ^ David Grimald, 1990 A phylogenetic, revised classification of genera in the Drosophilidae (Diptera) Bulletin of American Museum of Natural History 1971-139 [1]
  • McAlpine, J. P. (ed.), 1981-89.Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada Monograph
  • Papp, L. 1998. Family Curtonotidae. I: Papp, L. and Darvas, B. (Ed.). Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera. 3: 497-502. Science Herald, Budapest.
  • no:Curtonotidae
  • Pollck, J.N., 2002 Observations on the biology and anatomy of Curtonotidae (Diptera: Schizophora), by J. N. Pollock Journal of Natural History, 36,14:1725 - 1745.New information concerning the biology and anatomy of Curtonotum quinquevittatum.During the hot, dry season the latter species leaves its warthog burrow refuges at night. Cyrtona spp. rest in densely shaded humid habitats during the same season, dispersing in the cooler parts of the year.
  • Meier, R., Kotrba, M., Barber, K. 1997. On the natural history and morphology of the egg, first instar larva, puparium, and female reproductive system of Curtonotum helvum (Curtonotidae; Ephydroidea; Diptera). American Museum Novitates 3219:1-20.[4]
  • Greathead, D.J., Kooyman, C., Launois-Luong, M.H. and Popov,G.B., 1994. Les ennemis nanurels des criquets du Sahel ES collection Acridologie Opérationnelle no 8 (1994)[5] Some information on Curtonotidae on pp. 17–18.
  • Kirk-Spriggs, A.H. & Freidberg, A. 2007. The Palaearctic species of Curtonotidae (Diptera: Schizophora), with special reference to the fauna of Israel. Bulletin de l’Institut r. des sciences naturelles de Belgique (Entomologie) 77: 133–146.

External links

  • RU Revision of the Afrotropical species of Curtonotidae (Diptera: Ephydroidea) systematics, biology, immature stages and biogeography Proposal
Acalyptratae

The Acalyptratae or Acalyptrata are a subsection of the Schizophora, which are a section of the order Diptera, the "true flies". In various contexts the Acalyptratae also are referred to informally as the acalyptrate muscoids, or acalyptrates, as opposed to the Calyptratae. All forms of the name refer to the lack of calypters in the members of this subsection of flies. An alternative name, Acalypterae is current, though in minority usage. It was first used by Justin Pierre Marie Macquart in 1835 for a section of his tribe Muscides; he used it to refer to all acalyptrates plus scathophagids and phorids, but excluding Conopidae.

The confusing forms of the names stem from their first usage; Acalyptratae and Acalyptrata actually are adjectival forms in New Latin. They were coined in the mid 19th century in contexts such as "Muscae Calyptratae and Acalyptratae" and "Diptera Acalyptrata", and the forms stuck.The Acalyptratae are a large assemblage, exhibiting very diverse habits, with one notable and perhaps surprising exception: no known acalyptrates are obligate blood-feeders (hematophagous), though blood feeding at various stages of the life history is common throughout other Dipteran sections.

Asilomorpha

The Brachyceran infraorder Asilomorpha is a large and diverse group of flies, containing the bulk of the nonmuscoid Brachycera. The larvae of asilomorphs are extremely diverse in habits, as well.

Calyptratae

Calyptratae is a subsection of Schizophora in the insect order Diptera, commonly referred to as the calyptrate muscoids (or simply calyptrates). It consists of those flies which possess a calypter that covers the halteres, among which are some of the most familiar of all flies, such as the house fly.

About 18,000 described species are in this group, or about 12% of all the flies yet described.

Camillidae

The Camillidae are a family of flies, or Diptera. The family has five genera (four living; one fossil).

Carnoidea

Carnoidea are a superfamily of Acalyptratae flies.

Chironomoidea

The Chironomoidea are a superfamily within the order Diptera, suborder Nematocera, infraorder Culicomorpha. This superfamily contains the families Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Simuliidae, and Thaumaleidae. One of the more important characteristics used to define them is the form of the larval mouthparts.

Culicoidea

The Culicoidea are a superfamily within the order Diptera. The following families are included within the Culicoidea:

Dixidae – meniscus midges

Corethrellidae – frog-biting midges

Chaoboridae – phantom midges

Culicidae – mosquitoes

Culicomorpha

The Culicomorpha are an infraorder of Nematocera, including mosquitoes, black flies, and several extant and extinct families of insects.

Curtonotum

Curtonotum is a genus of flies in the family Curtonotidae. There are at least 50 described species in Curtonotum.

Diastatidae

Diastatidae are a family of flies, and are in the order Diptera. They occur primarily in the Holarctic Region, but several species are known from the Oriental, Neotropical, and Australasian regions. Members of the family number over 20 described species in three genera. There is an additional fossil genus.

Ephydridae

Ephydridae (shore fly, sometimes brine fly) is a family of insects in the order Diptera.

Shore flies are tiny flies that can be found near seashores or at smaller inland waters, such as ponds. About 2,000 species have been described worldwide, including Ochthera.

The petroleum fly, Helaeomyia petrolei, is the only known insect whose larvae live in naturally occurring crude petroleum. Another notable species is Ephydra hians which lives in vast number at Mono Lake.

Ephydroidea

The Ephydroidea are a superfamily of muscomorph flies.

Lauxanioidea

The Lauxanioidea are a superfamily of flies that includes the two large families, the Lauxaniidae and Chamaemyiidae, and the small family Celyphidae. Generally, they are small to medium, densely populated, coloured flies. The Chamaemyiidae and Cremifaniidae live as parasites on insects. The family Celyphidae look like beetles.

Some authors also recognize the family Cremifaniidae, but most place this in the Chamaemyiidae.

Oestroidea

Oestroidea is a superfamily of Calyptratae including the blow flies, bot flies, flesh flies, and their relatives.The superfamily includes the families:

Calliphoridae

Mesembrinellidae (formerly included in Calliphoridae)

Mystacinobiidae

Oestridae

Rhiniidae (formerly included in Calliphoridae)

Rhinophoridae

Sarcophagidae

Tachinidae

Ulurumyiidae

Tabanoidea

Superfamily Tabanoidea are insects in the order Diptera.

Tephritoidea

The Tephritoidea are a superfamily of flies. The following families are included:

Pallopteridae — flutter flies

Piophilidae — skippers

Platystomatidae — signal flies

Pyrgotidae

Richardiidae

Tephritidae — fruit flies

Ulidiidae (Otitidae) — picture-winged fliesThe Tachiniscinae, formerly ranked as the family Tachiniscidae, are now included in the Tephritidae.

Tipulomorpha

The Tipulomorpha are an infraorder of Nematocera, containing the crane flies, a very large group, and allied families.

One recent classification based largely on fossils splits this group into a series of extinct superfamilies (below), and includes members of other infraorders, but this has not gained wide acceptance.

Trigoniida

Trigoniida is an order of medium-sized saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs. Within the fossil record the occurrence of this order is widespread, ranging from the Devonian Period to Recent.

The diagnostic feature for the order is the unique and complex dentition of the shell, (i.e. the interior hinge teeth that articulate the two valves). The dentition is particularly elaborate within the family Trigoniidae.

Bieler, Carter, & Coan (2010) included the following families and superfamilies in Trigoniida. Taxa marked with a † are extinct with the only extant family in the order being Trigoniidae.

Trigoniida

†Beichuanioidea Liu & Gu, 1988

†Beichuaniidae Liu & Gu, 1988

†Megatrigonioidea Van Hoepen, 1929

†Megatrigoniidae Van Hoepen, 1929

†Iotrigoniidae Savelive, 1958

†Rutitrigoniidae Van Hoepen, 1929

†Myophorelloidea Kobayashi, 1954

†Myophorellidae Kobayashi, 1954

†Buchotrigoniidae Leanza, 1993

†Laevitrigoniidae Savelive, 1958

†Vaugoniidae Kobayashi, 1954

Trigonioidea Lamarck, 1819

Trigoniidae Lamarck, 1819

†Eoschizodidae Newell & Boyd, 1975 (syn: Curtonotidae)

†Groeberellidae Pérez, Reyes, & Danborenea 1995

†Myophoriidae Bronn, 1849 (syn: Cytherodontidae, Costatoriidae, Gruenewaldiidae)

†Prosogyrotrigoniidae Kobayashi, 1954

†Scaphellinidae Newell & Ciriacks, 1962

†Schizodidae Newell & Boyd, 1975

†Sinodoridae Pojeta & Zhang, 1984

Trigonioidea

Trigonioidea is superfamily of medium-sized saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs. Within the fossil record the occurrence of this superfamily is widespread, ranging from the Devonian Period to Recent.

The diagnostic feature for the superfamily is the unique and complex dentition of the shell, (i.e. the interior hinge teeth that articulate the two valves). The dentition is particularly elaborate within the family Trigoniidae.

Bieler, Carter, & Coan (2010) included the following families in Trigonioidea. Taxa marked with a † are extinct.

Trigonioidea

Trigoniidae Lamarck, 1819

†Eoschizodidae Newell & Boyd, 1975 (syn: Curtonotidae)

†Groeberellidae Pérez, Reyes, & Danborenea 1995

†Myophoriidae Bronn, 1849 (syn: Cytherodontidae, Costatoriidae, Gruenewaldiidae)

†Prosogyrotrigoniidae Kobayashi, 1954

†Scaphellinidae Newell & Ciriacks, 1962

†Schizodidae Newell & Boyd, 1975

†Sinodoridae Pojeta & Zhang, 1984

Extant Diptera families

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