Curb

A curb (American English, Canadian English), or kerb (Australian English, British English, New Zealand English; see spelling differences), is the edge where a raised sidewalk (pavement in British English; pavement or footpath in Australian English) or road median/central reservation meets a street or other roadway.

LoveItaly Pompei
Stone curbs and raised sidewalks on both sides of a 2000-year-old paved road in Pompeii, Italy
UptownMagazineTileGutterWoodBricks
A curb with street name on the sidewalk in New Orleans

History

E India House
Pedestrian area separated from carriageway by six bollards in front of the East India House in London, 1766

Although curbs have been used throughout modern history, and indeed were present in ancient Pompeii,[1] their widespread construction and use only began in the 18th century, as a part of the various movements towards city beautification that were attempted in the period.

A series of Paving Acts in the 18th century, especially the 1766 Paving and Lighting Act, authorized the City of London Corporation to create footways along the streets of London, pave them with Purbeck stone (the thoroughfare in the middle was generally cobblestone) and raise them above street level with curbs forming the separation. Previously, small wooden bollards had been put up to demarcate the area of the street reserved for pedestrian use. The Corporation was also made responsible for the regular upkeep of the roads, including their cleaning and repair, for which they charged a tax from 1766.[2]

By the late 18th century, this method of separating pedestrians from carriageways had largely been supplanted by the use of curbs. With the introduction of macadam roads in the early 19th-century, curbs became ubiquitous in the streets of London.[3]

Curbs present an obstacle for accessibility in public spaces.[4] In 1945, Jack Fisher of Kalamazoo, Michigan, celebrated the installation of one of the nation's first curb cuts to facilitate mobility in the center of the city.[4] In the United States, activism and passage of federal legislation on accessibility requirements such as the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) have facilitated travel for wheelchair users and other people.[4]

Function

Curb gutter storm drain
A modern curb, gutter, storm drain, and an accessibility ramp between roadway and pedestrian sidewalk
High curb level streetcar boarding (8712580004)
A high curb designed for boarding transit vehicles

Curbs may fulfill any or several of a number of functions.[5] By delineating the edge of the pavement, they separate the road from the roadside and discourage drivers from parking or driving on sidewalks and lawns. They also provide structural support to the pavement edge. Curbs can be used to channel runoff water from rain or melted snow and ice into storm drains.

There is also an aesthetic aspect, in that curbs look formal and "finished".

Since curbs add to the cost of a road, they are generally limited to urban and suburban areas, and are rarely found in rural areas except where certain drainage conditions (such as mountains or culverts) make them necessary. Curbs are not universally used, however, even in urban settings (see living street).

Safety

In low-speed environments, curbs are effective at channeling motor vehicle traffic and can provide some redirective capacity for low-speed impacts.[5]

On higher speed roads, the main function of curbs is to provide drainage and are mostly used in areas of a bridge approach or other locations with erosion risk.[5]

A high-speed vehicle that hits a curb may actually turn towards the sidewalk, rather than be directed away from it. [5] A vehicle that strikes a curb can be tripped into a rollover crash or vaulted into the air. The vehicle could be vaulted over a traffic barrier into the object the barrier is intended to shield. This is a reason why they are rarely used on rural or high speed roads. Where curb is used with a traffic barrier, the barrier should either be close to or well behind the curb, to reduce the chances of a vehicle going over the barrier.[6]

Depending on the area and the distance between the travel lane and the edge of pavement, an edge line can be used to indicate the outside (shoulder) edge of the road. Retroreflective road marking material can also be applied to the curb itself to make it more conspicuous.

Curbs are also meant to inform pedestrians to stop or slow down as they prepare to cross roadways.[7] For example, cultural context and behavioral norms of a society may affect safety in that people are more likely to cross on a red light while standing alone than waiting with others at the curb.[7]

Types of curb

Kutná hora cobblestones3
Old sidewalk with granite curb in Kutná Hora
Warszawa - Warsaw - Varsovie - Warschau - Varsovia - Varsó - Варшава - panoramio (4)
Modern use of stone curbs, cobblestone, and planters as bollards to separate vehicles from pedestrians in Warsaw

There are a number of types of curb, categorized by shape, material, height, and whether the curb is combined with a gutter. Most curb is constructed separately from the pavement, and the gutter is formed at the joint between the roadway and the curb. Combined curb and gutter (also called "curb and channel") has a concrete curb and gutter cast together in one piece. "Integral curb" is curbing constructed integrally as a part of a concrete pavement.

Shape

Curbs often have a vertical or nearly-vertical face, also called "barrier", "non-mountable", or "insurmountable curb". Vertical-faced curb is used to discourage motor vehicle drivers from leaving the roadway. The square (90°-edge) or close-to-square type is still almost always used in towns and cities, as it is a straight step down and thus less likely to be tripped-over by pedestrians. By contrast, a slope-faced curb allows motor vehicles to cross it at low speed. Slope-faced curb is most often used on major suburban thoroughfares.

In certain locales, such as California, there is an effort to standardize the design to achieve efficiencies in construction and lower costs. Trends include using a 24-inch (610 mm) gutter that balances the increased initial price with lower maintenance costs.[8]

At crosswalks and other pedestrian crossings, narrow dropped curb cuts are used to allow small wheeled vehicles such as wheelchairs, children's tricycles, prams, and strollers to cross. This makes it easier to traverse for some pedestrians, and especially for those in wheelchairs. Wider curb cuts are also used to allow motor vehicles to cross sidewalks at low speed, typically for driveways.

In Great Britain, "high containment kerbs" are used at locations with pedestrians, fuel station pumps, and other areas that need greater protection from vehicle traffic. These are 14 inches (36 cm) high - much higher than standard curb, with a sloped lower portion and a concave face. These are also known as "trief" curbs.[9]

Rounded curbs are most often used at driveways, and continuously along suburban residential streets where there are many driveways and the sidewalk has a grassy setback from the street. This type of curbing starts out nearly flat like the road, curves up in a concave manner to a gentle slope, then curves back in a convex manner to nearly flat again, making it much easier to drive over, and is also known as a "rolled" or "mountable curb" in some localities. These types of curbs are preferred by builders because they are less expensive than installing straight curbs and gutters.[10] They are easier to lay using concrete and require less forming as steel templates can be used with only front and back forms needed.[10] Their use also eliminates the need for driveway cuts, curbs, and aprons, thus further reducing costs.[10]

Material

Curb metal forms under construction
Metal forms before the concrete is poured and finished by hand
Curbhandform
Hand forming at catch basins

Curbs are constructed of many materials, including asphalt, stone or masonry blocks, but most often are made of Portland cement concrete. The type of material may depend on the type of paving material used for the road and the desired function or need. For example, a Portland concrete curb used with an asphalt concrete road surface provides a highly visible barrier at the edge of the road surface. Other types of curb material include stone slabs, cobblestone, and manufactured pavers.

Concrete curb may be constructed by setting forms by hand, filling them, letting them set up, and then removing the forms. When large quantities of curb are to be constructed, it is often more efficient to use a slip form casting machine. Curbs can also be precast at a central location and trucked to the construction site.

Asphalt curb is usually made with a paving machine. It can be cheaper if it is formed at the same time that a road is paved, but is less durable than concrete curb.

Stone curb, often made from granite, is durable and resistant to de-icing salt. It is also chosen for aesthetic reasons. In areas where granite is available, it may be cheaper than concrete curb.[11] One disadvantage of granite curb is that it can cut a tire sidewall if it is rough-faced.[12]

Belgian block curbs are made by placing blocks over a concrete slip. Then, more concrete is wedged in between the blocks to hold them together. These blocks can be vertical, or angled in order to create a mountable curb.

Height

Curb pour for Poinciana Parkway
This machine slip casts a concrete curb with integral gutter

When designing a curbed roadway, engineers specify the "reveal" or "lip". The reveal is the height of the section that is visible (revealed) above the road surface. Typical reveals are in the 4 to 8 inches (100 to 200 mm) range. Curbs at handicapped curb cuts (or "kerb ramps", for example in Australia) should have no reveal[13]. One of the recommendations has been using a 4/12 batter in to accommodate automobile design because steeper batters tend to interfere with body trim, hubcaps, and lower door edges while curb faces in excess of 6 in (152 mm) in height may prevent the full opening of car doors.[8] Most curb extends down into the ground below the pavement surface, to improve their stability over time. The total height, including the buried portion, is often 16 in (406 mm).[14]

Integral gutter

Curbs with integral gutters are used where better hydraulic flow performance is needed. However, this places a longitudinal joint (parallel to the direction of travel) near where bicyclists often ride. If the main roadway and gutter settle differently over time, the vertical edge that develops at the joint can cause a hazard for bicyclists.[15]

Auto racing curbs

In auto racing, curbs are flat curbstones lining the corners or chicanes of racing tracks.[16] They are often painted red and white, and are intended to prevent unauthorized short-cuts and keep the racers safely on the track. Although they are not considered part of the racing track,[17] drivers sometimes "ride the curbs" in order to maintain momentum and gain a time advantage in cornering.[16]

Cultural identifiers

In certain parts of the world curb design signifies cultural association. For instance, in countries of the former Portuguese Empire such as Brazil, curbs are often distinctively decorated (along with the footpaths more broadly) in a style known as Portuguese pavement, marking a clear link to Portugal, where the style originated. More explicitly, curbstones can be painted (by official sanction or otherwise) to stress an identity or ideology; for instance in Northern Ireland curbstones are frequently painted in communities to identify a religious/political affiliation - typically either red, white, and blue for Unionist/Loyalist areas, and green, white, and gold for Nationalist areas.[18][19]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Conversation: Rush Hour in Pompeii". Archaeology.org. November 2008. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  2. ^ "City street scene manual Part 2" (PDF). Department of Planning & Transportation - the City of London. April 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
  3. ^ Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia; Ehrenfeucht, Renia (2009). Sidewalks: Conflict and Negotiation Over Public Space. MIT Press. p. 16. ISBN 9780262123075. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
  4. ^ a b c Peterson, Julie (15 July 2015). "Smashing barriers to access: Disability activism and curb cuts". National Museum of American History. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d Suh, Chul; Ha, Soojun; Won, Moon (December 2008). "Optimized Design of Concrete Curb under Off Tracking Loads" (PDF). Center for Transportation Research, The University of Texas at Austin. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  6. ^ "New York State Highway Design Manual Chapter 10: Roadside Design, Guide Rail and Appurtenances". New York State Department of Transportation. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
  7. ^ a b Olszewski, Piotr; Osińska, Beata; Zielińska, Anna (2016). "Pedestrian Safety at Traffic Signals in Warsaw". Transportation Research Procedia. 14: 1174–1182. doi:10.1016/j.trpro.2016.05.188.
  8. ^ a b Malloch, R.S. (1958). "Uniform Curb Design". The Aberdeen Group. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  9. ^ ""Trief" safety curb introduced to United Kingdom". Highway Research Abstracts: 27. 1963. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
  10. ^ a b c "Sidewalks in the Suburbs". American Planning Association. February 1957. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  11. ^ A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. American Society of State Highway and Transportation Officials. 2004. p. 319.
  12. ^ "Do I need a tire road hazard warranty? Is a tire warranty worth the expense?". www.repairtrust.com. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
  13. ^ "Chapter 4: Ramps and Curb Ramps - United States Access Board". www.access-board.gov. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  14. ^ Standard Sheet 603.01 - Stone Curb and Granite Curb. New York State Department of Transportation. 1 August 2009.
  15. ^ "New York State Highway Design Manual Chapter 3: Typical Sections". New York State Department of Transportation. 7 September 2004. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
  16. ^ a b "Kerbs are important". f1network.net. 5 June 2002. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
  17. ^ "2015 F1 Sporting Regulations" (PDF). Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile. p. 9. Retrieved 3 August 2015. 20.2 Drivers must use the track at all times. For the avoidance of doubt the white lines defining the track edges are considered to be part of the track but the kerbs are not.
  18. ^ Devine, Paula; Robinson, Gillian (11 December 2017). "Bonfires, Flags, Identity and Cultural Traditions in Northern Ireland". Queen's Policy Engagement. Queen’s University Belfast. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
  19. ^ Abshire, Jean E. (2003). "Northern Ireland's Politics in Paint". Peace Review. 15 (2): 149. doi:10.1080/10402650307612.
Cheryl Hines

Cheryl Ruth Hines (born September 11, 1965) is an American actress, director and comedian who played the role of Larry David's wife, Cheryl, on HBO's Curb Your Enthusiasm, for which she was nominated for two Emmy Awards.

She also starred as Dallas Royce on the ABC sitcom Suburgatory. In 2009, she made her directorial debut with Serious Moonlight. She is also a poker enthusiast with career winnings totaling $50,000. On August 2, 2014, Hines married Robert F. Kennedy Jr., a member of the Kennedy family.

Curb Agajanian Performance Group

The Curb Agajanian Performance Group is a motorsports team, currently competing as a co-entrant in IndyCar and IMSA. It is owned by record executive Mike Curb and racing personality Cary Agajanian; son of the late J. C. Agajanian, an early California race promoter and race car owner. It has fielded an entry IndyCar entry or co-entry in various races since 2001. Curb also was involved with NASCAR in both the Xfinity Series and Sprint Cup Series, owning Curb Racing from 1984–2011. Curb had several business partners in the NASCAR operation over the years, including Agajanian from 1998–2006.

CAPG has won two Indianapolis 500 races as a co-owner, in 2011 Dan Wheldon, and in 2016 with Alexander Rossi.

Curb Records

Curb Records (also known as Asylum-Curb and formerly known as MCG Curb) is an American record label started by Mike Curb originally as Sidewalk Records in 1963. From 1969 to 1973, Curb merged with MGM Records where Curb served as President of MGM and Verve Records.

Curb Your Enthusiasm

Curb Your Enthusiasm is an American comedy television series produced and broadcast by HBO that premiered on October 15, 2000. The series was created by Larry David starring as a fictionalized version of himself. The series follows Larry in his life as a semi-retired television writer and producer in Los Angeles and, for one season, New York City. Also starring are Cheryl Hines as his wife Cheryl, Jeff Garlin as his manager and best friend Jeff, and Susie Essman as Jeff's wife, Susie. Curb Your Enthusiasm often features guest stars, and many of these appearances are by celebrities playing versions of themselves fictionalized to varying degrees.

The plots and subplots of the episodes are established in an outline written by David, and the dialogue is largely improvised by the actors (a technique known as retroscripting). As with Seinfeld, which David co-created, the subject matter in Curb Your Enthusiasm often involves the minutiae of American daily social life, and plots often revolve around Larry David's many faux pas and his problems with certain social conventions and expectations, as well as his annoyance with other people's behavior. The character has a hard time letting such annoyances go unexpressed, which often leads him into awkward situations. He is also routinely the victim of elaborate misunderstandings wherein other characters believe that he has done something morally terrible or disgusting.

The series was developed from a 1999 one-hour special, Larry David: Curb Your Enthusiasm, which David and HBO originally envisioned as a one-time project. The special was shot as a mockumentary, where the characters were aware of the presence of cameras and a crew. The series itself is not a mock documentary but is shot in a somewhat similar, cinéma vérité-like style. Curb Your Enthusiasm has received high critical acclaim and has grown in popularity since its debut. It has been nominated for 38 Primetime Emmy Awards, and Robert B. Weide received an Emmy for Outstanding Directing for a Comedy Series for the episode "Krazee Eyez Killa". The show won the 2002 Golden Globe Award for Best Television Series – Musical or Comedy.After the eighth season concluded in September 2011, Curb Your Enthusiasm went on an indefinite hiatus. The series finally returned for a ninth season in October 2017. It was renewed for a tenth season in December 2017, which is scheduled to premiere in 2020.

Curb feeler

Curb feelers or curb finders are springs or wires installed on a vehicle which act as "whiskers" to alert drivers when they are at the right distance from the curb while parking.

The devices are fitted low on the body, close to the wheels. As the vehicle approaches the curb, the protruding feelers scrape against the curb, making a noise and alerting the driver in time to avoid damaging the wheels or hubcaps. The feelers are manufactured to be flexible and do not break easily.

Curb weight

Curb weight (American English) or kerb weight (British English) is the total mass of a vehicle with standard equipment and all necessary operating consumables such as motor oil, transmission oil, coolant, air conditioning refrigerant, and sometimes a full tank of fuel, while not loaded with either passengers or cargo.

This definition may differ from definitions used by governmental regulatory agencies or other organizations. For example, many European Union manufacturers include the weight of a 75-kilogram (165 lb) driver to follow European Directive 95/48/EC. Organizations may also define curb weight with fixed levels of fuel and other variables to equalize the value for the comparison of different vehicles.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations define curb weight as follows: Curb weight means the actual or the manufacturer’s estimated weight of the vehicle in operational status with all standard equipment, and weight of fuel at nominal tank capacity, and the weight of optional equipment computed in accordance with §86.1832–01; incomplete light-duty trucks shall have the curb weight specified by the manufacturer.

Unladen mass depends on the manufacturer and can be the same as curb weight, however, it is often the total mass of the car without a driver, fluid or any additional equipment.

Fiber to the x

Fiber to the x (FTTX) (also spelled Fibre to the x) or fiber in the loop is a generic term for any broadband network architecture using optical fiber to provide all or part of the local loop used for last mile telecommunications. As fiber optic cables are able to carry much more data than copper cables, especially over long distances, copper telephone networks built in the 20th century are being replaced by fiber.

FTTX is a generalization for several configurations of fiber deployment, arranged into two groups: FTTP/FTTH/FTTB (Fiber laid all the way to the premises/home/building) and FTTC/N (fiber laid to the cabinet/node, with copper wires completing the connection).

Residential areas already served by balanced pair distribution plant call for a trade-off between cost and capacity. The closer the fiber head, the higher the cost of construction and the higher the channel capacity. In places not served by metallic facilities, little cost is saved by not running fiber to the home.

Fiber to the x is the key method used to drive next-generation access (NGA), which describes a significant upgrade to the Broadband available by making a step change in speed and quality of the service. This is typically thought of as asymmetrical with a download speed of 24 Mbit/s plus and a fast upload speed. The Definition of UK Superfast Next Generation Broadband

OFCOM have defined NGA as in "Ofcom's March 2010 'Review of the wholesale local access market"

"Super-fast broadband is generally taken to mean broadband products that provide a maximum download speed that is greater than 24 Mbit/s. This threshold is commonly considered to be the maximum speed that can be supported on current generation (copper-based) networks."

A similar network called a hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) network is used by cable television operators but is usually not synonymous with "fiber In the loop", although similar advanced services are provided by the HFC networks. Fixed wireless and mobile wireless technologies such as Wi-Fi, WiMAX and 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) are an alternative for providing Internet access.

Hal Ketchum

Hal Michael Ketchum (born April 9, 1953) is an American country music artist. He has released 11 studio albums since 1986, including nine for the Curb and Asylum-Curb labels. Ketchum's 1991 album Past the Point of Rescue is his most commercially successful, having been certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America. Between 1991 and 2006 Ketchum had 17 entries on the Hot Country Songs charts. Three of his singles — "Small Town Saturday Night," "Past the Point of Rescue" and "Hearts Are Gonna Roll" — all reached number 2 on this chart, and three more charted within the Top Ten: "Sure Love" at number 3, and "Mama Knows the Highway" and "Stay Forever," both at number 8.

Hank Williams III

Shelton Hank Williams (born December 12, 1972), known as Hank Williams III and Hank 3, is an American musician, singer and multi-instrumentalist, known for his dark style of country music. However, his musical style alternates between country, punk rock and metal. He is the principal member of the punk metal band Assjack, the drummer for the Southern hardcore punk band Arson Anthem, and was the bassist for Pantera singer Phil Anselmo's band Superjoint Ritual. He has released eleven studio albums, including five for Curb Records. Williams is the grandson of Hank Williams, the son of Hank Williams Jr., and the half-brother of Holly Williams.

Italian Market, Philadelphia

The Italian Market is the popular name for the South 9th Street Curb Market, an area of South Philadelphia featuring many grocery shops, cafes, restaurants, bakeries, cheese shops, butcher shops, etc., many with an Italian influence. The historical heart of the market is the area of 9th Street between Christian Street and Washington Avenue, and is now generally considered to extend from Fitzwater Street at the north to Wharton Street at the south. The term Italian Market is also used to describe the surrounding neighborhood between South Street to the North and Wharton Street to the South running a few blocks to the east and west of 9th street.

Although it is considered the social and commercial heart of the Philadelphia Italian community, the Ninth Street Market was an ethnic mix from its inception. In recent years, an influx of immigrants from Latin America, mainly from Mexico and to a lesser degree from Central American countries like Guatemala and El Salvador, has significantly changed the Italian Market area and it is now also home to many stores and restaurants catering to South Philadelphia's Hispanic population.

Larry David

Lawrence Gene David (born July 2, 1947) is an American comedian, writer, actor, director, and television producer. He and Jerry Seinfeld created the television series Seinfeld, of which David was the head writer and executive producer from Seasons 1-7. David gained further recognition for the HBO series Curb Your Enthusiasm, which he also created, in which he stars as a semi-fictionalized version of himself.David's work won him a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series in 1993. Formerly a stand-up comedian, David went into television comedy, writing and starring in ABC's Fridays, as well as writing briefly for Saturday Night Live. He has won two Primetime Emmy Awards, and was voted by fellow comedians and comedy insiders as the 23rd greatest comedy star ever in a 2004 British poll to select "The Comedian's Comedian".

Lyle Lovett

Lyle Pearce Lovett (born November 1, 1957) is an American singer, songwriter, actor and record producer. Active since 1980, he has recorded 13 albums and released 25 singles to date, including his highest entry, the number 10 chart hit on the U.S. Billboard Hot Country Songs chart, "Cowboy Man". Lovett has won four Grammy Awards, including Best Male Country Vocal Performance and Best Country Album. It's Not Big It's Large was released in 2007, where it debuted and peaked at number 2 on the Top Country Albums chart. A new studio album, Natural Forces, was released on October 20, 2009 by Lost Highway Records. The last studio album on his Curb Records contract, Release Me, was released in February 2012.

Mansard roof

A mansard or mansard roof (also called a French roof or curb roof) is a four-sided gambrel-style hip roof characterized by two slopes on each of its sides with the lower slope, punctured by dormer windows, at a steeper angle than the upper. The steep roof with windows creates an additional floor of habitable space (a garret), and reduces the overall height of the roof for a given number of habitable stories. The upper slope of the roof may not be visible from street level when viewed from close proximity to the building.

The earliest known example of a mansard roof is credited to Pierre Lescot on part of the Louvre built around 1550. This roof design was popularized in the early 17th century by François Mansart (1598–1666), an accomplished architect of the French Baroque period. It became especially fashionable during the Second French Empire (1852–1870) of Napoléon III. Mansard in Europe also means the attic (garret) space itself, not just the roof shape and is often used in Europe to mean a gambrel roof.

Mike Curb

Michael Curb (born December 24, 1944, Savannah, Georgia, United States) is an American musician, record company executive, motorsports car owner, and politician who served as the 42nd Lieutenant Governor of California from 1979 to 1983 under Democratic Governor Edmund G. "Jerry" Brown Jr. Like every other Lt. Governor in California, Curb was acting governor of California while Brown spent time outside California on state business, and outside California pursuing presidential ambitions. He is also the founder of Curb Records as well as an inductee of the West Coast Stock Car Hall of Fame.

NYSE American

NYSE American, formerly known as the American Stock Exchange (AMEX), and more recently as NYSE MKT, is an American stock exchange situated in New York City, New York. AMEX was previously a mutual organization, owned by its members. Until 1953, it was known as the New York Curb Exchange.NYSE Euronext acquired AMEX on October 1, 2008, with AMEX integrated with the Alternext European small-cap exchange and renamed the NYSE Alternext U.S. In March 2009, NYSE Alternext U.S. was changed to NYSE Amex Equities. On May 10, 2012, NYSE Amex Equities changed its name to NYSE MKT LLC.Following the SEC approval of competing stock exchange IEX in 2016, NYSE MKT rebranded as NYSE American and introduced a 350-microsecond delay in trading, referred to as a "speed bump", which is also present on the IEX.

Rein

Reins are items of horse tack, used to direct a horse or other animal used for riding. They are long straps that can be made of leather, nylon, metal, or other materials, and attach to a bridle via either its bit or its noseband.

Tim McGraw

Samuel Timothy McGraw (born May 1, 1967) is an American country singer and actor. McGraw has released fifteen studio albums (eleven for Curb Records, three for Big Machine Records and one for Arista Nashville). 10 of those albums have reached number 1 on the Top Country Albums charts, with his 1994 breakthrough album Not a Moment Too Soon being the top country album of 1994. All of these albums have produced 65 singles, 25 of which have reached number 1 on the Hot Country Songs or Country Airplay charts. Three of these singles — "It's Your Love", "Just to See You Smile", and "Live Like You Were Dying" — were the top country songs of 1997, 1998, and 2004 according to Billboard Year-End. He has also won three Grammy Awards, 14 Academy of Country Music awards, 11 Country Music Association (CMA) awards, 10 American Music Awards, and three People's Choice Awards. His Soul2Soul II Tour is one of the highest-grossing tours in country music history, and one of the top 5 among all genres of music. Tim McGraw just recently released his latest singles “Neon Church” and “Thought About You” on October 4, 2018 He has sold more than 75 million records worldwide, making him one of the best-selling music artists of all time.McGraw has ventured into acting, with supporting roles in The Blind Side (with Sandra Bullock), Friday Night Lights, The Kingdom, Tomorrowland, and Four Christmases (with Vince Vaughn and Reese Witherspoon), and The Shack, and lead roles in Flicka (2006) and Country Strong (2010). He was a minority owner of the Arena Football League's Nashville Kats.

In acknowledgement of his grandfather's Italian heritage, McGraw was honored by the National Italian American Foundation (NIAF) in 2004, receiving the NIAF Special Achievement Award in Music during the Foundation's 29th Anniversary Gala.

He has been married to singer Faith Hill since 1996, and is a son of baseball player Tug McGraw.

Word Records

Word Records is a Christian faith-based entertainment company based in Nashville, Tennessee. It is owned by Curb Records and is a part of Word Entertainment.

Wynonna Judd

Wynonna Ellen Judd (; born Christina Claire Ciminella; May 30, 1964) is a multi award-winning American country music and Adult contemporary pop singer. Her solo albums and singles are all credited to the single name Wynonna. She first rose to fame in the 1980s alongside her mother Naomi in the country music duo The Judds. They released seven albums on Curb Records in addition to 26 singles, of which 14 were number-one hits.

The Judds disbanded in 1991 and Wynonna began a solo career, also on Curb. In her solo career, she has released eight studio albums, a live album, a holiday album, and two compilation albums, in addition to more than 20 singles. Her first three singles were "She Is His Only Need", "I Saw the Light," and "No One Else on Earth". All three reached number one on the U.S. country singles charts consecutively, as did "Only Love" (1993) and "To Be Loved by You" (1996). Three of her albums are certified platinum or higher by the RIAA. Her most recent recording was Wynonna & the Big Noise, released on February 12, 2016, and she released the single "Cool Ya'" that same month. Wynonna is most recognized for her musical work, although she has also pursued other interests starting in the 2000s, including writing, acting, and philanthropy.

Streets and roadways
Types of road
Road junctions
Surfaces
Road safety factors
Space and time allocation
Demarcation
Structures

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.