Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), also spelled cupuassu, cupuazú, cupu assu, and copoasu, is a tropical rainforest tree related to cacao.[1] Common throughout the Amazon basin, it is cultivated in the jungles of Colombia, Bolivia and Peru and in the north of Brazil, with the largest production in Pará.[1] The pulp of the cupuaçu fruit is consumed throughout Central and South America, is the national fruit of Brazil,[2] and is used to make ice creams, snack bars,[3] and other products.[4][5]

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Theobroma
T. grandiflorum
Binomial name
Theobroma grandiflorum


Cupuaçu trees usually range from 5–15 m (16–49 ft) in height, though some can reach 20 m (66 ft). They have brown bark, and the leaves range from 25–35 cm (9.8–13.8 in) long and 6–10 cm (2.4–3.9 in) across, with 9 or 10 pairs of veins. As they mature, the leaves change from pink-tinted to green, and eventually they begin bearing fruit.[6]


Theobroma grandiflorum-flower
Cupuacu flower

Flowers of cupuaçu are structurally complex, and require pollination from biotic vectors.[7] The majority of cupuaçu trees are self-incompatible, which can result in decreased pollination levels, and consequently, a decrease in fruit yields.[7] Pollination can also be negatively affected by environmental conditions. Pollinators, which include chrysomelid weevils and stingless bees, are unable to fly between flowers in heavy rains.[7]


Cupuacu fruit opened
Cupuaçu fruit opened

The white pulp of the cupuaçu has an odour described as a mix of chocolate and pineapple and is frequently used in desserts, juices and sweets.[1] The juice tastes primarily like pear, banana, passion fruit, and melon.[8][9]

Cupuaçu is generally harvested from the ground once they have naturally fallen from the tree. It can be difficult to determine peak ripeness because there is no noticeable external color change in the fruit. However studies have shown that in Western Colombian Amazon conditions, fruits generally reach full maturity within 117 days after fruit set.[10][11] Brazilians either eat it raw or use it in making sweets.[12]

Commercial food products include pulp and powder.[13]


Cupuaçu, EMBRAPA plantation near Manaus, Brazil. Four years old.

Cupuaçu is most commonly propagated from seed, but grafting and rooted cuttings are also used.[14]

Cupuaçu trees are often incorporated in agroforestry systems throughout the Amazon due to their high tolerance of infertile soils, which are predominate in the Amazon region.[14]

Pests and diseases

Witches broom (Moniliophthora perniciosa) is the most prominent disease that affects cupuaçu trees.[15] It impacts the entire tree and can result in significant loss of yields, as well as tree death if left untreated. Regular pruning is recommended to reduce the severity of this disease in cupuaçu plantings.[15]

Cupuaçu supports the butterfly herbivore, "lagarta verde", Macrosoma tipulata (Hedylidae), which can be a defoliator.[16]


Cupuaçu flavors derive from its phytochemicals, such as tannins, glycosides, theograndins, catechins, quercetin, kaempferol and isoscutellarein.[17] It also contains caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline as found in cacao, although with a much lower amount of caffeine.[18][19]

Cupuaçu butter

Cupuaçu butter
Cupuaçu butter (manteiga de cupuaçu)

Cupuaçu butter is a triglyceride composed of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, giving the butter a low melting point (approximately 30 °C) and texture of a soft solid, lending its use as a confectionery resembling white chocolate.[1] Main fatty acid components of cupuaçu butter are stearic acid (38%), oleic acid (38%), palmitic acid (11%) and arachidic acid (7%).[20][21]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Giacometti DC (1998). "Cupuaçu. In: Neglected Crops: 1492 from a Different Perspective, J.E. Hernándo Bermejo and J. León (eds.). Plant Production and Protection Series No. 26. FAO, Rome, Italy. p. 205-209". Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Purdue University, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, W. Lafayette, IN, USA.
  2. ^ "Cupuaçu - the taste of the Amazon - Kew". Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  3. ^ Balston, Catherine; Derry, Johanna (17 April 2014). "Cupuaçu: Brazil's new alternative to chocolate". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  4. ^ Prazeres, Isadora (2017). "Elaboration and characterization of snack bars made with ingredients from the Amazon". Acta Amazonica. 47: 103–110.
  5. ^ "Brazil: Biodiversity for Food and Nutrition". Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  6. ^ "Theobroma grandiflorum Cupuassu, Cupuacu PFAF Plant Database". Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  7. ^ a b c Venturieri, Giorgini (2010). "Flowering levels, harvest season and yields of Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum)". Acta Amazonica.
  8. ^ Silva, F.M.; Silva, C.L.M. (1 February 2000). "Note. Quality evaluation of cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum) purée after pasteurization and during storage / Nota. Calidad del puré de cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum) después de la pasterización y durante su almacenamiento". Food Science and Technology International. 6 (1): 53–58. doi:10.1177/108201320000600108.
  9. ^ Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Andrade, Jerusa Souza; Fernandes, Ormezinda Celeste Cristo; Durán, Nelson; Lima Filho, José Luiz de (28 October 2018). "Quality Attributes of Cupuaçu Juice in Response to Treatment with Crude Enzyme Extract Produced byAspergillus japonicus586". Enzyme Research. 2011: 1–6. doi:10.4061/2011/494813. PMC 3206358. PMID 22114735. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  10. ^ Hernandez, Claudia (March 1, 2012). "Growth and development of the cupuacu fruit (Theobroma grandiflorum [Wiild. Ex Spreng.] Schum.) in the western colombian Amazon". Agronomia Colombiana. 30: 95–102.
  11. ^ Hernández L., Claudia; Hernández G., María Soledad (28 October 2018). "Growth and development of the cupuaçu fruit (Theobroma grandiflorum [Willd. Ex Spreng.] Schum.) in the western colombian Amazon". Agronomía Colombiana. 30 (1). Retrieved 28 October 2018 – via
  12. ^ "This Brazilian Fruit Makes Beer, Ice Cream, and Faux Chocolate". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  13. ^ Silva, Alessandra Eluan da; Silva, Luiza Helena Meller da; Pena, Rosinelson da Silva (1 December 2008). "Hygroscopic behavior of açaí and cupuaçu powders". Food Science and Technology. 28 (4): 895–901. doi:10.1590/S0101-20612008000400020. Retrieved 28 October 2018 – via SciELO.
  14. ^ a b Schroth, G. (2000). "Growth, Yield and Mineral Nutrition of Cupuacu (Theobroma grandiflorum) in Two Multi-Strata Agroforestry Systems on a Ferralitic Amazonian Upland Soil at Four Fertilization Levels". Journal of Applied Botany.
  15. ^ a b Alves, Rafael (2009). "Evolution of witch's broom disease and evaluation of resistance in Cupuassu progenies". Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura. 31 – via SciElo.
  16. ^ Lourido, G.; Silva, N. M.; Motta, C. (2007). "Parâmetros Biológicos e Injúrias de Macrosoma tipulata Hübner (Lepidoptera: Hedylidae), em Cupuaçuzeiro [Theobroma grandiflorum (Wild ex Spreng Schum)] no Amazonas" [Biological parameters and damage by Macrosoma tipulata Hübner (Lepidoptera: Hedylidae), in Cupuaçu tree [Theobroma grandiflorum (Wild ex Spreng Schum)] in Amazonas, Brazil] (PDF). Neotropical Entomology (in Portuguese). 36 (1): 102–106. doi:10.1590/S1519-566X2007000100012. PMID 17420867.
  17. ^ Yang, H.; Protiva, P.; Cui, B.; Ma, C.; Baggett, S.; Hequet, V.; Mori, S.; Weinstein, I. B.; Kennelly, E. J. (2003). "New bioactive polyphenols from Theobroma grandiflorum ("cupuaçu")". Journal of Natural Products. 66 (11): 1501–1504. doi:10.1021/np034002j. PMID 14640528.
  18. ^ Lo Coco F, Lanuzza F, Micali G, Cappellano G (2007). "Determination of theobromine, theophylline, and caffeine in by-products of cupuaçu and cacao seeds by high-performance liquid chromatography". J Chromatogr Sci. 45 (5): 273–5. PMID 17555636.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) pdf
  19. ^ Sira, Elevina Pèrez (28 October 2018). The Uses of Cocoa and Cupuaçu Byproducts in Industry, Health, and Gastronomy. Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 9781536134575. Retrieved 28 October 2018 – via Google Books.
  20. ^ Cohen, K. de O. & Jackix, M. de N. H. (2009). "Características químicas e física da gordura de cupuaçu e da manteiga de cacau" (PDF). Documentos / Embrapa Cerrados (in Portuguese) (269): 1–22.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  21. ^ "The Uses of Cocoa and Cupuaçu Byproducts in Industry, Health, and Gastronomy - Nova Science Publishers". Nova Science Publishers. Retrieved 28 October 2018.

External links

Amazonian cuisine

Amazonian cuisine includes the foods and preparation methods of various peoples in the Amazon jungle of South America, including the dishes they have popularized among neighbors.

Arachidic acid

Arachidic acid, also known as eicosanoic acid, is a saturated fatty acid with a 20-carbon chain. It is a minor constituent of cupuaçu butter (7%), perilla oil (0–1%), peanut oil (1.1–1.7%), corn oil (3%), and cocoa butter (1%). It also constitutes 7.08% of the fats from the fruit of the durian species Durio graveolens.Its name derives from the Latin arachis—peanut. It can be formed by the hydrogenation of arachidonic acid.

Reduction of arachidic acid yields arachidyl alcohol.

Arachidic acid is used for the production of detergents, photographic materials and lubricants.

Arachidonic acid

Arachidonic acid (AA, sometimes ARA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6), or 20:4(5,8,11,14). It is structurally related to the saturated arachidic acid found in cupuaçu butter (L. arachis – peanut).


Belém (Brazilian Portuguese: [beˈlẽj]; Portuguese for Bethlehem), is a Brazilian city with 2,491,052 people residing in its Metropolitan Region. The capital city itself has 1,485.732 inhabitants (for more details on its population see in Demographics below). It is the capital and largest city of the state of Pará in the country's north. It is the gateway to the Amazon River with a busy port, airport, and bus/coach station. Belém lies approximately 100 km upriver from the Atlantic Ocean, on the Pará River, which is part of the greater Amazon River system, separated from the larger part of the Amazon delta by Ilha de Marajó (Marajo Island). With an estimated population of 1,439,561 people — or 2,249,405, considering its metropolitan area — it is the 11th most populous city in Brazil, as well as the 16th by economic relevance. It is the second largest in the North Region, second only to Manaus, in the state of Amazonas.

Founded in 1616 by the Kingdom of Portugal, Belém was the first European colony on the Amazon but did not become part of Brazil until 1775. The newer part of the city has modern buildings and skyscrapers. The colonial portion retains the charm of tree-filled squares, churches and traditional blue tiles. The city has a rich history and architecture from colonial times. Recently it witnessed a skyscraper boom.

Belém is also known as the Metropolis of the Brazilian Amazon region or the Cidade das Mangueiras (City of Mango Trees) due to the vast number of those trees found in the city. Brazilians often refer to the city as Belém do Pará ("Belém of Pará") rather than just Belém, a reference to an earlier name for the city, Santa Maria de Belém do Grão Pará, and also to differentiate it from a number of other towns called Belém in Brazil, as well as the Palestinian city of Bethlehem. It is named after Santa Maria de Belém in Lisbon, also better known by its shortened name, Belém.

Belém is served by two airports: Val de Cães International Airport, which connects the city with the rest of Brazil and other cities in South America, and Brig. Protásio de Oliveira Airport (formerly called Júlio César Airport) dedicated to general aviation. The city is also home to the Federal University of Pará and the Pará State University.

Brazilian cuisine

Brazilian cuisine is the set of cooking practices and traditions of Brazil, and is characterized by African, Amerindian, Asian (mostly Japanese) and European influences. It varies greatly by region, reflecting the country's mix of native and immigrant populations, and its continental size as well. This has created a national cuisine marked by the preservation of regional differences.Ingredients first used by native peoples in Brazil include cashews, cassava, guaraná, açaí, cumaru and tucupi. From there, the many waves of immigrants brought some of their typical dishes, replacing missing ingredients with local equivalents. For instance, the European immigrants (primarily from Portugal, Italy, Spain, Germany, Poland and Switzerland) were accustomed to a wheat-based diet, and introduced wine, leafy vegetables, and dairy products into Brazilian cuisine. When potatoes were not available they discovered how to use the native sweet manioc as a replacement. Enslaved Africans also had a role in developing Brazilian cuisine, especially in the coastal states. The foreign influence extended to later migratory waves – Japanese immigrants brought most of the food items that Brazilians would associate with Asian cuisine today, and introduced large-scale aviaries, well into the 20th century.Root vegetables such as manioc (locally known as mandioca, aipim or macaxeira, among other names), yams, and fruit like açaí, cupuaçu, mango, papaya, guava, orange, passion fruit, pineapple, and hog plum are among the local ingredients used in cooking.

Some typical dishes are feijoada, considered the country's national dish; and regional foods such as beiju, feijão tropeiro, vatapá, moqueca, polenta (from Italian cuisine) and acarajé (from African cuisine). There is also caruru, which consists of okra, onion, dried shrimp, and toasted nuts (peanuts or cashews), cooked with palm oil until a spread-like consistency is reached; moqueca capixaba, consisting of slow-cooked fish, tomato, onions and garlic, topped with cilantro; and linguiça, a mildly spicy sausage.

The national beverage is coffee, while cachaça is Brazil's native liquor. Cachaça is distilled from fermented sugar cane must, and is the main ingredient in the national cocktail, caipirinha.

Cheese buns (pães-de-queijo), and salgadinhos such as pastéis, coxinhas, risólis (from pierogy of Polish cuisine) and kibbeh (from Arabic cuisine) are common finger food items, while cuscuz branco (milled tapioca) is a popular dessert.


Byttnerioideae is a subfamily of the flowering plant family Malvaceae.

Caverna do Maroaga Environmental Protection Area

The Caverna do Maroaga Environmental Protection Area (Portuguese: Área de Proteção Ambiental Caverna do Maroaga) is an environmental protection area in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. It contains caves and waterfalls that have tourist potential if the infrastructure were provided.

Cuisine of Pará

Pará Cuisine presents as its greatest influence the Indian culture and a bit of African and Portuguese cultures as well. The basic ingredients are from the exuberant nature of the Amazon, such as shrimp, crab, seafood, fish, poultry, bush meat, duck, all cooked with leaves (boiled leaves called maniva, chicory, coriander), peppers and herbs. They are all cooked in clay pots or barbecues in moquéns (wrapped in leaves and roasted) and soaked of tucupi. Served in bowls, in cocoons of banana leaves in containers of clay and even in urupemas (vegetable fiber sifter) which gives a pleasant flavor to dishes from Pará.

Duck in tucupi

This dish is made of duck, tucupi and jambu (typical herb from North region of Brazil). The tucupi is a yellow broth extracted from cassava and that’s why it needs to be stewed during a week. Duck, after baked, is cut into pieces and stewed in tucupi where it soaks for some time. Jambu is boiled in water with salt, drained and put on the duck. It is served with rice and cassava flour.


Withdrawals of cassava flour, the most, appreciated is the manioc flour. Previously, flour water would amount to a wheat bread; a dry flour to a bread, with Carimã would be made porridges and with tapioca, make up beijus, also known as “tapioca” or “tapioquinha” they have the form like a pancake and can take several types of fillings like chocolate, various types of cheese, jelly (best known as “candy”) as the cupuassu for example, with the most common way of eating tapioquinha is with butter or coconut only. Tapioquinha is often consumed as breakfast or afternoon snack, usually accompanied by coffee with milk. It is a mild taste delicacy, however characteristic and can be found in simple establishments, strollers, snack bars and even there are tapioca houses, snack bars that only sell tapioca with all kinds of fillings. There is also the tucupi, a yellow soup extrated from cassava, which can not be described its wonderful flavor without taste it, either accompaining by meat, fish, seafood or pure, almost boiling hot, with or without jambu. Without mentioning the local delicacy, the duck in tucupi. Initially, cassava and its derivates was only consumed by the poor and Indian people, but over the time it has become indispensable in the table of all Pará family.


Desserts in Pará are mainly fruits from the Amazon, and liqueurs. Fruits that are part of the regional cuisine are: açaí , cupuaçu, peach, guarana and the mango, easily found on any street in the state capital. The Cupuacu cream is very tasty, it is made of condensed milk, a cream made of milk and Cupuaçu (sugar is optional). After putting all the ingredients in the blender and mix them, the Cupuaçu cream is taken to the freezer. The cupuaçu's cream is also used as frosting.

Others regional fruits are bacuri, plum, jackfruit, muruci and the sweet and juicy sapodilla.

Products of Vegetal Origin

Abiu: fruit with white or yellowish pulp, sweet or tasteless, it does the lips sticky because the fruit is consistent. We can eat it in natura. The tree (abieiro) bears fruit on July and December.

Açaí (served in the bowl): the fruit is always present in meals of families from Pará; and it represents part of the local economy. It can be served with tapioca or manioc flour. Açaí is often the main meal at lunch – eaten with fish, shrimp or dry meat of ox (called charque) fried. There are two kinds of açaí: the best known, the purple one; and another with a color pulp light cream, the “white açaí”. The tree, açaizeiro, also produces the açaí palm heart (palmito), taken on the basis of its “crown”. Palm heart is frequently used in refined regional dishes.

Acerola: fruit rich in vitamin C, widely used in juices and frozen desserts.

Ajuru: is a small shrub with hypoglycemic, widely used in popular medicine. Its fruits have a white and sweet pulp.

Ameixa (jamelão): is a purple berry, an olive type, you can eat the fruit and make a juice. Care must be taken because it stains and the mouth stays with a purple color.

Araçá: is a small, rounded fruit with seeds and the color of the pulp varies depending on the species. It’s part of the jabuticaba and guava family.

Bacaba: originating from a palm tree of the same family of açaí. It produces a thick juice, used in the same manner that açaí for drinks, sweets and ice cream. Its color is between purple and pink. The taste is softer than the açaí, but is less sought after than it.

Bacuri: is genuinely from Pará. It is much appreciated by everyone in their natural state or in the form of ice cream, juices, jams, and dessert the most varied as well as cocktails of the fruit or alcoholic drinks. Specialized restaurants specializing in typical food of Pará have been using Bacuri in the composition of delicious savory dishes in the form of sauces or purees.

Biribá: is consumed in its natural state, juices and ice cream. Its harvest is from July to September. But can be found throughout the year in popular vacation

Cupuaçu: The juice of this fruit is a present at the Paraense’s table and in any snack bar, restaurant.It is also very consumed as dessert, ice cream or as a cream.

Cupuí: This fruit is very appreciated and often used in drinks as juice and liqueurs. It is found a lot in Belenenses markets from February to May.

Tapioca flour: It is consumed with açaí as porridge or dissolved in warm milk with sugar.

Guava: It is consumed fresh or as ice cream or juice. The greens (tips of guava branches) are very used as tea to combat childhood diarrhea.

Graviola: It is cultivated in backyards and on large plantations, consumed in its natural state or as ice creams, creams and cocktails leaves under the form of the tea.

Inajá: It plantiful in Pará. Consume the fruits to natural or to sweeten porridges, which are thickened with manioc flour or gum.

Ingá-vine: Consumed in natural state is unknown another way to appreciated it.

Jambo: The same tree remove sweetened fruits and other very tangy.They are always consumed in natural ways. Also consumed in the jelly’s form.

Jenipapo: it is very used to make liquor.

Mangaba: This fruit has a pulp flesh,viscous, with a sweet flavor, acidic, very tasty. It is ideal for to prepare juices and ice cream.

Maraja: Also easily found in the Marajó Island, little is eaten from it. Its small pulp is thin and sweet. It is commonly sold around March and April.

Murici: Nominally a tropical tree native to the Amazon, scientific name Byrsonima verbascifolia. The fruit it bears is small and yellow, with a slightly acid but very good flavor, used in juices and ice cream.

Piquia: More appreciated by low-income populations that consume it cooked, by extracting its pulp straight from the seed, along with cassava flour, or adding the peeled fruit to beans broth, beef stew or rice. Can also be added to black coffee.

Pupunha: Cooked with pinches of salt, it is sold mainly in the city's popular markets like Ver-o-Peso. However, for some time now, there has been an interest in broadening and enriching the fruit's possibilities by attempting, through handicraft or otherwise, the confection of liquors, ice cream, candy in syrup or in paste, all with excellent results. Rich in nutrients, it is also part of the local economy. It has been used in typical restaurants as a side order for beef dishes, caramelized or mashed.

Tapereba: Very appreciated as a flavor of ice cream, juices, popsicles or any other form of sweets, the high point of tapereba is the famous drink found anywhere from back-alley bars to high-class receptions.

Tucuma: Contains an exceptional supply of vitamins, being a source of pro-vitamins A and B1, and vitamin C. The people, mainly the stateside and riverside, which certainly consume the fruit often, benefits greatly from it.

Tucuma-açu: Also called jabarana, is a larger variant of the tucuma fruit (açu being the Tupi-Guarani word for “large”).

Umari: Native and exclusive of Pará. It is often enjoyed naturally or with cassava flour.

Uxi: Consumed naturally or with cassava flour, it is certainly an important complement to the caboclo people's meals, as well as among the low-income population, in the capital and major cities. Also found as an ice cream flavor.


Hedylidae, the "American moth-butterflies", is a family of insects in the order Lepidoptera, representing the superfamily Hedyloidea. They have traditionally been viewed as an extant sister group of the butterfly superfamily Papilionoidea. In 1986, Scoble combined all species into a single genus Macrosoma, comprising 35 currently recognized and entirely Neotropical species, as a novel concept of butterflies.


Isoscutellarein is a flavone found in Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum) and in the liverwort Marchantia berteroana.Theograndin I is a sulfated glucuronide of isoscutellarein.

List of Brazilian fruits

This is a list of edible fruits that are native to, acclimatized to, or widely cultivated in Brazil

Acanthosyris spinescens (sombra-de-touro)

Acca sellowiana (guavasteen)

Acrocomia aculeata (coyol, macaúaba)

Aiphanes aculeata (pujamo)

Alibertia edulis (marmelada-de-cavalo)

Allagoptera arenaria (guriri)

Ambelania acida (pepino-do-mato)

Anacardium giganteum (cajuí)

Anacardium humile (caju-anão)

Anacardium microcarpum (caju, cashew)

Anacardium occidentale

Ananas comosus (abacaxi, pineapple)

Annona cacans (araticum-cagão)

Annona coriacea (fruta-do-conde)

Annona crassiflora (marolo)

Annona glabra (corkwood, bobwood)

Annona montana (mountain soursop)

Annona salzmannii (annona, beach sugar apple)

Astrocaryum aculeatum (tucuma)

Astrocaryum vulgare (tucum, awarra)

Astrocaryum (murumuru)

Attalea dubia (indaiá)

Bactris ferruginea (mané-velho)

Bactris maraja (marajá)

Bactris setosa (tucum)

Bellucia grossularioides (goiaba-de-anta)

Bellucia imperialis (goiaba-de-anta-vermelha)

Bertholletia excelsa (castanha-do-pará, Brazil nut)

Bombacopsis glabra (castanha-do-maranhão)

Brosimum gaudichaudii (maminha-cadela)

Butia capitata (butiá, jelly palm, pindo palm)

Butia eriospatha (butiá-da-serra)

Butia odorata (butiá-da-praia)

Butia purpurascens (butiá-jataí)

Butia yatai (jataí, yataee)

Byrsonima crassifolia (crabú, golden spoon, nance, kraabu)

Byrsonima verbacifolia (murici-rasteiro)

Campomanesia adamantium (guabiroba-amarela, guabiroba-verde)

Campomanesia aurea (guabirobinha-do-campo)

Campomanesia guazumifolia (sete-capotes)

Campomanesia lineatifolia (guabiraba)

Campomanesia neriiflora (guabiroba-branca)

Campomanesia phaea (cambucí)

Campomanesia pubescens (guabiroba-peluda)

Campomanesia schlechtendaliana (guabiroba-rugosa)

Campomanesia sessiliflora (guabiroba-verde)

Campomanesia xanthocarpa var. litoralis (guabiroba-da-praia)

Campomanesia xanthocarpa (guabiroba)

Cariocar coriaceum (pequiá, piquiá)

Caryocar brasiliensis (souari nut, pequi)

Caryocar microcarpum (pequiarana)

Caryocar villosum (pequiá, piquiá)

Casearia decandra (cambroé)

Casearia rupestris (pururuca)

Cassia leiandra (mari-mari)

Celtis iguanaea (jamerí)

Cereus jamacaru (mandacarú)

Cheilochlinium cognatum (uarutama)

Chondodendron platyphyllum (jaboticaba-de-cipó)

Chrysobalanus icaco (ajurú, cocoplum)

Cocos nucifera (coco, coconut)

Cordiera elliptica (marmelada-de-pinto)

Cordiera humilis (marmelada-rasteira)

Cordiera sessilis (marmelada-de-cachorro)

Couepia bracteosa (pajura)

Couepia longipendula (chicken-nut, egg nut, pendula nut)

Couepia subcordata (umarirana)

Couma utilis (sorvinha)

Crataeva tapia (tapia)

Dicella nucifera (castanha-de-cipó)

Diospyros brasiliensis (bull's eye)

Diospyros hispida (caqui-do-cerrado)

Diospyros inconstans (marmelinho)

Dipteryx alata (baru, cumbaru, cumbaru)

Duguetia furfuracea (marolinho-do-cerrado)

Duguetia lanceolada (pindaíva)

Endopleura uchi (uxí)

Eugenia brasiliensis (gumixama, grumichama)

Eugenia calycina (cerejinha)

Eugenia candolleana (murtinha, cambuí-roxo, rainforest plum)

Eugenia copacabanensis (cambuí-amarelo)

Eugenia dysenterica (cagaita)

Eugenia florida (guamirim)

Eugenia involucrata (cereja-do-rio-grande, Rio Grande cherry)

Eugenia itaguahiensis (grumixama-mirim)

Eugenia klotzschiana (pêra-do-campo)

Eugenia leitonii (goiabão)

Eugenia luschnathiana (pitomba)

Eugenia lutescens (perinha)

Eugenia multicostata (pau-alazão)

Eugenia myrcianthes (pêssego-do-mato)

Eugenia neonitida (pitangatuba)

Eugenia patrisii (ubaia)

Eugenia pitanga (pitanga-do-cerrado)

Eugenia pyriformis (uvaia-piriforme, uvaia-redonda, uvaia-rugosa-doce)

Eugenia speciosa (laranjinha-do-mato)

Eugenia stipitata (strawberry-guava, araza, araçá-boi)

Eugenia uniflora (pitanga, surinam cherry, cayenne cherry)

Euterpe edulis (juçara)

Euterpe oleracea (açaí, assaee, açaí-do-para)

Euterpe precatoria (açaí-da-amazônia)

Fuchsia regia (brinco-de-princesa)

Garcinia acuminata (bacuri-azedo)

Garcinia brasiliensis (bacupari-miúdo)

Garcinia gardneriana (bacupari)

Garcinia macrophylla (bacuripari)

Garcinia madruno (bacuri)

Gaylussacia angustifolia (camarinha-da-serra)

Gaylussacia brasiliensis (camarinha)

Genipa americana (hawa, jagua, huito, genipapo)

Genipa infudibuliformis (jenipapo-liso)

Hancornia speciosa var. pubescens (mangaba)

Hancornia speciosa (mangaba-da-restinga)

Hymenaea courbaril (jatoba, guapinol, Brazilian cherry)

Hymenaea stigonocarpa (jatobá-do-cerrado)

Inga cinnamomea (ingá-chinelo)

Inga edulis (guama, guaba, ice-cream bean)

Inga laurina (ingá-branco)

Inga marginata (ingá-feijão)

Inga sessilis (ingá-ferradura)

Inga vera (ingá-banana)

Inga vulpina (ingá-miúdo)

Jacaratia spinosa (jaracatia)

Lecythis lanceolata (sapucaia-mirim)

Lecythis pisonis (sapucaia, cream nut)

Licania salzmannii (oití-da-bahia)

Maclura tinctoria (taiúva, dyer's mulberry)

Manilkara huberi (maçaranduba)

Manilkara salzmannii (maçaranduba-preta)

Manilkara subsericea (maçaranduba)

Mauritia flexuosa (burití, moriche, ita, ité, aguaje)

Maximiliana maripa (inajá)

Melancium campestre (melancia-do-campo)

Mouriri pusa (puçá)

Myrcianthes pungens (guabiju)

Myrciaria aureana (jaboticaba-branca)

Myrciaria cauliflora (jaboticaba-paulista, jaboticaba-ponhema, jaboticaba-precoce, jaboticaba-vermelha)

Myrciaria coronata (jaboticaba-coroada)

Myrciaria dubia (camu-camu, caçari, camocamo)

Myrciaria floribunda (camboim, rumberry)

Myrciaria glazioviana (cabeludinha)

Myrciaria grandifolia (jaboticaba-graúda)

Myrciaria jaboticaba (jaboticaba-sabarazinha, jaboticaba-cascuda)

Myrciaria oblongata (jaboticaba-azeda)

Myrciaria phitrantha (jaboticaba-costada)

Myrciaria tenella (camboim)

Myrciaria trunciflora (jaboticaba-de-cabinho)

Oenocarpus bacaba (bacaba, bacaba-açu, camon, manoco, punama)

Oenocarpus bataua (pataua, patawa, sehe)

Oenocarpus distichus (bacaba-de-leque)

Opuntia paraguayensis (arumbeva)

Orbignya phalerata (babaçú, babassu, cusi)

Pachira aquatica (monguba, saba nut, malabar chestnut,)

Parinari obtusifolia (fruta-de-ema)

Passiflora alata (wild passionfruit, yellow passionfruit, melon passionfruit)

Passiflora ambigua (maracujá-doce)

Passiflora amethystina (maracujá-de-cobra)

Passiflora caerulea (maracujá-azul, blue passionfruit)

Passiflora cincinnata (maracujá-mochila)

Passiflora coccinea (maracujá-poranga)

Passiflora edulis (maracujá, passionfruit)

Passiflora eichleriana (maracujá-de-cobra)

Passiflora elegans (maracujá-de-estalo)

Passiflora foetida (wild water lemon, wild maracujá, love-in-a-mist, running pop)

Passiflora galbana (maracujá-do-mato)

Passiflora giberti (maracujá-bravo)

Passiflora laurifolia (water lemon)

Passiflora loefgreenii (maracujá-de-alho)

Passiflora mucronata (maracujá-de-restinga)

Passiflora nitida (bell apple)

Passiflora picturata (round passionfruit)

Passiflora quadrangularis (giant tumbo)

Passiflora serrato-digitata (maracujá-pedra)

Passiflora setacea (maracujá-sururuca)

Passiflora tenuiphila (maracujá-de-cobra)

Passiflora vitifolia (grape leaf passion fruit)

Paullinia cupana (guaraná)

Peritassa campestris (bacupari-do-cerrado)

Physalis pubescens (husk tomato, hairy groundcherry, camapú)

Pilosocereus arrabidae (pitaia-da-restinga)

Platonia insignis (bacuri, bacuri-açu)

Plinia cauliflora (jabuticaba)

Plinia edulis (cambuca)

Plinia rivularis (guaburiti)

Poraqueiba sericea (umari)

Porcelia macrocarpa (banana-de-macaco)

Posoqueria latifolia (baga-de-macaco)

Pourouma cecropiifolia (mapati, Amazon grape)

Pouteria bullata (bapeba)

Pouteria caimito (abiu-ticúna)

Pouteria gardneriana (aguaí-guaçu)

Pouteria gardnerii (sapotinha)

Pouteria grandiflora (bapeba-da-restinga)

Pouteria macrophylla (cutite)

Pouteria pachycalyx (bapeba)

Pouteria ramiflora (curriola)

Pouteria torta (guapeva)

Pouteria venosa (aboirana)

Pradosia brevipes (fruto-de-tatu)

Pradosia lactescens (marmixa)

Psidim guajava var. minor (goiaba-miniatura)

Psidim guajava (goiaba-yonemura, goiaba-amarela, goiaba-cascuda)

Psidium acutangulum (araçá-pêra)

Psidium cattleianum (cattley guava, strawberry guava)

Psidium cinereum (grey araça)

Psidium firmum (araçá-do-cerrado)

Psidium guineense (araçá-do-campo)

Psidium rufum (araçá-roxo)

Psidium salutare (araçá-rasteiro)

Quararibea cordata (sapota, sapote)

Rhamnidium elaeocarpus (saguaraji)

Rollinia emarginata (araticum-mirim)

Rollinia mucosa, Rollinia deliciosa (biriba)

Rollinia salicifolia (cortiça-lisa)

Rollinia sericea (cortiça)

Rollinia sylvatica (cortiça)

Rubus erythrocladus (amora-verde)

Rubus rosifolius (thimbleberry)

Rubus sellowii (amora-preto-vermelha)

Salacia elliptica (siputá)

Scheelea butyracea (jaci)

Scheelea phalerata (bacuri)

Sicana odorifera (cassabanana, musk cucumber)

Sideroxylon obtusifolium (sapotiaba)

Solanum sessiliflorum (cubiu, cocona)

Spondias macrocarpa (cajá-redondo)

Spondias mombin (golden apple, gully plum, coolie plum, java plum, jobo, yellow mombin)

Spondias sp (umbu-cajá)

Spondias tuberosa (umbú, Brazil plum)

Spondias venulosa (cajá-grande)

Sterculia apetala (mandovi)

Sterculia striata (chicá-do-cerrado)

Syagrus cearensis (catolé)

Syagrus coronata (licuri)

Syagrus flexuosa (acumã)

Syagrus macrocarpa (marirosa)

Syagrus oleracea (guariroba)

Syagrus romanzoffiana (jeriva)

Syagrus schyzophylla (aricuriroba)

Syagrus vagans (ariri)

Talisia esculenta (pitomba)

Theobroma bicolor (pataste)

Theobroma cacao (cacau, cocoa)

Theobroma grandiflora (cupuaçu)

Theobroma speciosum (cacauí)

Theobroma subincanum (cupuí)

Tontellea micrantha (bacupari)

Vasconcella quercifolia (mamãozinho-do-mato)

Vitex cymosa (jaramantaia)

Vitex montevidensis (tarumã)

Vitex polygama (tarumã-do-cerrado)

Xymenia americana (limãozinho-da-praia)

Zizyphus joazeiro (joá)

Zizyphus mistol (mistol)

List of culinary fruits

This list of culinary fruits contains the names of some fruits that are considered edible in some cuisines. The word "fruit" is used in several different ways. The definition of fruit for these lists is a culinary fruit, i.e. "Any sweet, edible part of a plant that resembles fruit, even if it does not develop from a floral ovary; also used in a technically imprecise sense for some sweet or sweetish vegetables, some of which may resemble a true fruit or are used in cookery as if they were a fruit, for example rhubarb."

Many edible plant parts that are true fruits botanically speaking, are not considered culinary fruits. They are classified as vegetables in the culinary sense (for example: the tomato, zucchini, and so on), and hence they do not appear in this list. Similarly, some botanical fruits are classified as nuts (e.g. Brazil nut and various almonds), or staples (e.g. breadfruit), and likewise do not appear here. There also exist many fruits which are edible and palatable but for various reasons have not become popular.

Nova Mamoré

Nova Mamoré is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Rondônia. As of 2015, the population of Nova Mamoré is 27,600 and its area is 10,072 km².

O Boticário

O Boticário (Portuguese pronunciation: [u botʃiˈkaɾju]) is the second biggest Brazilian cosmetic company. It has 4,070 stores in Brazil, Portugal, Mexico, Bolivia, Peru, United States, Paraguay, Japan, France, Angola, Venezuela and United Arab Emirates.O Boticário is the largest cosmetic franchise in the world. The main competitors of the company are Natura, Avon Products and Jequiti.

Pedra Branca do Amapari

Pedra Branca do Amapari (White Stone of Amaphary), also known simply as Amapari, is a municipality located in the midwest of the state of Amapá in Brazil. Its population is 13,411 and its area is 9,495 square kilometres (3,666 sq mi). The municipality has a population density of 1.13/km2, and the population remains even divided between a rural and village areas.

Tapajós-Xingu moist forests

The Tapajós-Xingu moist forests (NT0168) is an ecoregion in the eastern Amazon basin. It is part of the Amazon biome.

The ecoregion extends southwest from the Amazon River between its large Tapajós and Xingu tributaries.


Theacrine, also known as 1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid, is a purine alkaloid found in Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum) and in a Chinese tea known as kucha (Chinese: 苦茶; pinyin: kǔ chá; literally: 'bitter tea") (Camellia assamica var. kucha). It shows anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects and appears to affect adenosine signalling in a manner similar to caffeine. In kucha leaves, theacrine is synthesized from caffeine in what is thought to be a three-step pathway.


Theobroma is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae, that is sometimes classified as a member of Sterculiaceae. It contains roughly 20 species of small understory trees native to the tropical forests of Central and South America. The generic name is derived from the Greek words θεός (theos), meaning "god," and βρῶμα (broma), meaning "food". It translates to "food of the gods."

Theobroma cacao, the best known species of the genus, is used for making chocolate.

Theograndin I

Theograndin I is a sulfated flavone glucuronide found in Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum). It is a glucuronide of isoscutellarein (8-Hydroxyapigenin).

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