Cumnoria is a genus of herbivorous iguanodontian dinosaur. It was a basal iguanodontian that lived during the Late Jurassic period (Kimmeridgian age) in what is now Oxfordshire, United Kingdom.

Temporal range: Late Jurassic, 153 Ma
Cumnoria incomplete skeleton
Holotype skeleton, Oxford University Museum of Natural History
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Ornithischia
Suborder: Ornithopoda
Clade: Styracosterna
Genus: Cumnoria
Seeley, 1888


The holotype of Cumnoria is of a rather small bipedal animal with a slender build. about 3.5 metres (11.4 feet) long, The specimen is probably that of a juvenile though.[1]

Cumnoria NT

History of discovery

Cumnoria is known from the holotype OXFUM J.3303, a partial skull and postcranium, recovered from the lower Kimmeridge Clay Formation, in the Chawley Brick Pits, Cumnor Hurst. Workers at first discarded the remains on a dump heap, but one of them later collected the bones in a sack and showed them to Professor George Rolleston, an anatomist at the nearby Oxford University. Rolleston in turn brought them to the attention of palaeontologist Professor Joseph Prestwich who in 1879 reported them as a new species of Iguanodon, though without actually coining a species name.[2] In 1880 Prestwich published an article on the geological stratigraphy of the find.[3] The same year John Whitaker Hulke named the species Iguanodon prestwichii, the specific epithet honouring Prestwich.[4]

In 1888, Harry Govier Seeley decided the taxon represented a new and separate genus which he named Cumnoria after Cumnor, the village where it was discovered. Its type species Iguanodon prestwichii was thus recombined into Cumnoria prestwichii — though Seeley spelled the epithet as prestwichi.[5] The genus was quickly abandoned however: already in 1889 Richard Lydekker assigned the species to Camptosaurus, as Camptosaurus prestwichii.[6] This opinion was generally accepted for over a century. In 1980 Peter Galton provided the first modern description of the species.[1]

In 1998 David Norman concluded that Seeley's original generic distinction was valid.[7] In 2008 this was supported by Darren Naish and David Martill.[8] In 2010 and 2011 cladistic analyses by Andrew T. McDonald confirmed this by showing that Cumnoria had a separate phylogenetic position from Camptosaurus dispar.[9][10]


Camptosaurus prestwichii was traditionally assigned to the Camptosauridae. In the new analyses of McDonald Cumnoria has instead been recovered as a basal member of the Styracosterna, more closely related to more derived ("advanced") iguanodontians than to Camptosaurus dispar. Cumnoria would then be the oldest known styracostern.[10]


























  1. ^ a b Galton, P.M.; Powell, H.P. (1980). "The ornithischian dinosaur Camptosaurus prestwichii from the Upper Jurassic of England". Palaeontology. 23: 411–443.
  2. ^ Prestwich, J. (1879). "On the discovery of a species of Iguanodon in the Kimmeridge Clay near Oxford; and a notice of a very fossiliferous band of the Shotover Sands". Geological Magazine, New Series, Decade 2. 6 (5): 193–195. doi:10.1017/s0016756800157000.
  3. ^ Prestwich, J. (1880). "Note on the occurrence of a new species of Iguanodon in a brickpit of the Kimmeridge Clay at Cumnor Hurst, three miles W.S.W. of Oxford". Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London. 36 (1–4): 430–432. doi:10.1144/GSL.JGS.1880.036.01-04.35.
  4. ^ Hulke, J.W. (1880). "Iguanodon prestwichii, a new species from the Kimmeridge Clay, distinguished from I. mantelli of the Wealden Formation in the S.E. of England and Isle of Wight by differences in the shape of the vertebral centra, by fewer than five sacral vertebrae, by the simpler character of its tooth-serrature, etc., founded on numerous fossil remains lately discovered at Cumnor, near Oxford". Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London. 36 (143): 433–456. doi:10.1144/GSL.JGS.1880.036.01-04.36.
  5. ^ Seeley, H.G. (1888). "On Cumnoria, an iguanodont genus founded upon the Iguanodon prestwichi, Hulke". Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. 57: 698.
  6. ^ Lydekker, R. (1889). "On the remains and affinities of five genera of Mesozoic reptiles". Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. 45 (1–4): 41–59. doi:10.1144/GSL.JGS.1889.045.01-04.04.
  7. ^ Norman, D. (1998). "On Asian ornithopods (Dinosauria: Ornithischia). 3. A new species of iguanodontid dinosaur". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 122 (1–2): 291–348. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1998.tb02533.x.
  8. ^ Naish, D.; Martill, D.M. (2008). "Dinosaurs of Great Britain and the rôle of the Geological Society of London in their discovery: Ornithischia". Journal of the Geological Society of London. 165 (3): 613–623. doi:10.1144/0016-76492007-154.
  9. ^ McDonald, A.T.; Kirkland, J.I.; DeBlieux, D.D.; Madsen, S.K.; Cavin, J.; Milner, A.R.C. & Panzarin, L. (2010). "New Basal Iguanodonts from the Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah and the Evolution of Thumb-Spiked Dinosaurs". PLoS ONE. 5 (11): e14075. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014075. PMC 2989904. PMID 21124919.
  10. ^ a b Andrew T. McDonald (2011). "The taxonomy of species assigned to Camptosaurus (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2783: 52–68. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2783.1.4.
1888 in paleontology

Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 1888.


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Cumnor Hurst

Cumnor Hurst, also known as Hurst Hill, is a wooded hill in the neighbourhood of the village of Cumnor, Oxfordshire, England. It lies to the north of Boars Hill. In 1974 it was transferred from Berkshire.

The hill is a landmark on the ridge of Corallian limestone that is topped by Lower Greensand and Kimmeridge Clay. The Kimmeridge Clay provided bricks and tiles, from clay extracted at the Chawley Brick and Tile Works. It was there that fossilised remains of the dinosaur Cumnoria were found, in 1879-1880. Remains of plesiosaurs and ichthyosaurs have also been found there. A housing estate was built on the site of the Chawley Brick and Tile Works in the period 2012 to 2015, and this estate now adjoins the Hurst, with new roads

Kimmeridge Road, Oakwood Way and Seven Sisters Way.

The hill is owned by All Souls College, Oxford. It is mentioned in Matthew Arnold's poem The Scholar Gipsy.Older maps show 'Cumnor Folly' on the hill, for example National Library of Scotland's map of Berkshire, 1938. This is likely to indicate not a building but a small wooded area, following a local dialect usage, recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary. The area is now extensively wooded. Cumnor Hurst is a Site of Special Scientific Interest.


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Teinurosaurus (meaning "extended tail lizard") is a genus of carnivorous theropod dinosaur. Teinurosaurus lived during the Late Jurassic in what is now Portugal. Only a single caudal vertebra (now destroyed) has ever been discovered, and the genus is usually considered a nomen dubium. The type species is Teinurosaurus sauvagei.

In 1897 French paleontologist Henri-Émile Sauvage referred a tail vertebra from the Kimmeridgian of Portugal, present in the collection of the Musée Géologique du Boulonnais at Boulogne-sur-Mer in France, to Iguanodon prestwichii (now Cumnoria prestwichii), a herbivorous iguanodont.In 1928 Baron Franz Nopcsa recognised the fossil to be the vertebra of a theropod instead. He decided to name it as the genus Teinurosaurus. The name is derived from Greek teinein, "to stretch", and oura, "tail", referring to the elongated form. However, by a mistake of the printer, the footnote in which the new name was mentioned was not placed at the end of the section referring to the fossil but adjacent to a citation of Saurornithoides Osborn 1924, giving the false impression Nopcsa intended to rename the latter genus. After having discovered the typographical error, Nopcsa in 1929 added an addendum to the article, correcting the mistake.In 1932 German paleontologist Friedrich von Huene again named the fossil, giving it the species name Caudocoelus sauvagei. "Caudocoelus" means "hollow tail" in Latin. The specific epithet honours Sauvage. The name Teinurosaurus was largely forgotten or not even understood to be a synonym of Caudocoelus, until in 1969 John Ostrom revealed its priority. Ostrom also pointed out that Nopcsa had not provided a specific name. In 1978 George Olshevsky was the first to combine the two names, making Teinurosaurus sauvagei (von Huene 1932) Olshevsky 1978 vide Nopcsa 1928 emend. 1929 a valid species name.The holotype, once having the inventory number MGB 500 but later lost, was a distal caudal vertebra, 152 millimetres long. The species was by von Huene considered a member of the Coeluridae but is now generally seen as a nomen dubium, Neotheropoda incertae sedis.


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