Cumbria

Cumbria (/ˈkʌmbriə/ KUM-bree-ə) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's county town is Carlisle, in the north of the county, and the only other major urban area is Barrow-in-Furness on the southwestern tip of the county.

The county of Cumbria consists of six districts (Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden, and South Lakeland) and in 2008 had a population of just under 500,000 people. Cumbria is one of the most sparsely populated counties in the United Kingdom, with 73.4 people per km2 (190/sq mi).

Cumbria is the third largest county in England by area, and is bounded to the north by the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders, to the west by the Irish Sea, to the south by Lancashire, to the southeast by North Yorkshire, and to the east by County Durham and Northumberland.

Cumbria is predominantly rural and contains the Lake District National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered one of England's finest areas of natural beauty, serving as inspiration for artists, writers, and musicians. A large area of the southeast of the county is within the Yorkshire Dales National Park while the east of the county fringes the North Pennines AONB. Much of Cumbria is mountainous, and it contains every peak in England over 3,000 feet (910 m) above sea level, with Scafell Pike at 3,209 feet (978 m) being the highest point of England. An upland, coastal, and rural area, Cumbria's history is characterised by invasions, migration, and settlement, as well as battles and skirmishes between the English and the Scots. Notable historic sites in Cumbria include Carlisle Castle, Furness Abbey, Hardknott Roman Fort, Brough Castle and Hadrian's Wall (also a World Heritage Site).

Cumbria
County
County Flag of Cumbria Cumbria County Council coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Ad Montes Oculos Levavi" ("I have lifted up mine eyes unto the hills")
Cumbria within England

Coordinates: 54°30′N 3°15′W / 54.500°N 3.250°WCoordinates: 54°30′N 3°15′W / 54.500°N 3.250°W
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Constituent countryEngland
RegionNorth West
Established1 April 1974
Established byLocal Government Act 1972
Ceremonial county
Lord LieutenantClaire Hensman
High SheriffMarcia Reid Fotheringham, JP [1] (2019–2010)
Area6,768 km2 (2,613 sq mi)
 • Ranked3rd of 48
Population (mid-2017 est.)498,400
 • Ranked41st of 48
Density73/km2 (190/sq mi)
Ethnicity97.5% White British
0.1% White Irish
0.1% White Gypsy or Irish Traveller
1.1% Other White
0.1% White & Black Caribbean
0.1% White & Black African
0.2% White & Asian
0.1% Other Mixed
0.2% Indian
0.1% Pakistani
0.1% Bangladeshi
0.2% Chinese
0.2% Other Asian
0.1% Black African
0.1% Other
Non-metropolitan county
County councilCumbria County Council
ExecutiveConservative / Labour / Independent
Admin HQCarlisle
Area6,768 km2 (2,613 sq mi)
 • Ranked2nd of 27
Population498,400
 • Ranked26th of 27
Density73/km2 (190/sq mi)
ISO 3166-2GB-CMA
ONS code16
GSS codeE10000006
NUTSUKD11, UKD12
Websitewww.cumbria.gov.uk
CumbriaNumbered

Districts of Cumbria
Districts
  1. Barrow-in-Furness
  2. South Lakeland
  3. Copeland
  4. Allerdale
  5. Eden
  6. City of Carlisle
Members of ParliamentList of MPs
PoliceCumbria Constabulary
Time zoneGreenwich Mean Time (UTC)
 • Summer (DST)British Summer Time (UTC+1)

History

Castlerigg2
The Castlerigg stone circle dates from the late Neolithic age and was constructed by some of the earliest inhabitants of Cumbria

The county of Cumbria was created in April 1974 through an amalgamation of the administrative counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, to which parts of Lancashire (the area known as Lancashire North of the Sands) and the West Riding of Yorkshire were added.[2]

During the Neolithic period the area contained an important centre of stone axe production (the so called 'Langdale Axe Factory'), products of which have been found across Great Britain.[3] During this period stone circles and henges began to be built across the county and today 'Cumbria has one of the largest number of preserved field monuments in England'.[4]

While not part of the region conquered in the Romans' initial conquest of Britain in 43 AD, most of modern-day Cumbria was later conquered in response to a revolt deposing the Roman-aligned ruler of the Brigantes in 69 AD.[5] The Romans built a number of fortifications in the area during their occupation, the most famous being UNESCO World Heritage Site Hadrian's Wall which passes through northern Cumbria.[6]

At the end of the period of British history known as Roman Britain (c. AD 410) the inhabitants of Cumbria were Cumbric-speaking native Romano-Britons who were probably descendants of the Brigantes and Carvetii (sometimes considered to be a sub-tribe of the Brigantes) that the Roman Empire had conquered in about AD 85. Based on inscriptional evidence from the area, the Roman civitas of the Carvetii seems to have covered portions of Cumbria. The names Cumbria, Cymru (the native Welsh name for Wales), Cambria, and Cumberland are derived from the name these people gave themselves, *kombroges in Common Brittonic, which originally meant "compatriots".[7][8]

Although Cumbria was previously believed to have formed the core of the Early Middle Ages Brittonic kingdom of Rheged, more recent discoveries near Galloway appear to contradict this.[9] For the rest of the first millennium, Cumbria was contested by several entities who warred over the area, including the Brythonic Celtic Kingdom of Strathclyde and the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria. Most of modern-day Cumbria was a principality in the Kingdom of Scotland at the time of the Norman conquest of England in 1066 and thus was excluded from the Domesday Book survey of 1086. In 1092 the region was invaded by William II and incorporated into England.[10] Nevertheless, the region was dominated by the many Anglo-Scottish Wars of the latter Middle Ages and early modern period and the associated Border Reivers who exploited the dynamic political situation of the region.[11] There were at least three sieges of Carlisle fought between England and Scotland, and two further sieges during the Jacobite risings.

After the Jacobite Risings of the eighteenth century, Cumbria became a more stable place and, as in the rest of Northern England, the Industrial Revolution caused a large growth in urban populations. In particular, the west-coast towns of Workington, Millom and Barrow-in-Furness saw large iron and steel mills develop, with Barrow also developing a significant shipbuilding industry.[12] Kendal, Keswick and Carlisle all became mill town, with textiles, pencils and biscuits among the products manufactured in the region. The early nineteenth century saw the county gain fame as the Lake Poets and other artists of the Romantic movement, such as William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, lived among, and were inspired by, the lakes and mountains of the region. Later, the children's writer Beatrix Potter also wrote in the region and became a major landowner, granting much of her property to the National Trust on her death.[13] In turn, the large amount of land owned by the National Trust assisted in the formation of the Lake District National Park in 1951, which remains the largest National Park in England and has come to dominate the identity and economy of the county.

The county of Cumbria was created in 1974 from the traditional counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, the Cumberland County Borough of Carlisle, along with the North Lonsdale or Furness part of Lancashire, usually referred to as "Lancashire North of the Sands", (including the county borough of Barrow-in-Furness) and, from the West Riding of Yorkshire, the Sedbergh Rural District.[2] It is governed by Cumbria County Council.

Local papers The Westmorland Gazette and Cumberland and Westmorland Herald continue to use the name of their historic county. Other publications, such as local government promotional material, describe the area as "Cumbria", as do the Lake District National Park Authority and most visitors.

Geography

Cumbria SRTM
Topographic map of Cumbria

Cumbria is the most northwesterly county of England. The northernmost and southernmost points in Cumbria are just west of Deadwater, Northumberland and South Walney respectively. Kirkby Stephen (close to Tan Hill, North Yorkshire) and St Bees Head are the most easterly and westerly points of the county. Most of Cumbria is mountainous, with the majority of the county being situated in the Lake District while the Pennines, consisting of the Yorkshire Dales and the North Pennines, lie at the eastern and south-east areas of the county. At 978 metres (3,209 ft) Scafell Pike is the highest point in Cumbria and in England. Windermere is the largest natural lake in England.

The Lancaster Canal runs from Preston into South Cumbria and is partly in use. The Ulverston Canal which once reached to Morecambe Bay is maintained although it was closed in 1945. The Solway Coast and Arnside and Silverdale AONB's lie in the lowland areas of the county, to the north and south respectively.

Boundaries and divisions

Cumbria is bordered by the English counties of Northumberland, County Durham, North Yorkshire, Lancashire, and the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders.

The boundaries are along the Irish Sea to Morecambe Bay in the west, and along the Pennines to the east. Cumbria's northern boundary stretches from the Solway Firth from the Solway Plain eastward along the border with Scotland to Northumberland.

It is made up of six districts: Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland. For many administrative purposes Cumbria is divided into three areas — East, West and South. East consists of the districts of Carlisle and Eden, West consists of Allerdale and Copeland, and South consists of Lakeland and Barrow.

In January 2007, Cumbria County Council voted in favour of an official bid to scrap the current two-tier system of county and district councils in favour of a new unitary Cumbria Council, to be submitted for consideration to the Department for Communities and Local Government.[14] This was then rejected.

The county returns six Members of Parliament to the House of Commons, representing the constituencies of Carlisle, Penrith & The Border, Workington, Copeland, Westmorland and Lonsdale and Barrow & Furness.

Economy

DDH, Barrow-in-Furness
BAE Systems Submarine Solutions in Barrow-in-Furness has a workforce of around 5,000 people.

Many large companies and organisations are based in Cumbria. The county council itself employs around 17,000 individuals, while the largest private employer in Cumbria, the Sellafield nuclear processing site, has a workforce of 10,000.[15] Below is a list of some of the county's largest companies and employers (excluding services such as Cumbria Constabulary, Cumbria Fire and Rescue and the NHS in Cumbria), categorised by district:

Allerdale

Barrow-in-Furness

Carlisle

Copeland

  • Sellafield is the largest private employer in the county; many West Cumbrians have links to the site.[27]

Eden

South Lakeland

Tourism

Whinlatter Forest Park Sign
The entrance to Whinlatter Forest Park

The largest and most widespread industry in Cumbria is tourism. The Lake District National Park alone receives some 15.8 million visitors every year.[32] Despite this, fewer than 50,000 people reside permanently within the Lake District – mostly in Ambleside, Bowness-on-Windermere, Coniston, Keswick, Grasmere and Windermere.[32] Over 36,000 Cumbrians are employed in the tourism industry which adds £1.1 billion a year to the county's economy. The Lake District and county as a whole attracts visitors from across the UK,[32] Europe, North America and the Far East (particularly Japan).[32] The tables below show the twenty most-visited attractions in Cumbria in 2009 (please note that not all visitor attractions provided data to Cumbria Tourism who collated the list. Notable examples are Furness Abbey, the Lakes Aquarium and South Lakes Safari Zoo, the latter of which would almost certainly rank within the top five).[33]

Rank Attraction Location Visitors
1 Windermere Lake Cruises Bowness-on-Windermere 1,313,807
2 Rheged Penrith 439,568
3 Ullswater Steamers Glenridding 348,000
4 Whinlatter Forest Park and Visitor Centre Whinlatter 252,762
5 Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery Carlisle 251,808
6 Grizedale Forest Park and Visitor Centre Grizedale 175,033
7 Carlisle Cathedral Carlisle 166,141
8 Brockhole Lake District Visitor Centre Windermere 135,539
9 Hill Top Hawkshead 103,682
10 Sizergh Castle Sizergh Castle 90,063
Rank Attraction Location Visitors
11 Cumberland Pencil Museum Keswick 80,100
12 Muncaster Castle Ravenglass 78,474
13 Dock Museum Barrow-in-Furness 73,239
14 The Beacon Whitehaven 71,602
15 Holker Hall Cartmel 58,060
16 Carlisle Castle Carlisle 56,957
17 Beatrix Potter Gallery Hawkshead 47,244
18 Lake District Wildlife Park[34] Bassenthwaite 45,559
19 The Homes of Football Ambleside 49,661
20 Cartmel Priory Cartmel 43,672

Economic output

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added (GVA) of East Cumbria at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[35] Agriculture[36] Industry[37] Services[38]
1995 2,679 148 902 1,629
2000 2,843 120 809 1,914
2003 3,388 129 924 2,335

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of West Cumbria at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[35] Agriculture[36] Industry[37] Services[38]
1995 2,246 63 1,294 888
2000 2,415 53 1,212 1,150
2003 2,870 60 1,420 1,390

Politics

Constituency 1983 1987 1992 1997 2001 2005 2010 2015 2017
Barrow and Furness  CON  Cecil Franks  LAB  John Hutton  IND  John Woodcock
Carlisle  LAB  Ronald Lewis  LAB  Eric Martlew  CON  John Stevenson
Copeland  LAB  Jack Cunningham  LAB  Jamie Reed  CON  Trudy Harrison
Penrith and The Border  CON  David Maclean  CON  Rory Stewart
Westmorland and Lonsdale  CON  Michael Jopling  CON  Tim Collins  LD  Tim Farron
Workington  LAB  Dale Campbell-Savours  LAB  Tony Cunningham  LAB  Sue Hayman
General Election 2015: Cumbria
Conservative Labour Liberal Democrats UKIP Green Independent Turnout
104,627
+16,255
76,420
+16,128
34,271
-25,715
32,417
+27,518
8,625
+7,622
446
N/A
256,806
+36,052
Overall Number of seats as of 2017
Labour Conservative Liberal Democrats UKIP Green Independent
2 3 1 0 0 0

Education

Skiddaw Building, University of Cumbria - geograph.org.uk - 715574
The University of Cumbria's Fusehill Campus in Carlisle

Although Cumbria has a comprehensive system almost in toto, it has one state grammar school in Penrith. There are 42 state secondary schools and 10 independent schools. The more rural secondary schools tend to have sixth forms (although in Barrow-in-Furness district, no schools have sixth forms) and this is the same for three schools in Allerdale and South Lakeland, and one in the other districts. Chetwynde is also the only school in Barrow to educate children from nursery all the way to sixth form level.

Colleges of further education in Cumbria include:-

The University of Cumbria is one of the UK's newest universities having been established in 2007, it is at present the only university in Cumbria and has campuses across the county, together with Lancaster and London.

Transport

The M6 is the only motorway that runs through Cumbria. Kendal and Penrith are amongst its primary destinations before it becomes the A74(M) just north of Carlisle. Major A roads within Cumbria include:

  • A6 (Luton, Bedfordshire to Carlisle via Kendal and Penrith)
  • A66 (Workington to Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire via Keswick, Penrith and Brough)
  • A69 (Carlisle to Newcastle upon Tyne via Brampton and Hexham)
  • A590 (M6 Junction 36 to Barrow-in-Furness via Ulverston)
  • A591 (Sizergh to Bothel via Kendal, Windermere, Ambleside, Grasmere and Keswick)
  • A592 (M6 Junction 40 to Newby Bridge via Penrith, Windermere and Bowness-on-Windermere)
  • A595 (Carlisle to Dalton-in-Furness via Whitehaven and Workington)
  • A596 (Carlisle to Workington)

Several bus companies run services in Cumbria serving the main towns and villages in the county, with some services running to neighbouring areas such as Lancaster. Stagecoach North West is the largest; it has depots in Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Kendal and Workington. Stagecoach's flagship X6 route connects Barrow-in-Furness and Kendal in south Cumbria.

There are only two airports in the county: Carlisle Lake District and Barrow/Walney Island. Both airports formerly served scheduled passenger flights and both are proposing expansions and renovations to handle domestic and European flights in the near future. The nearest international airports to south Cumbria are Blackpool, Manchester and Liverpool John Lennon. North Cumbria is closer to Newcastle, Glasgow Prestwick and Glasgow International. Barrow-in-Furness is one of the country's largest shipbuilding centres, but the Port of Barrow is only minor, operated by Associated British Ports alongside the Port of Silloth in Allerdale. There are no ferry links from any port or harbour along the Cumbria coast.

The busiest railway stations in Cumbria are Carlisle, Barrow-in-Furness, Penrith and Oxenholme Lake District. The West Coast Main Line runs for 399 miles (642 km) through the Cumbria countryside adjacent to the M6 motorway. The Cumbrian Coast Line connects Barrow-in-Furness to Carlisle and is a vital link in the west of the county. Other railways in Cumbria are the Windermere Branch Line, most of the Furness Line and much of the Settle-Carlisle Railway.

Demography

Cumbria's largest settlement and only city is Carlisle, in the north of the county. The largest town, Barrow-in-Furness, in the south, is slightly smaller. The county's population is largely rural: it has the second-lowest population density among English counties, and has only five towns with a population of over 20,000. Cumbria is also one of the country's most ethnically homogeneous counties, with 95.1% of the population categorised as White British (around 470,900 of the 495,000 Cumbrians).[39] However, the larger towns have ethnic makeups that are closer to the national average. The 2001 census indicated that Christianity was the religion with the most adherents in the county.

2010 ONS estimates placed the number of foreign-born (non-United Kingdom) people living in Cumbria at around 14,000 and foreign nationals at 6,000.[40] The 2001 UK Census showed the following most common countries of birth for Cumbrians that year:

  •  England – 454,137
  •  Scotland – 16,628
  •  Wales – 3,471
  •  Northern Ireland – 2,289
  •  Germany – 1,438
  •  Republic of Ireland – 1,359
  •  South Africa – 603
  •  Canada – 581
  •  Australia – 531
  •  United States – 493
  •  India – 476
  •  Hong Kong – 417
  •  Italy – 249
  •  New Zealand – 241
  •  France – 197
  •  Poland – 193
  •  Cyprus – 174
  •  Netherlands – 167
  •  Spain – 166
  •  Singapore – 160
Population totals for Cumbria
YearPop.±% p.a.
1801 173,017—    
1811 193,139+1.11%
1821 225,555+1.56%
1831 242,320+0.72%
1841 255,603+0.54%
1851 274,957+0.73%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1861 320,257+1.54%
1871 365,556+1.33%
1881 410,856+1.18%
1891 434,867+0.57%
1901 437,364+0.06%
1911 440,485+0.07%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1921 441,483+0.02%
1931 442,693+0.03%
1941 456,833+0.31%
1951 471,897+0.32%
1961 473,706+0.04%
1971 475,669+0.04%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1981 471,693−0.08%
1991 489,191+0.36%
2001 487,607−0.03%
2011 499,900+0.25%
2014 499,800−0.01%
Pre-1974 statistics were gathered from local government areas that are now comprised by Cumbria
Source: Great Britain Historical GIS.[41][42]

Settlements

The table below has divided the settlements into their local authority district. Each district has a centre of administration; for some of these correlate with a district's largest town, while others are named after the geographical area.

Administration borough/district Centre of administration Other towns, villages and settlements
Allerdale UK locator map
Allerdale
Workington WorkingtonClock Aspatria
Cockermouth
Harrington
Keswick
Maryport
Silloth
Wigton
Barrow-in-Furness UK locator map
Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness Duke Street, Barrow-in-Furness Askam and Ireleth
Dalton-in-Furness
Walney Island
Carlisle UK locator map
Carlisle
Carlisle ScotchStreet-Carlisle Brampton
Dalston
Longtown
Copeland UK locator map
Copeland
Whitehaven Whitehaven - geograph.org.uk - 19798 Arlecdon and Frizington
Cleator Moor
Egremont
Millom
St Bees
Eden UK locator map
Eden
Penrith Market Square, Penrith Alston
Appleby-in-Westmorland
Kirkby Stephen
Shap
Kirkoswald
South Lakeland UK locator map
South Lakeland
Kendal Busy street - geograph.org.uk - 406931 Ambleside
Bowness-on-Windermere
Coniston
Grasmere
Hawkshead
Kirkby Lonsdale
Milnthorpe
Sedbergh
Ulverston
Windermere

Town and city twinnings

Settlement District Twinned settlement
Carlisle Carlisle Germany Flensburg, Germany
Poland Słupsk, Poland
Cockermouth Allerdale France Marvejols, France
Dalton-in-Furness Barrow-in-Furness United States Dalton, Pennsylvania, United States
Kendal South Lakeland Republic of Ireland Killarney, Ireland
Germany Rinteln, Germany
Penrith Eden Australia Penrith, New South Wales, Australia
Sedbergh South Lakeland Slovenia Zreče, Slovenia
Ulverston South Lakeland France Albert, France
Whitehaven Copeland Bulgaria Kozloduy, Bulgaria[43]
Windermere South Lakeland Germany Diessen am Ammersee, Germany
Workington Allerdale Germany Selm, Germany
France Val-de-Reuil, France

Symbols and county emblems

The arms of Cumbria County Council were granted by the College of Arms on 10 October 1974. The arms represent the areas from which the new county council's area was put together; the shield's green border has Parnassus flowers representing Cumberland interspersed with roses; red for Lancashire (the Furness district) on white for Yorkshire (Sedbergh is from the West Riding). The crest is a ram's head crest, found in the arms both of Westmorland County Council and Barrow County Borough, with Cumberland's Parnassus flowers again. The supporters are the legendary Dacre Bull (Cumberland) and a red dragon, redolent of Cumbria's Brittonic origin.(Appleby in Westmorland). They stand on a base compartment representing Hadrian's Wall (in Cumberland), crossed with two red bars (from the Westmorland arms).[44]

The county council motto "Ad Montes Oculos Levavi" is Latin, from Psalm 121; ("I shall lift up mine eyes unto the hills").[44]

The county flag of Cumbria is a banner of arms of Cumbria County Council.[45][46]

Sport

Brunton Park Welcome
Brunton Park, the home of Carlisle United
Craven Park, Barrow
Craven Park, home of Barrow Raiders

Running

Fell running is a popular sport in Cumbria, with an active calendar of competitions taking place throughout the year.

Football

Carlisle United are the only professional football team in Cumbria and currently play in League Two (4th Tier in the English football pyramid). They attract support from across Cumbria and beyond, with many Cumbrian "ex-pats" travelling to see their games, both home and away.

Barrow and Workington A.F.C.—who are always known locally as "the reds"—are well-supported non-league teams, having both been relegated from the Football League in the 1970s, with Barrow being one of the best supported non-league football teams in England. Recently Workington A.F.C. have made a rapid rise up the non league ladder and in 2007/08 competed with Barrow in the Conference North (Tier 6). Barrow were then promoted to the Blue Square Premier (Tier 5) in 2007/08.

Rugby league

Rugby league is a very popular sport in South and West Cumbria. Barrow, Whitehaven and Workington play in the Rugby League National Leagues and Carlisle in the Rugby League Conference. Amateur teams; Wath Brow Hornets, Askam, Egremont Rangers, Kells, and Millom play in the National Conference.

Rugby union

Rugby union is popular in the east of the county with teams such as Furness RUFC & Hawcoat Park RUFC (South Cumbria), Workington RUFC (Workington Zebras), Carlisle RUFC, Aspatria RUFC, Wigton RUFC, Kendal RUFC, Kirkby Lonsdale RUFC, Keswick RUFC, Cockermouth RUFC, Upper Eden RUFC and Penrith RUFC.

Cricket

Cumberland County Cricket Club is one of the cricket clubs that constitute the Minor Counties in the English domestic cricket structure. The club, based in Carlisle, competes in the Minor Counties Championship and the MCCA Knockout Trophy. The club also play some home matches in Workington, as well as other locations.

Cumbrian club cricket teams play in the North Lancashire and Cumbria League.

Speedway

Workington Comets are a Workington based professional speedway team,[47] which competes in the British Speedway Championship.[48]

Other

Uppies and Downies

Workington is home to the ball game known as Uppies and Downies,[49] a traditional version of football, with its origins in Medieval football or an even earlier form.[50] Players from outside Workington do take part, especially fellow West Cumbrians from Whitehaven and Maryport.[51]

Wrestling

Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling is an ancient and well-practised tradition in the county with a strong resemblance to Scottish Backhold.

In the 21st century Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling along with other aspects of Lakeland culture are practised at the Grasmere Sports and Show, an annual meeting held every year since 1852 on the August Bank Holiday.

The origin of this form of wrestling is a matter of debate, with some describing it as having evolved from Norse wrestling brought over by Viking invaders,[52] while other historians associate it with the Cornish and Gouren styles[53] indicating that it may have developed out of a longer-standing Celtic tradition.[54]

American football
Cumbria is home to the Walney Terriers and the Carlisle Border Reivers, which are rival amateur American football teams, despite a relatively low level of interest in the sport throughout the county.

Karting
Cumbria Kart Racing Club is based at the Lakeland Circuit, Rowrah, between Cockermouth and Egremont [1]. The track is currently a venue for rounds of both major UK national karting championships [2]. Formula One world champions Lewis Hamilton and Jenson Button both raced karts at Rowrah many times in the formative stages of their motor sport careers [3], while other F1 drivers, past and present, to have competed there include Johnny Herbert, Anthony Davidson, Allan McNish, Ralph Firman, Paul di Resta and David Coulthard, who hailed from just over the nearby Anglo-Scottish border and regarded Rowrah as his home circuit, becoming Cumbria Kart Racing Club Champion in 1985 in succession to McNish (di Resta also taking the CKRC title subsequently) [4].

Dialect influences

Celtic

  • Cumbria – Celtic speaking until Viking invasion, if not later (Cymry) [55]
  • little English spoken in Cumberland, relatively sparsely populated until 12th/13th century [56]
  • Successful routing of indigenous Celtic peoples to Western highlands of Cumbria, Wales and Cornwall by the invading Angles and Saxons, with little linguistic consequence, apart from scattering of residual place-names
  • Northwest – possibility of direct influence from Irish Gaelic across Irish Sea via Whitehaven until 10th century [57]
  • Celtic influence/kingdoms may have confirmed perception of difference between the North/South [55]
  • linguistic interaction between Celts and English underrated, effectively Celtic influence marked the beginnings of a linguistic divide between English and other West-Germanic dialects [58]
  • Lexis - Celtic influence left specifically on the sound pattern of sheep-scoring numerals of Cumbrian and West Yorkshire [55]
  • Loss of inflections may be explained by contact with Celtic tribes and inter-marriage [55]

Anglo-Saxon/Viking

  • Earliest Anglo-Saxon settlements in the east of England. Took over 200 years to establish a frontier in the west where the displaced British had settled[59]
  • Morphology – Old Northumbrian (little evidence) signs of loss of inflexions long before southern dialects below the Humber, precede Viking settlements and dialect contact situation [55]

Scandinavian/Norse/ Dane

  • Lack of extent of Old English written evidence [55]
  • Main attacks/raids on the North-East coast at Lindisfarne and Jarrow in 793/ 794. [55]
  • Settlement patterns (Danes) contributed to emerging differences over time between Northumberland. Durham and Yorkshire dialects [55]
  • Norwegian settlers via Ireland to Isle of Man, Mersey estuary (901) and the Cumbrian/ Lancashire coasts (900-50) – dialectal differences (Danes/ Norwegians) often lumped together in standard histories – MUST have confirmed emerging dialectal differences east and west of the Pennines [55]
  • Danelaw – land of north and east of land ruled under Danish law and Danish customs (978-1016) [55]
  • Scandinavian influences vocabulary common words gradually diffused/ entered word stock (borrowings) which survive in regional use – ‘fell’ hillside, ‘lug’ ear, ‘loup’ jump, ‘aye’ yes
  • Influence on grammatical structure - Middle English texts reveal that present participle form ‘-and’, and possible that use of ‘at’ and ‘as’ as relative pronouns from Cumbria to East Yorkshire [55]
  • phonetically /g/, /k/ and cluster /sk/ have a northern/ Norse pronunciation /j/, /ʧ/ and /ʃ/ which are West Saxon – hard vs. soft consonants of North/South dialects – e.g. ‘give/ rigg’ ridge, ‘skrike’ shriek, ‘kist’ chest and ‘ik’ [55]
  • ‘interdialect forms’ in Danelaw area (diffuse > focussed situation) - no clear idea about what language they were speaking – mixture of Old English and Norse e.g. ‘she’ (3rd person pronoun) is claimed by both languages [55] [60]
  • ‘bilingualism was norm in areas under Danelaw (plausible) [55]
  • Norse runic inscriptions survive from 11th century in Cumbria therefore may only been after Norman Conquest that ‘Norse as a living language died out’ [61]
  • Norse surviving longest in closed communities, as in the Lake District [62]

Normans

  • Jewell (1994: 20) - Northumbria retained relative independence until 13th century – effective government of North by Normans ‘petered-out’ at Lake District and North of Tees (not recorded in Domesday Book) [63]
  • Carlisle retaken by Scots in 1136 [55]

Cumbric

  • Early 10th century - all of the northwest of England occupied by a mixture of newcomers from Ireland of mixed Vikings and Gaelic. The grip from Northumbrian on the former territory of Rheged was that of Britons of Strathcylde reoccupied southwest Scotland and northwest England as far south as Derwent and Penrith [64] which was held until Carlisle retaken by Scots in 1136 [55]
  • Cumbric perhaps survived but faded into the early 12th century throughout Cumbria [65]
  • Cumbric score – counting sheep – Welsh correspondence Welsh (un, dau, tri) – Cumberland (yan, tyan, tethera) – Westmorland (yan, than, teddera) – Lancashire (yan, taen, tedderte) – West Yorkshire (yain, tain, eddero) [64] survived 7-8 centuries after the language itself had died – Brittonic origin
  • Not one single complete phrase in Cumbric survives, evidence to suggest strong literary tradition, probably oral, some of this early material is known in a Welsh version[64]

Media

Two evening newspapers are published daily in Cumbria. The News and Star focuses largely on Carlisle and the surrounding areas of north and west Cumbria, and the North-West Evening Mail is based in Barrow-in-Furness and covers news from across Furness and the South Lakes. The Cumberland and Westmorland Herald and The Westmorland Gazette are weekly newspapers based in Penrith and Kendal respectively.

Due to the size of Cumbria the county spans two television zones: BBC North East and Cumbria and ITV Tyne Tees & Border in the north and BBC North West and ITV Granada in the south. Heart North Lancashire and Cumbria, CFM Radio and Smooth Lake District are the most popular local radio stations throughout the county, with BBC Radio Cumbria being the only station that is aimed at Cumbria as a whole.

The Australian-New Zealand feature film The Navigator: A Medieval Odyssey (1988) is set in Cumbria during the onset of the Black Death in 14th-century Europe.

Cumbria is host to a number of festivals, including Kendal Calling (actually held in Penrith since 2009)[66][67] and Kendal Mountain Festival.

Places of interest

Key
AP Icon.svg Abbey/Priory/Cathedral
Accessible open space Accessible open space
Themepark uk icon.png Amusement/Theme Park
CL icon.svg Castle
Country Park Country Park
EH icon.svg English Heritage
Forestry Commission
Heritage railway Heritage railway
Historic house Historic House
Mosque Mosques
Museum (free)
Museum
Museum (free/not free)
National Trust National Trust
Drama-icon.svg Theatre
Zoo icon.jpg Zoo
Furness Abbey 03
Furness Abbey
Flat calm at dawn, Windermere, from below Claife Heights - geograph.org.uk - 559443
Lake Windermere
Thirleme 069
Thirlmere

Notable people

See also

References

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  34. ^ "About Us - Lake District Wildlife Park". Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  35. ^ a b Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  36. ^ a b includes hunting and forestry
  37. ^ a b includes energy and construction
  38. ^ a b includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
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  53. ^ "Amateur Wrestling". Archived from the original on 30 December 2006. Retrieved 24 February 2007.
  54. ^ "Kronos; A Chronology of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports". Archived from the original on 9 February 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2007.
  55. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Wales, Katie (2006). Northern English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 62.
  56. ^ Strang, Barbara M, H (1970). A History of English. London: Methuen. p. 256.
  57. ^ Elmes, Simon (1999). The Routes of English. London: BBC. p. 27.
  58. ^ Tristram, Hildegard (2000). "Introduction: languages in contact; layer cake model or otherwise?". The Celtic Languages. 2: 1–8.
  59. ^ Leith, Dick (1983). A Social History of English. London: Routledge. p. 106.
  60. ^ Trudgill, Peter (1974). "Linguistic change and diffusion: description and explanation in sociolinguistic dialect geography". Language in Society. 3 (2): 215–2246. doi:10.1017/s0047404500004358.
  61. ^ Werner, Otmar (1991). "The incorporation of Old Norse pronouns in Middle English: suppletion by loan". Language Contact in the British Isles: 369–401.
  62. ^ Gordon, E, V (1923). "Scandinavian Influence in Yorkshire Dialects". Transactions of the Yorkshire Dialect Society. 4: 5–22.
  63. ^ Jewell, Helen (1994). The North-South Divide: The Origins of Northern Consciousness in England. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 20.
  64. ^ a b c Price, G (2000). Languages in Britain and Ireland. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 125.
  65. ^ Jackson, Peter (1989). Maps of Meaning: An Introduction to Cultural Geography. London: Unwin Hyman. p. 72.
  66. ^ "Travel - Kendal Calling". Kendal Calling. Archived from the original on 6 September 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  67. ^ "Kendal Calling 2009 - have your say". The Westmorland Gazette. Archived from the original on 6 September 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2018.

External links

  • Media related to Cumbria at Wikimedia Commons
  • Cumbria travel guide from Wikivoyage
Appleby-in-Westmorland

Appleby-in-Westmorland is a market town and civil parish in the Eden district, in the county of Cumbria, in North West England. It is situated within a loop of the River Eden. In 2011 the parish had a population of 3,048. It is in the historic county of Westmorland, of which it is the traditional county town.

The town's name was simply Appleby, until the local government changes of 1974. When a successor parish was formed for the former borough of Appleby, the council effected a change in the town's name, to preserve the historic county's name.

Barrow-in-Furness

Barrow-in-Furness, commonly known as Barrow, is a town and borough in Cumbria, England. Historically part of Lancashire, it was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1867 and merged with Dalton-in-Furness Urban District in 1974 to form the Borough of Barrow-in-Furness. At the tip of the Furness peninsula, close to the Lake District, it is bordered by Morecambe Bay, the Duddon Estuary and the Irish Sea. In 2011, Barrow's population was 57,000, making it the second largest urban area in Cumbria after Carlisle, although it is geographically closer to the whole of Lancashire and most of Merseyside. Natives of Barrow, as well as the local dialect, are known as Barrovian.In the Middle Ages, Barrow was a small hamlet within the Parish of Dalton-in-Furness with Furness Abbey, now on the outskirts of the modern-day town, controlling the local economy before its dissolution in 1537. The iron prospector Henry Schneider arrived in Furness in 1839 and, with other investors, opened the Furness Railway in 1846 to transport iron ore and slate from local mines to the coast. Further hematite deposits were discovered, of sufficient size to develop factories for smelting and exporting steel. For a period of the late 19th century, the Barrow Hematite Steel Company-owned steelworks was the world's largest.Barrow's location and the availability of steel allowed the town to develop into a significant producer of naval vessels, a shift that was accelerated during World War I and the local yard's specialisation in submarines. The original iron- and steel-making enterprises closed down after World War II, leaving Vickers shipyard as Barrow's main industry and employer. Several Royal Navy flagships, the vast majority of its nuclear submarines as well as numerous other naval vessels, ocean liners and oil tankers have been manufactured at the facility.

The end of the Cold War and subsequent decrease in military spending saw high unemployment in the town through lack of contracts; despite this, the BAE Systems shipyard remains operational as the UK's largest by workforce and is undergoing a major expansion associated with the Dreadnought-class submarine programme. Today Barrow is a hub for energy generation and handling. Offshore wind farms form one of the highest concentrations of turbines in the world, including the single largest with multiple operating bases in Barrow.

Carlisle

Carlisle ( or locally from Cumbric: Caer Luel Scottish Gaelic: Cathair Luail) is a historic city and the county town of Cumbria. Historically in Cumberland, it is also the administrative centre of the City of Carlisle district in North West England. Carlisle is located at the confluence of the rivers Eden, Caldew and Petteril, 10 miles (16 km) south of the Scottish border. It is the largest settlement in the county of Cumbria, and serves as the administrative centre for both Carlisle City Council and Cumbria County Council. At the time of the 2001 census, the population of Carlisle was 71,773, with 100,734 living in the wider city. Ten years later, at the 2011 census, the city's population had risen to 75,306, with 107,524 in the wider city.The early history of Carlisle is marked by its status as a Roman settlement, established to serve the forts on Hadrian's Wall. During the Middle Ages, because of its proximity to the Kingdom of Scotland, Carlisle became an important military stronghold; Carlisle Castle, still relatively intact, was built in 1092 by William Rufus, and once served as a prison for Mary, Queen of Scots. The castle now houses the Duke of Lancaster's Regiment and the Border Regiment Museum. In the early 12th century, Henry I allowed the foundation of a priory in Carlisle. The town gained the status of a city when its diocese was formed in 1133, and the priory became Carlisle Cathedral.

The introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution began a process of socioeconomic transformation in Carlisle, which developed into a densely populated mill town. This, combined with its strategic position, allowed for the development of Carlisle as an important railway town, with seven railway companies sharing Carlisle railway station.

Nicknamed the Great Border City, Carlisle today is the main cultural, commercial and industrial centre for north Cumbria. It is home to the main campuses of the University of Cumbria and a variety of museums and heritage centres. The former County Borough of Carlisle had held city status until the Local Government Act 1972 was enacted in 1974.

Cumbria 1

Cumbria 1 (formerly Cumbria League) is a competitive rugby union league at tier 7 of the English rugby union system run by the English Rugby Football Union for club sides based in Cumbria. Promoted teams typically go up to North 1 West while relegated sides drop to Cumbria 2. Each season a team from Cumbria 1 is picked to take part in the RFU Intermediate Cup - a national competition for clubs at level 7.

Up until the end of the 2017-18 season the Cumbria League was a single division involving 10 clubs and ranked at tier 8 of the English rugby union system. The champions were automatically promoted to the now discontinued North Lancashire/Cumbria league and up until the 2016-17 season the second placed team faced the runner up from Lancashire (North) for the final promotion place until Lancashire (North) was cancelled. There was no relegation due to it having been the lowest competitive league for Rugby Union in Cumbria. It ran alongside the Cumbria 2 North & West and Cumbria 2 South & East Merit Leagues.This changed for the 2018-19 season due to RFU having to restructuring the northern leagues after 19 Lancashire based clubs withdrew from the league system to form their own competition. The result was that the Cumbrian clubs based in North Lancashire/Cumbria joined the top 3 Cumbria League sides in Cumbria 1, while the rest of the Cumbrian League sides along with a handful of 2nd XV teams formed Cumbria 2.Another change to the structure from the 2018-19 season was that the division would play two stages - the first involving all eight teams to decide who would be contesting promotion and relegation during the second stage when the division was divided into two mini leagues (one promotion/one relegation).

Cumbria 2

Cumbria 2 is a competitive rugby union league at tier 8 of the English rugby union system run by the English Rugby Football Union for club sides based in Cumbria. Teams are promoted to Cumbria 1 and as it is the lowest ranked RFU league in the county there is no relegation. Each season a team from Cumbria 2 is picked to take part in the RFU Senior Vase - a national competition for clubs at level 8.

Cumbria 2 was formed for the 2018-19 season when the RFU had to restructure the Cumbria and northern leagues due to 19 Lancashire based clubs withdrawing from the league structure to form their own competition. A consequence of this was that North Lancashire/Cumbria was cancelled and the Cumbria League was split into two divisions, with the North Lancashire/Cumbria clubs joining the top 3 Cumbria League clubs in Cumbria 1, and the rest of the sides (including some 2nd XV teams) forming Cumbria 2.

Cumbria Constabulary

Cumbria Constabulary is the territorial police force in England covering Cumbria. As of September 2017, the force had 1,108 police officers, 535 police staff, 93 police community support officers, 25 designated officers and 86 special constables. In terms of officer numbers, it is the 7th smallest of the 48 police forces of the United Kingdom. Conversely, its geographic area of responsibility is the 7th largest police area of a territorial police force in the United Kingdom (when including Police Scotland and the Police Service of Northern Ireland). The force area's size and its population of just under 500,000 people makes it sparsely populated. The only major urban areas are Carlisle and Barrow-in-Furness.

There are significant areas of isolated and rural community, and the county has one of the smallest visible minority ethnic populations in the country at under 3.0%. Each year Cumbria, which incorporates the Lake District National Park, attracts over 23 million visitors from all over the world (46 times the local population). The county has 67 miles (108 km) of motorway and some 700 miles (1,100 km) of trunk and primary roads.

The Chief Constable is Michelle Skeer. The headquarters of the force are at Carleton Hall, Penrith.

Cumbria Fire and Rescue Service

Cumbria Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service for the Shire county of Cumbria, England. Of the 38 fire stations, there are six wholetime (Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle (2 Stations East and West), Whitehaven, Workington and Ulverston). 2-day crewed (Kendal and Penrith) and 30 retained. Since 2012 the headquarters are at Penrith next to the headquarters of Cumbria Constabulary.

Cumbria Rugby Union

The Cumbria Rugby Union is the governing body for the sport of rugby union in the county of Cumbria in England. The union is the constituent body of the Rugby Football Union (RFU) for Cumbria, and administers and organises rugby union clubs and competitions in the county. It also administers the Cumbria rugby representative teams.

Grade II* listed buildings in Cumbria

The county of Cumbria is divided into six districts. The districts of Cumbria are Borough of Barrow-in-Furness, District of South Lakeland, Borough of Copeland, Borough of Allerdale, District of Eden, City of Carlisle.

As there are 460 Grade II* listed buildings in the county they have been split into separate lists for each district.

Grade II* listed buildings in Allerdale

Grade II* listed buildings in Barrow-in-Furness (borough)

Grade II* listed buildings in the City of Carlisle

Grade II* listed buildings in Copeland

Grade II* listed buildings in Eden

Grade II* listed buildings in South Lakeland

Hadrian's Wall

Hadrian's Wall (Latin: Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian. It ran from the banks of the River Tyne near the North Sea to the Solway Firth on the Irish Sea, and was the northern limit of the Roman Empire, immediately north of which were the lands of the northern Ancient Britons, including the Picts.

It had a stone base and a stone wall. There were milecastles with two turrets in between. There was a fort about every five Roman miles. From north to south, the wall comprised a ditch, wall, military way and vallum, another ditch with adjoining mounds. It is thought the milecastles were staffed with static garrisons, whereas the forts had fighting garrisons of infantry and cavalry. In addition to the wall's defensive military role, its gates may have been customs posts.A significant portion of the wall still stands and can be followed on foot along the adjoining Hadrian's Wall Path. The largest Roman archaeological feature anywhere, it runs a total of 73 miles (117.5 kilometres) in northern England. Regarded as a British cultural icon, Hadrian's Wall is one of Britain's major ancient tourist attractions. It was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987. In comparison, the Antonine wall, thought by some to be based on Hadrian's wall (the Gillam hypothesis), was not declared a World Heritage site until 2008.It is a common misconception that Hadrian's Wall marks the boundary between England and Scotland. In fact Hadrian's Wall lies entirely within England and has never formed the Anglo-Scottish border. While it is less than 0.6 mi (1.0 km) south of the border with Scotland in the west at Bowness-on-Solway, in the east at Wallsend it is as much as 68 miles (109 km) away.

Kendal

Kendal, known earlier as Kirkby in Kendal or Kirkby Kendal, is a market town and civil parish within the South Lakeland District of Cumbria, England. Historically in Westmorland, it is situated about 8 miles (13 km) south-east of Windermere, 19 miles (31 km) north of Lancaster, 23 miles (37 km) north-east of Barrow-in-Furness and 38 miles (61 km) north-west of Skipton. The town lies in the valley or "dale" of the River Kent, from which it derives its name, and has a total resident population of 28,586, making it the third largest settlement in Cumbria behind Carlisle and Barrow-in-Furness.

Kendal today is known largely as a centre for tourism, as the home of Kendal mint cake, and as a producer of pipe tobacco and tobacco snuff. Its buildings, mostly constructed with the local grey limestone, have earned it the nickname Auld Grey Town.

List of places in Cumbria

Map of villages in Cumbria compiled from this listThis is a list of cities, towns and villages in the county of Cumbria, England. See the list of places in England for places in other counties.

Maryport

Maryport is a town and civil parish in the Allerdale borough of Cumbria, England. Historically in Cumberland, it is located on the A596 road 6 miles (10 kilometres) north of Workington, and is the southernmost town on the Solway Firth. The town of Silloth is to the north on the B5300 coast road, which passes through the villages of Allonby, Mawbray, Beckfoot, and Blitterlees. The county town of Carlisle lies 26 mi (42 km) to the north-east. Maryport railway station is on the Cumbrian Coast Line. Maryport lies at the northern end of the former Cumberland Coalfield.

Penrith, Cumbria

Penrith ( pen-RITH) is a market town and civil parish in the county of Cumbria, England. Penrith lies less than 3 miles (5 km) outside the boundaries of the Lake District National Park. Historically a part of Cumberland, Penrith's local authority is currently Eden District Council, which is based in the town. Penrith was formerly the seat of both Penrith Urban and Rural District Councils. From 1974 to 2015, Penrith had no town council of its own, and was an unparished area. A civil parish of Penrith was recreated in 2015. Penrith Town Council was formed in 2015 and the first elections to the council took place on May 7, 2015.

Ulverston

Ulverston is a market town in the South Lakeland district of Cumbria in North West England. Historically in Lancashire, the town is in the Furness area eight miles (13 km) north-east of Barrow-in-Furness and four miles (7 km) south of the Lake District. It is just to the northwest of Morecambe Bay. Neighbouring settlements include Swarthmoor, Pennington and Rosside.

Ulverston's most visible landmark is Hoad Monument, a concrete structure built in 1850 to commemorate statesman and local resident Sir John Barrow. The monument provides views of the surrounding area, including Morecambe Bay and parts of the Lake District.

Ulverston Canal, no longer navigable, was once a vital component of the town's economy and is still celebrated with an art installation.

University of Cumbria

The University of Cumbria is a public university in Cumbria, with its headquarters in Carlisle and other major campuses in Lancaster, Ambleside, and London. It opened its doors in 2007, and has roots extending back to the Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts, established in 1822, and the teacher training college established by Charlotte Mason in the 1890s.

Westmorland

Westmorland (; formerly also spelt Westmoreland; even older spellings are Westmerland and Westmereland) is a historic county in north west England. It formed an administrative county between 1889 and 1974, after which the whole county was administered by the new administrative county of Cumbria. In 2013, the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government, Eric Pickles, formally recognised and acknowledged the continued existence of England's 39 historic counties, including Westmorland.

Windermere, Cumbria (town)

Windermere is a town and civil parish in the South Lakeland District of Cumbria, England. It has a population of 8,245 increasing to 8,359 at the 2011 Census, and lies about half a mile (1 km) away from the lake, Windermere. Although the town Windermere does not touch the lake (it took the name of the lake when the railway line was built in 1847 and the station was called "Windermere"), it has now grown together with the older lakeside town of Bowness-on-Windermere, though the two retain distinguishable town centres. Tourism is popular in the town owing to its proximity to the lake and local scenery. Boats from the piers in Bowness sail around the lake, many calling at Ambleside or at Lakeside where there is a restored railway. Windermere Hotel opened at the same time as the railway.

Workington

Workington is a coastal town and civil parish at the mouth of the River Derwent on the west coast of Cumbria, England. Historically in Cumberland and lying in the Borough of Allerdale, Workington is 32 miles (51.5 km) southwest of Carlisle, 7 miles (11.3 km) west of Cockermouth, and 5 miles (8.0 km) southwest of Maryport. At the 2011 Census it had a population of 25,207.Workington is the seat of Allerdale Borough Council, which holds the Allerdale Borough Council elections. Sue Hayman is the MP for the constituency of the same name that includes other towns in Workington's hinterland.

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