Culicoidea

The Culicoidea are a superfamily within the order Diptera. The following families are included within the Culicoidea:

Culicoidea
Mosquito 2007-2
A female Culiseta longiareolata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Suborder: Nematocera
Infraorder: Culicomorpha
Superfamily: Culicoidea
Malloch, 1917
Families

References

  • McAlpine, J.F., B.V. Peterson, G.E. Shewell, H.J. Teskey, J.R. Vockeroth, and D.M. Wood. Manual of Nearctic Diptera, Volume 1. Agriculture Canada Monograph 27.1981.
Aedes cinereus

Aedes cinereus is a mosquito species in the genus Aedes.

Aedes polynesiensis

Aedes polynesiensis (also known as the Polynesian tiger mosquito) is only found in the South Pacific on the islands of Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Ellice Islands, Fiji Islands, Hoorn Islands, Marquesas Islands, Pitcairn Island, Samoa Islands, Society Islands, Tokelau Islands, Tuamotu Archipelago. It is a vector of dengue, Ross River virus, and lymphatic filariasis, and a probable vector of Zika virus. Adults lay eggs in natural and human-associated pools of freshwater. Common larval habitats include tree holes, holes in volcanic rock formations, coconut shells, water storage containers (drums), and discarded trash (including tires and bottles).

Aedes scutellaris

Aedes scutellaris is a mosquito found in Ambon, Aru Islands, Seram, New Guinea. It is a vector for the dengue virus.

Anopheles dirus

Anopheles dirus is a vector of malaria in Asian forested zones.

Chaoboridae

The Chaoboridae, commonly known as phantom midges or glassworms, are a family of fairly common midges with a cosmopolitan distribution. They are closely related to the Corethrellidae and Chironomidae; the adults are differentiated through peculiarities in wing venation.

If they eat at all, the adults feed on nectar. The larvae are aquatic and unique in their feeding method: the antennae of phantom midge larvae are modified into grasping organs slightly resembling the raptorial arms of a mantis, with which they capture prey. They feed largely on small insects such as mosquito larvae and crustaceans such as Daphnia. The antennae impale or crush the prey, and then bring it to the larval mouth, or stylet.

The larvae swim and sometimes form large swarms in their lacustrine habitats.

Corethrella

Corethrella is a genus of midges that are classified in the family Corethrellidae.

Corethrellidae

The Corethrellidae are a family of biting midges, small flying insects belonging to the order Diptera, that are commonly known to feed on the blood of frogs. The members of the family are sometimes known as "frog-biting midges". The family currently consists of just two genera, totalling around 97 species worldwide. Several fossil species are known. Most extant species are found in the lower latitudes, usually associated around the tropics.They are tiny flies with a wing length of 0.6-2.5 mm. The wing venation is similar to Culicidae (R 4 branched, M 2 branched,Cu 2 branched) with branches of Rs and M nearly parallel. R1 is, however, closer to Sc or almost midway between Sc and R2.They were until 1986 placed as a subfamily of Culicidae.

Adult female Corethrella are attracted to the mating calls of male frogs, their chosen host taxa. As obligate external parasites, the midges feed almost exclusively on the blood of these frogs. Because of this, Corethrella follow typical distribution patterns of external parasites and are restricted to only areas with abundant populations of their host frogs. Female midges most likely detect their hosts using a specialized organ called a Johnston's organ, a collection of sensory cells found on the second antenna segment. There is evidence of host specificity and selection of particular biting sites for some species. Corethrella species have been observed sucking blood from individuals of the tree frog genus Hyla. Specifically, the North American tree frog species Hyla avivoca, Hyla cinerea and Hyla gratiosa were recorded as confirmed corethrellid hosts in a 1977 study.A few, select species are known vectors of frog-specific species of the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma. Corethrellid parasitism is thus a recorded cause of trypanosomiasis among host frog populations.The family contains members that date to the lower Cretaceous Period some 110 million years ago. At least one species, Corethrella andersoni, has been found in Burmese amber deposits dating from this time.

Culex restuans

Culex restuans is a species of mosquito known to occur in Canada, the United States, Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras. It is a disease vector of St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile Virus.

Culicini

Culicini is a tribe of mosquitoes in the subfamily Culicinae.

Culicomorpha

The Culicomorpha are an infraorder of Nematocera, including mosquitoes, black flies, and several extant and extinct families of insects.

Culiseta

Culiseta is a genus of mosquitoes. Most Culiseta species are cold-adapted, and only occur in warmer climates during the colder parts of the year or at higher elevations where temperatures are lower. Species found in Southern California are larger than most mosquitoes species, specifically Cs. inornata, Cs. particeps, and Cs. incidens. These species are found throughout the year in Southern California and feed on several vertebrate species, such as birds, livestock, rodents, reptiles, and humans. The larvae of most species are found bogs, marshes, ponds, streams, ditches, and rock pools, but an African species occurs in tree holes ("phytotelmata"), a common eastern Palaearctic species occurs in water wells and rock pools, and several Australian species occur under ground. Little is known about the blood-feeding habits of females. Most species feed on birds and mammals, but a few feed on reptiles. Several species attack domestic animals and occasionally humans.Culiseta species are found throughout the world, except in South America.

Dixella

Dixella is a genus of meniscus midges in the family Dixidae. There are at least 60 described species in Dixella.

Dixidae

The Dixidae (meniscus midges) are a family of aquatic nematoceran flies (Diptera). The larvae live in unpolluted, standing fresh waters, just beneath the surface film, usually amongst marginal aquatic vegetation. They are found in all continents except Antarctica.

Mansonia

Mansonia mosquitoes are big, black or brown mosquitoes with sparkling on their wings and legs. They breed in ponds and lakes containing certain aquatic plants, especially the floating type like Pistia stratiotes and water hyacinth. The eggs are laid in star-shaped clusters on the undersurface of leaves of these plants. The larvae and pupae are found attached to the rootlets of these plants by their siphon tubes. They obtain their air supply from these rootlets. When about to become adult, these pupae come to the surface of water and the fully formed adults emerge and escape. The control of Mansonia mosquitoes is easy by removal or destruction of the aquatic host plants by herbicides.

A study published in 2013 determined that the species Mansonia dyari Belkin, Heinemann, and Page should be considered a potential vector of Rift Valley fever virus and would need to be controlled if the virus were introduced into an area where it occurs.

Ochlerotatus

Ochlerotatus is a genus of mosquito. Until 2000, it was ranked as a subgenus of Aedes, but after Reinert's work, the clade was upgraded to a generic level. This change has resulted in the renaming of many subgenus species, and many aedini-related taxa are undergoing taxonomic revisions. Some authors are still using traditional taxonomic names in their publications.

Opifex (insect)

Opifex is a genus of mosquito containing the species Opifex chathamicus and O. fuscus.

Toxorhynchites

Toxorhynchites, also called elephant mosquito or mosquito eater, is a genus of diurnal and often relatively colorful mosquitoes, found worldwide between about 35° north and 35° south. It includes the largest known species of mosquito, at up to 18 mm (0.71 in) in length and 24 mm (0.94 in) in wingspan. It is among the many kinds of mosquito that do not consume blood. The adults subsist on carbohydrate-rich materials, such as honeydew, or saps and juices from damaged plants, refuse, fruit, and nectar.Their larvae prey on the larvae of other mosquitoes and similar nektonic prey, making Toxorhynchites beneficial to humans. In this respect, they contrast with blood-sucking species of mosquitoes. Toxorhynchites larvae live on a protein- and fat-rich diet of aquatic animals such as mosquito larvae. They have no need to risk their lives sucking blood in adulthood, having already accumulated the necessary materials for oogenesis and vitellogenesis.

Most species occur in forests. The larvae of one jungle variety, Toxorhynchites splendens, consume larvae of other mosquito species occurring in tree crevices, particularly Aedes aegypti.

Unlike Toxorhynchites mosquitoes, detritus feeder mosquito female larvae rely on blood meals to produce eggs more plentifully than a diet of nectar would permit. And even though blood sucking is a risky strategy that entails more casualties, and they could in principle subsist on nectar and the like as their males generally do, the risk is outweighed on average by the increase in the number and size of yolk-rich eggs that such protein-rich food permit.

Environmental scientists have suggested that Toxorhynchites mosquitoes be introduced to areas outside their natural range in order to fight dengue fever. This has been practiced historically, but errors have been made. For example, when intending to introduce T. splendens to new areas, scientists actually introduced T. amboinensis.

Uranotaenia

Uranotaenia is a genus of mosquitoes containing at least 270 species. It is the only member of the tribe Uranotaeniini.

Extant Diptera families

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