Originally the territory was occupied by the Opatas and the Pimas Altas. In 1647 the Jesuit missionary Marcos del Río founded the first Spanish settlement with the category of mission and gave it the name of "Los Santos Reyes de Cucurpe."  In 1859 it was given the title of "Villa" and in 1932 it became a municipality.
This town was once the considered the "Rim of Christendom" and it was from here that Father Eusebio Kino rode out to do his now historic work in the area then known as the Pimería Alta. He rode out on 14 March 1687, 24 years and one day before his death on 15 March 1711.
There are two rivers that have clear waters for most of the year and turbulent currents in the rainy season that lasts from June to August. The Dolores River and the Saracachi come together to form the Sonora River, which flows into the Abelardo L. Rodríguez Reservoir near Hermosillo.
Due to the higher elevation the climate is cooler than in the desert to the west. The annual average temperature is 16.5°C, with summer temperatures rarely reaching 40° and winter days bringing frost and some snow in the higher elevations. The average annual rainfall is 466.8 millimeters.
Most of the work force is employed in agriculture, which concentrates on growing grasses for cattle fodder. The cattle industry is modest and suffers from lack of infrastructure. There is one mine, Santa Gertrudis, which has offered a new source of employment.
Cerro de la Campana (Bell Hill) is a rocky landform and a symbol of the city of Hermosillo, Sonora. This place is an excellent viewpoint for tourists, because from the rocky hilltop you can see an almost complete panoramic view of the City of the Sun (Ciudad del Sol). It was inaugurated in 1909 as the viewpoint of the city. Its name comes from its shape, which is similar to a bell as seen from the west, even though other theories prompt that its name comes from the sound similar to a bell as rocks crash on the hill.Channel 14 TV stations in Mexico
The following television stations broadcast on digital channel 14 in Mexico:
XEX-TDT on Altzomoni, State of MexicoXHADO-TDT in Adivino, Sonora
XHALS-TDT in Atil, SonoraXHAO-TDT in San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas
XHAZP-TDT in Arizpe, SonoraXHBC-TDT in Mexicali, Baja California
XHBCA-TDT in Bacanora, Sonora
XHBCI-TDT in Bacoachi, Sonora
XHBNI-TDT in Bacadehuachi, Sonora
XHBNL-TDT in Benjamín Hill, Sonora
XHBVA-TDT in Baviacora, Sonora
XHBVE-TDT in Bavispe, SonoraXHCOJ-TDT in Ciudad Obregón, Sonora
XHCTTO-TDT in Toluca, State of MexicoXHGDP-TDT in Torreón, Coahuila
XHHCH-TDT in Huachineras, SonoraXHIE-TDT in Acapulco, Guerrero
XHMDS-TDT in Magdalena de Kino, SonoraXHMOR-TDT in Morelia, Michoacán
XHNCO-TDT in Nacori Chico, Sonora
XHNGE-TDT in Nacori Grande, SonoraXHONV-TDT in Onavas, SonoraXHOPMT-TDT in Monterrey, Nuevo LeónXHOPUM-TDT in Uruapan, Michoacán
XHRPS-TDT in Cucurpe, SonoraXHSAM-TDT in Sahuayo-Jiquilpan, Michoacán
XHSCZ-TDT in Santa Cruz, SonoraXHSECE-TDT in Querétaro, Querétaro
XHSIC-TDT in Saric, SonoraXHSJR-TDT in San Javier, Sonora
XHSPE-TDT in San Pedro de la Cueva, Sonora
XHSSE-TDT in Sasabe, Sonora
XHSYT-TDT in Sonoita, SonoraXHTAO-TDT in Tampico, Tamaulipas
XHTCE-TDT in Tepache, SonoraXHTHI-TDT in Tula, Hidalgo
XHTUB-TDT in Iturbide, Nuevo León
XHUES-TDT in Ures, Sonora
XHVHO-TDT in Villa Hidalgo, SonoraXHYES-TDT in Yécora, Sonora
XHZRZ-TDT in Zaragoza, Nuevo LeónCucurpe Municipality
Cucurpe Municipality is a municipality in Sonora in north-western Mexico.Eusebio Kino
Eusebio Francisco Kino (Italian: Eusebio Francesco Chini, Spanish: Eusebio Francisco Kino; 10 August 1645 – 15 March 1711) was a Jesuit, missionary, geographer, explorer, cartographer and astronomer born in the Territory of the Bishopric of Trent, then part of the Holy Roman Empire. For the last 24 years of his life he worked in the region then known as the Pimería Alta, modern-day Sonora in Mexico and southern Arizona in the United States. He explored the region and worked with the indigenous Native American population, including primarily the Tohono O'Odham, Sobaipuri and other Upper Piman groups. He proved that the Baja California Peninsula is not an island by leading an overland expedition there. By the time of his death he had established 24 missions and visitas (country chapels or visiting stations).Gadsden Purchase
The Gadsden Purchase, known in Mexico as Spanish: Venta de La Mesilla (Sale of La Mesilla), is a 29,670-square-mile (76,800 km2) region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico that the United States acquired from Mexico by the Treaty of Mesilla, which took effect on June 8, 1854. The purchase included lands south of the Gila River and west of the Rio Grande which the U.S. needed to build a transcontinental railroad along a deep southern route, which the Southern Pacific Railroad later completed in 1881–1883. The purchase also aimed to resolve other border issues.
The first draft was signed on December 30, 1853, by James Gadsden, U.S. ambassador to Mexico, and by Antonio López de Santa Anna, President of Mexico The U.S. Senate voted in favor of ratifying it with amendments on April 25, 1854, and then transmitted it to President Franklin Pierce. Mexico's government and its General Congress or Congress of the Union took final approval action on June 8, 1854, when the treaty took effect. The purchase was the last substantial territorial acquisition in the contiguous United States, and defined the Mexico–United States border.
The financially-strapped government of Santa Anna agreed to the sale, which netted Mexico $10 million (equivalent to $230 million in 2018). After the devastating loss of Mexican territory to the U.S. in the Mexican–American War (1846–48) and the continued filibustering by U.S. citizens, Santa Anna may have calculated it was better to yield territory by treaty and receive payment rather than have the territory simply seized by the U.S.Hermosillo
Hermosillo (Spanish pronunciation: [eɾmoˈsiʝo] (listen)), formerly called Pitic (as Santísima Trinidad del Pitic and Presidio del Pitic), is a city located centrally in the northwestern Mexican state of Sonora. It is the capital and largest city as well as the main economic center for the state and region. As of 2015, the city has a population of 812,229 inhabitants, making it the 16th largest city in Mexico. The recent city population spur is due to its recent strong industrialization, especially in the automotive industry.
Hermosillo was ranked as one of the 5 best cities to live in in Mexico, as published in the study "The Most Livable Cities of Mexico 2013" by the Strategic Communications Cabinet of the Federal Government. Hermosillo also ranked as the seventh most competitive city in the country according to the Mexican Institute for Competitiveness (IMCO) based on factors such as its economic diversification, geographical location, access to education, government, innovation and international relations, according to the urban combativity analysis released by that institution in 2016. The major manufacturing sector is automobiles, which was begun in the 1980s.
Hermosillo features a subtropical hot desert climate (BWh). Temperatures can reach 48 °C or 118.4 °F in the summer months, making it one of the hottest cities in the country.Imuris Municipality
Imuris Municipality is a municipality in Sonora in north-western Mexico.La Proveedora
La Proveedora is an archeological site located some 15 kilometers west of the city of Caborca, Sonora, México, on the “La Proveedora” and “San José” hills within the “Rancho Puerto Blanco” Ejido, where most of these petroglyphs are located.
It is considered the area with a large petroglyphs concentration. The art is embodied in many hills of the area known as the “Proveedora”, an old copper mine. It remains impossible to establish their age, origin, meaning and all needed to know. Assumptions and deductions can be made, but there are no scientifically proven conclusions. For now these can only be admiring and imagining.The Trincheras culture site is located between two mountain massifs west of Caborca. It is the most spectacular sites with pre-Hispanic, as engravings practically cover the slopes of two hills.The number of petroglyphs is not known, there are thousands. There are a variety of motifs: animal groups, geometric designs, suns and moons astronomical representations of, bows, arrows, hunting scenes, etc. There is also an interesting diversity headdresses and head ornaments.List of Sonoran municipalities by Human Development Index
The Mexican state of Sonora, in the northwest of the country, is divided into 72 municipalities. This table shows the Human Development Index (HDI) for each municipality as at 2005, and indicates change since 2000.List of television stations in Mexico
Mexico has 872 separately licensed television stations authorized by the Federal Telecommunications Institute.Commercial stations are primarily operated by Televisa, TV Azteca, Grupo Imagen, Grupo Multimedios and their affiliate partners. There are six major national commercial channels, two of which are almost exclusively available over-the-air as subchannels:
Azteca Uno (103 total stations)
Las Estrellas (129 total stations)
Canal 5 (97 total stations)
Azteca 7 (103 total stations)
a+The so-called "third network", Imagen Televisión, is not yet considered a major network since most of its stations are not on the air yet, with only 48 transmitters of the 123 licensed in operation as July 2018.
There are also local stations and regional networks which take programs from Televisa, stations carrying its Nu9ve network which commonly shares time with local programming, and Televisa Regional stations, which incorporate programming from various Televisa networks alongside local news and magazine programs. Multimedios Televisión operates a regional network concentrated in northeastern Mexico, and a handful of independent stations operate primarily in regions along the border.
Noncommercial stations are divided into public and social concessions. Public concessions are predominantly owned by federal and state governments and public institutions of higher education. The two largest public networks are Canal Once, owned by the Instituto Politécnico Nacional, and the multiplexed transmitter network of the Sistema Público de Radiodifusión del Estado Mexicano (SPR), which offers multiple public television services. 27 of the 32 states also operate their own state networks, some of which have dozens of low-power transmitters. Social concessions are held by private universities, civil associations, and some individuals.
In addition, due to Mexico's rugged terrain, many stations operate low-powered, mostly co-channel translators (legally known as equipos complementarios de zona de sombra) to serve areas shielded by terrain, to improve signal reception in fringe areas, or (in some cases) to serve completely different television markets. Translators may be in different states from their parent stations; a handful even operate as local stations in their own right with their own local programs.
The list demonstrates the legacy of large television station concessions awarded in the 1980s and early 1990s. The two most notable of these were awarded to Televisa; the 1982 concession of 95 television stations in small communities is responsible for the bulk of the Canal de las Estrellas network, while the concession of 62 stations to Radiotelevisora de México Norte, a subsidiary of Televisa, was awarded in the early 1990s and expanded the Canal 5 and Gala TV networks. Since the conversion to digital, Televisa and Azteca have multiplexed transmitters in rural areas, bringing full national network service to smaller communities for the first time.
In March 2015, Grupo Imagen (under the name Cadena Tres I, S.A. de C.V.) and Grupo Radio Centro won concessions for 123 new television stations each, forming two new national television networks. The new networks must meet a minimum coverage standard set by the IFT for 2018 and reach full national coverage by 2020. However, Grupo Radio Centro refused to pay its winning bid of 3.058 billion pesos and thus had its concession revoked. Imagen's network, Imagen Televisión, launched on October 17, 2016 with a presence in nearly every state.
Analog stations were shut off beginning on July 18, 2013, with a pilot transition in Tijuana. In 2015, stations went digital-only throughout the country on 10 dates. Some 129 analog television stations owned by noncommercial entities, such as state governments, and another 368 repeaters of primarily Televisa stations, received exemptions to delay their transition until December 31, 2016.
Virtual channels were assigned by the IFT in 2016, unifying most transmitters of national networks under one number and ending decades of old analog channel numbers. In some cases, local stations were required to find new virtual channels.List of television stations in Sonora
The following is a list of all IFT-licensed over-the-air television stations broadcasting in the Mexican state of Sonora. There are 90 television stations in Sonora which are either independent or affiliated to at least one Televisa, TV Azteca, Canal Once, or Telemax network.Magdalena de Kino
Magdalena de Kino (Spanish pronunciation: [maɣðaˈlena ðe ˈkino] (listen)) is a city, part of the surrounding municipality of the same name, located in the Mexican state of Sonora covering approximately 560 square miles (1,460 square kilometers). According to the 2005 census, the city's population was 23,101, and the municipality's population was 25,500. Magdalena de Kino is in the northern section of Sonora 50 miles (80 kilometers) from the Mexico-U.S. border. To the north the municipality abuts Nogales; to the south, the municipality of Santa Ana; to the east, Ímuris and Cucurpe; and to the west, the municipalities of Tubutama and Sáric. Its main sectors include San Ignacio, San Isidro, Tacicuri, and Sásabe. The city was named after the pioneer Roman Catholic missionary and explorer, Father Eusebio Francisco Kino, who worked in the area, as well as in the present-day US state of Arizona.Mission Nuestra Señora de los Dolores
Mission Nuestra Señora de los Dolores is a former Mission church in Sonora, Mexico.
It was founded by Jesuit missionary Father Kino on March 13, 1687. The Mission church was built near the Pima settlement of Cosari, about 30 km north of Cucurpe, Sonora. The mission name means "Our Lady of Sorrows" and it was the mother mission of the Pimeria Alta.
By the late 1690s, the Mission consisted of a church, a carpentry shop and a blacksmith's area. By 1744, the Mission had been abandoned. Only the cemetery remains today.Municipalities of Sonora
Sonora is a state in Northwest Mexico that is divided into 72 municipalities.Municipalities in Sonora are administratively autonomous of the state according to the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico. Every three years, citizens elect a municipal president (Spanish: presidente municipal) by a plurality voting system who heads a concurrently elected municipal council (ayuntamiento) responsible for providing all the public services for their constituents. The municipal council consists of a variable number of trustees and councillors (regidores y síndicos). Municipalities are responsible for public services (such as water and sewerage), street lighting, public safety, traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses and the maintenance of public parks, gardens and cemeteries. They may also assist the state and federal governments in education, emergency fire and medical services, environmental protection and maintenance of monuments and historical landmarks. Since 1984, they have had the power to collect property taxes and user fees, although more funds are obtained from the state and federal governments than from their own income.Opodepe Municipality
Opodepe Municipality is a municipality in Sonora in north-western Mexico.Seat is Opodepe.
The municipal area is 2,804.25 km² with a population of 2,842 registered in 2000. Philipp Segesser
Philipp Segesser (1 September 1689 – 28 September 1762) was a German-speaking Swiss Jesuit missionary who spent much of his career in Sonora, Mexico.Sonora
Sonora (Spanish pronunciation: [soˈnoɾa] (listen)), officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora (English: Free and Sovereign State of Sonora), is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo.
Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border primarily with the state of Arizona with a small length with New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.
Sonora's natural geography is divided into three parts: the Sierra Madre Occidental in the east of the state; plains and rolling hills in the center; and the coast on the Gulf of California. It is primarily arid or semiarid deserts and grasslands, with only the highest elevations having sufficient rainfall to support other types of vegetation.
Sonora is home to eight indigenous peoples, including the Mayo, the O’odham, the Yaqui, and Seri. It has been economically important for its agriculture, livestock (especially beef), and mining since the colonial period, and for its status as a border state since the Mexican–American War. With the Gadsden Purchase, Sonora lost more than a quarter of its territory. From the 20th century to the present, industry, tourism, and agribusiness have dominated the economy, attracting migration from other parts of Mexico.Telemax (television network)
Telemax is a Mexican broadcast television network based in Hermosillo, Sonora. Its flagship station is XEWH-TDT in Hermosillo, and is available nationally through satellite and cable coverage. It is also available through a network of over-the-air repeaters, which extend its flagship station's coverage throughout Sonora. Telemax is owned by the State of Sonora and its stated mission is "to promote Sonoran culture and values, the works and programs of the government, and timely and truthful broadcast of information to various social segments of the population."Thomas Sheridan (anthropologist)
Thomas E. Sheridan (born 5 September 1951) is an anthropologist of Sonora, Mexico and the history and culture of the US South West. He is Distinguished Outreach Professor at the University of Arizona, affiliated with the Department of Anthropology and the Southwest Center since 2003.