Cuckooshrike

The cuckooshrikes and allies in the family Campephagidae are small to medium-sized passerine bird species found in the subtropical and tropical Africa, Asia and Australasia. The roughly 86 species are found in eight (or nine) genera which comprise five distinct groups, the 'true' cuckooshrikes (Campephaga, Coracina, Celebesica, Ceblepyris, Edolisoma, Lobotos, Pteropodocys and Campochaera) the trillers (Lalage), the minivets (Pericrocotus), the flycatcher-shrikes (Hemipus) comprise a total of 316 taxa. The woodshrikes (Tephrodornis) were often considered to be in this family but are probably better placed in their own family, Tephrodornithidae, along with the philentomas and the flycatcher-shrikes. Another genus, Chlamydochaera, which has one species, the black-breasted fruithunter, was often placed in this family but has now been shown to be a thrush (Turdidae).

Cuckooshrike
Blackfacedcuckooshrike
Black-faced cuckooshrike
Coracina novaehollandiae
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Superfamily: Corvoidea
Family: Campephagidae
Vigors, 1825
Genera

Taxonomy

Cuckooshrikes are not closely related to either the cuckoos or to the shrikes; the name probably comes from the grey colour of many of the cuckooshrikes. Some of the species also bear a superficial resemblance to cuckoos, and have a similar undulating flight. The grey colouration has led to one of their other names, the greybird. In some parts of the world they have also been known as caterpillar-birds, a name derived from their diet. Although unsuspected earlier, DNA studies have suggested they may be related to the Old World orioles (Oriolidae), although they differ strongly in some morphological characteristics (such as skull morphology and the arrangements of feathers on the wing). The genus Coracina is not monophyletic, which suggests reinstating the genus Edolisoma.[1][2]

Description

Overall the cuckooshrikes are medium to small arboreal birds, generally long and slender. The smallest species is the small minivet at 16 cm (6.3 in) and 6–12 g (0.21–0.42 oz), while the largest is the south Melanesian cuckooshrike at 35 cm (14 in) and 180 grams (0.40 pounds).[3] They are predominantly greyish with white and black, although the minivets are brightly coloured in red, yellow and black, and the blue cuckooshrike of central Africa is all-over glossy blue. The four cuckooshrikes in the genus Campephaga exhibit sexual dimorphism, with males that have glossy black plumage and bright red or yellow wattles, the females having more subdued olive-green plumage.[4]

Habitat

Of the 84 species of cuckooshrike, the majority are forest birds. Some species are restricted to primary forest, like the New Caledonian cuckooshrike, others are able to use more disturbed forest. Around eleven species use much more open habitat, one Australian species, the ground cuckooshrike being found in open plains and scrubland with few trees.

Behaviour

The 'true' cuckooshrikes are usually found singly, in pairs, and in small family groups, whereas the minivets, flycatcher-shrikes and wood-shrikes more frequently form small flocks. There is a considerable amount of variation within the family as a whole with regards to calls, some call very infrequently and some, principally the minivets, are extremely vocal.

These are mainly insectivorous, and will take large hairy caterpillars. They have also been recorded eating small vertebrates, and some fruit, seeds and other plant matter.[4]

Information about the breeding of this family is incomplete, with many species having never been studied. In all the species studied the cuckooshrikes are territorial; in species that do not migrate these territories are maintained year-round. Cuckooshrikes are monogamous, with the pair bonds apparently lasting throughout the year. Only one instance of non-monogamous breeding has been recorded, an instance of polygyny in white-winged trillers in Australia, where one male aided two females in raising their young. Several species of cuckooshrike exhibit cooperative breeding. About four blotchy white, green or blue eggs are laid in a cup nest in a tree. Incubation is about two weeks.

Taxonomic list of Campephagidae

FAMILY: CAMPEPHAGIDAE

References

  1. ^ Knud A. Jønsson, Martin Irestedt, Jerome Fuchs, Per G.P. Ericson, Les Christidis, Rauri C.K. Bowie, Janette A. Norman, Eric Pasquet, Jon Fjeldsa (2008) Explosive avian radiations and multi-directional dispersal across Wallacea: Evidence from the Campephagidae and other Crown Corvida (Aves). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47:221–236
  2. ^ Pedersen, M.P., Irestedt, M., Joseph, L., Rahbek, C. & Jønsson, K.A. (2018) Phylogeography of a “great speciator” (Aves: Edolisoma tenuirostre) reveals complex diversification and dispersal dynamics across the Indo-Pacific, Journal of Biogeography. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13182
  3. ^ National Geographic Complete Birds of the World by Jonathan Alderfer. National Geographic (2009), ISBN 978-1-4262-0403-6.
  4. ^ a b Clancey, P.A. (1991). Forshaw, Joseph (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. p. 176. ISBN 1-85391-186-0.
  • del Hoyo. J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World, Volume Ten, Cuckoo-shrikes to Thrushes, ISBN 84-87334-72-5

External links

Bar-bellied cuckooshrike

The bar-bellied cuckooshrike (Coracina striata) is a species of bird in the family Campephagidae. It is found in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines, and its natural habitats include mangrove forest, dry forest, swamp forest, and secondary forest. The plumage varies among the subspecies, with different amounts of barring on the underparts. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has assessed the species as one of least-concern.

Black-faced cuckooshrike

The black-faced cuckooshrike (Coracina novaehollandiae) is a common omnivorous passerine bird native to Australia and southern New Guinea. It has a protected status in Australia, under the National Parks and Wildlife Act, 1974.

They are widely distributed in almost any wooded habitat throughout the area, except in rainforests. But they can also occur in urban areas, and are a fairly common sight on power lines in Australian cities such as Sydney and Perth.

Black-headed cuckooshrike

The black-headed cuckooshrike (Lalage melanoptera) is a species of cuckooshrike found in the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia.

Black-winged cuckooshrike

The black-winged cuckooshrike or lesser grey cuckooshrike or dark grey cuckooshrike (Lalage melaschistos) is a species of cuckooshrike found in South to Southeast Asia. Despite the name, they ( cuckooshrikes ) are unrelated to shrikes or cuckoos. They have broad based bills with grey upper parts, black wings, white vent, graduated white-tipped tails, black bills and legs. Females are overall lighter in all taxa.

Black cuckooshrike

The black cuckooshrike (Campephaga flava) is a species of bird in the cuckooshrike family Campephagidae. The species is closely related to Petit's cuckooshrike and the red-shouldered cuckooshrike, and forms a superspecies with them. It is also known as the African black cuckooshrike.It is found in Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, dry savanna, and subtropical or tropical dry shrubland.

Blue cuckooshrike

The blue cuckooshrike (Cyanograucalus azureus) is a species of bird in the Cuckooshrike family, Campephagidae.

It is found from Sierra Leone and Liberia to eastern and south-western Democratic Republic of Congo.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Cerulean cuckooshrike

The cerulean cuckooshrike (Coracina temminckii) is a species of bird in the family Campephagidae. It is endemic to the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest. Other common names for this bird include the Sulawesi cuckooshrike, the Celebes cuckooshrike and Temminck’s cuckooshrike.

Coracina

Coracina is a large genus of bird in the Campephagidae family. A revision of this genus was involved since the group is found to be polyphyletic in relation to other genera within the Campephagidae.

It contains the following species:

Moluccan cuckooshrike (Coracina atriceps)

Pied cuckooshrike (Coracina bicolor)

Boyer's cuckooshrike (Coracina boyeri)

Grey cuckooshrike (Coracina caesia)

Stout-billed cuckooshrike (Coracina caeruleogrisea)

South Melanesian cuckooshrike (Coracina caledonica)

North Melanesian cuckooshrike (Coracina welchmani)

Buru cuckooshrike (Coracina fortis)

Javan cuckooshrike (Coracina javensis)

Sunda cuckooshrike (Coracina larvata)

White-rumped cuckooshrike (Coracina leucopygia)

Barred cuckooshrike (Coracina lineata)

Hooded cuckooshrike (Coracina longicauda)

Ground cuckooshrike (Coracina maxima)

Black-faced cuckooshrike (Coracina novaehollandiae)

White-bellied cuckooshrike (Coracina papuensis)

Manus cuckooshrike (Coracina ingens)

Wallacean cuckooshrike (Coracina personata)

Slaty cuckooshrike (Coracina schistacea)

Bar-bellied cuckooshrike (Coracina striata)

Andaman cuckooshrike (Coracina dobsoni)

Pale-shouldered cicadabird (Coracina dohertyi)

Cerulean cuckooshrike (Coracina temminckii)

Large cuckooshrike (Coracina macei)

Eastern wattled cuckooshrike

The eastern wattled cuckooshrike or oriole cuckooshrike (Lobotos oriolinus) is a species of bird in the Campephagidae family.

It is found in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, and Nigeria.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Grey cuckooshrike

The grey cuckooshrike (Coracina caesia) is a species of bird in the songbird family Campephagidae. It is a medium-sized forest bird, with grey to blue-grey plumage and large black eyes. There are two subspecies that occur in forest patches of southern and central Africa respectively.

Indochinese cuckooshrike

The Indochinese cuckooshrike (Lalage polioptera) is a species of bird in the Campephagidae family. It is found in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

Large cuckooshrike

The large cuckooshrike (Coracina macei) is a species of cuckooshrike found in the Indian Subcontinent and depending on the taxonomic treatment used, Southeast Asia. The species has had a long and varied taxonomic treatment, being closely related to forms across Southeast Asia, with some authors using the name Indian cuckooshrike (which then refers only to the species that includes the forms C. m. macei of peninsular India and C. m. layardi of Sri Lanka). The species and subspecies classifications vary widely across sources and are yet to be resolved unambiguously.

Petit's cuckooshrike

Petit's cuckooshrike (Campephaga petiti) is a species of bird in the family Campephagidae.

It is found in Angola, Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest.

Purple-throated cuckooshrike

The purple-throated cuckooshrike (Campephaga quiscalina) is a species of bird in the family Campephagidae.

It is found in Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forest, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest.

Red-shouldered cuckooshrike

The red-shouldered cuckooshrike (Campephaga phoenicea) is a species of bird in the Campephagidae family.

It is found in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo, and Uganda.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and dry savannas.

Réunion cuckooshrike

The Réunion cuckooshrike (Lalage newtoni) is a passerine bird in the cuckooshrike family. It is endemic to the island of Réunion, where it is restricted to two areas of mountain forest in the north of the island. Males are dark grey above and pale grey beneath, while females have dark brown upper parts and a streaked breast. The population has been declining and the range contracting, being currently about 16 square kilometres (6.2 sq mi), and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated the species as "critically endangered", with the possibility that the bird could be wiped out by a tropical storm. Conservation efforts are being made by attempting to control the cats and rats which prey on the chicks, and this seems to have resulted in the population stabilising.

Western wattled cuckooshrike

The western wattled cuckooshrike or Ghana cuckooshrike (Lobotos lobatus) is a species of bird in the family Campephagidae.

It is found in Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical swamps.

It is threatened by habitat loss.

White-bellied cuckooshrike

The white-bellied cuckooshrike (Coracina papuensis) is a species of bird in the family Campephagidae. It is found in Australia, the Moluccas, New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical mangrove forest, and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest.

White-breasted cuckooshrike

The white-breasted cuckooshrike (Ceblepyris pectoralis) is a species of bird in the Campephagidae family.

It is found in Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and dry savanna.

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