Csehbánya Formation

The Csehbánya Formation is a geological formation in the Transdanubian Mountains of Veszprém County, Hungary. The formation dates to the Late Santonian (around 85 million years ago) of the Late Cretaceous. It represents a floodplain environment as opposed to the swampy lacustrine environment of the simultaneous Ajka Coal Formation, though there is complete overlap in terms of fauna. It underlies the Jákó Marl formation, and laterally transitions to the Ajka Coal Formation.[1]

Csehbánya Formation
Stratigraphic range: Late Santonian 85–84 Ma
TypeGeological formation
UnderliesJákó Marl Formation. Localized Unconformity with Eocene Iharkút Conglomerate Formation present in some areas
OverliesUnconformity with Upper Triassic Main Dolomite Formation and Upper Cretaceous Nagytárkány Bauxite Formation
AreaTransdanubian Mountains
ThicknessVaries, but up to 100–150 m (330–490 ft)
Lithology
PrimarySiltstone Sandstone Conglomerate
OtherClay
Location
Coordinates47°14′N 17°38′E / 47.24°N 17.64°E
RegionEurope
Country Hungary
Type section
Named forCsehbánya, Hungary
Geology of the Iharkút locality
Stratigraphy of the Iharkút locality

Geology

The lithology of the unit is a cyclic variation of conglomerate, sandstone, variegated siltstone, clay and marl layers with some sporadic thin coal seams.[2] It is uncomfortably overlies the Late Triassic Main Dolomite Formation, which has deposits of the Upper Cretaceous Nagytárkány Bauxite Formation within deep karstic sinkholes in the formation. There is a basal conglomerate of dolomite clasts at the base of the Csehbánya formation. The main exposed portion of the formation is called the Iharkút locality, which is a disused bauxite quarry. At this location due to Paleogene uplift, it is uncomfortably overlain by the Lutetian Ikharkút Conglomerate. In the upper levels of the formation, there are sandstone lens beds present, which represent channel bodies. These are indicative of an anastomosing fluvial system. The exposure at this locality is between 100–150 m. Most of the fossils are found within the SZ-6 site at the locality, which is interpreted as a lag channel deposit

Invertebrate paleofauna

Amber is known from both the Ajka Coal and Csehbánya formations, and is commonly referred to as ajkait. However most of the arthropod inclusions in these are undescribed, only being shown in photographs,[3] With only two species of Ceratopogonids (biting midges) in the extant genus Leptoconops and the extinct genus Adelohelea being described.[4] A list of known taxa is given below.

Invertebrates of the Csehbánya Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Abundance Notes Images
Adelohelea A. magyarica Biting midge
Leptoconops L. clava Biting midge, genus currently extant
Coleoptera Indeterminate See figure 3 on website
Diptera Indeterminate See figure 4 on website
Hymenoptera Indeterminate See figure 6 on website
Nematocera Indeterminate See figure 7 on website

Vertebrate paleofauna

Csehbanya Formation representative fauna
Various fossils from the Csehbánya Formation

Fishes, amphibians, turtles, squamates, crocodilians, dinosaurs,[5] birds and pterosaurs present in Veszprém, Hungary, near the village of Németbánya in the Iharkút locality, an open-pit bauxite mine.[6][7] Other finds include Abelisauridae indet.,[8] Rhabdodontidae indet.,[7] Tetanurae indet.[8] Coprolites[9] and eggshells[10] are also known from the locality.

Fish

Fish of the Csehbánya Formation[11]
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Abundance Notes Images
Atractosteus Indeterminate Iharkút locality, Hungary. "Jaw fragments, teeth, scales, vertebrae" Gar, genus extant
Coelodus Indeterminate Possible dentary/premaxilla, vomers, prearticulars, teeth and possible scales[12] Pycnodontiform
Vidalamiinae Indeterminate "Two vertebrae"
Amiidae Indeterminate A left anterior ceratohyal and a vertebra
Elopiformes Indeterminate 13 vertebrae
Ellimmichthyiformes Indeterminate At least two distinct taxa represented by four and one vertebrae Clupeimorph
cf. Salmoniformes Indeterminate two vertebrae
Acanthomorpha Indeterminate Three vertebrae and 18 fin spines
Teleostei Indeterminate Teeth, vertebrae and cycloid scales
Actinopterygii Indeterminate 9 distinct teeth morphotypes and some teeth bearing elements

Amphibians

Amphibians of the Csehbánya Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Abundance Notes Images
Albanerpeton[13] Indeterminate Iharkút locality, Hungary. Skull and jaw elements Albanerpetonid
Bakonybatrachus[14] B. fedori Iharkút locality, Hungary. Pelvic elements Discoglossid frog

Hungarobatrachus[15]

H. szukacsi

Iharkút locality, Hungary.

Pelvic elements

Advanced frog.

Palaeobatrachidae Indeterminate Iharkút locality, Hungary. Postcranial remains
Pelobatidae Indeterminate Iharkút locality, Hungary. Postcranial remains

Squamates

Squamates of the Csehbánya Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Abundance Notes Images
Bicuspidon B. aff. hatzegiensis[16] Fragmentary mandibles, maxillae Polyglyphanodontid
Chromatogenys[17] C. tiliquoides Partial right mandible Scincomorph
Distortodon[18] D. rhomboideus Dentaries, maxilla Polyglyphanodontid
Pannoniasaurus[19] P. inexpectatus Partial skeleton Mosasaur, also known from Ajka Coal Formation[1]
Pelsochamops[20] P. infrequens Fragmentary dentary, dentary fragments Chamopsiid
Scincomorpha[21] Indeterminate Fragmentary dentaries At least 3 distinct taxa, 4 mentioned in paper, but unsure if this counts Chromatogenys

Crocodyliformes

Iharkutosuchus

Turtles

Kallokibotion

Pterosaurs

Non-Avian Dinosaurs

Aves

Aves of the Csehbánya Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Abundance Notes Images

Bauxitornis[33]

B. mindszentyae

Single left metatarsus

An avisaurid enantiornithine.

Enantornithine Indeterminate Limb bones

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Ősi, Attila; Bodor, Emese Réka; Makádi, László; Rabi, Márton (2016). "Vertebrate remains from the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) Ajka Coal Formation, western Hungary". Cretaceous Research. 57: 228–238. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2015.04.014. ISSN 0195-6671.
  2. ^ Botfalvai, Gábor; Haas, János; Bodor, Emese Réka; Mindszenty, Andrea; Ősi, Attila (2016). "Facies architecture and palaeoenvironmental implications of the upper Cretaceous (Santonian) Csehbánya formation at the Iharkút vertebrate locality (Bakony Mountains, Northwestern Hungary)". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 441: 659–678. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2015.10.018. ISSN 0031-0182.
  3. ^ "Research of Cretaceous ambers and their inclusions: Cretaceous ambers from Hungary". Magyar Dinoszaurusz. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  4. ^ Borkent, Art (1997). "Upper and Lower Cretaceous biting midges (Ceratopogonidae: Diptera) from Hungarian and Austrian amber and the Koonwarra Fossil Bed of Australia". Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde (B) Geologie und Paläontologie. 249: 1–10.
  5. ^ Weishampel, David B; et al. (2004). "Dinosaur distribution (Late Cretaceous, Europe)." In: Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.): The Dinosauria, 2nd, Berkeley: University of California Press. Pp. 588-593. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.
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