Cruelty Free International is an animal protection and advocacy group that campaigns for the abolition of all animal experiments. They organise certification of cruelty-free products which are marked with the symbol of a leaping bunny.
It was founded in 1898 by Irish writer and suffragette, Frances Power Cobbe, as the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection. In 2012, the BUAV joined with the New England Anti-Vivisection Society to establish a new international organisation to campaign against the testing of cosmetics on animals—Cruelty Free International. This was launched by BUAV supporter Ricky Gervais. In 2015, the parent organisation merged into this new organisation, taking its name and branding for all its activities.
|Founded||14 June 1898, in Bristol, England|
|Founder||Frances Power Cobbe|
|Focus||Animal testing, vivisection, animal rights|
|Method||Education, research, lobbying, investigations, undercover work in laboratories, and lawsuits|
BUAV was founded on June 14, 1898 by Frances Power Cobbe during a public meeting in Bristol, England. Known at first as the British Union, or "the Union", it campaigned at first against the use of dogs in vivisection, and came close to achieving success with the 1919 Dogs (Protection) Bill, which almost became law. Tentative discussion toward amalgamation with the National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS), including during the early 1960s under the contemporary NAVS Committee Secretary, Wilfred Risdon, could not be successfully concluded. In recent years, it successfully lobbied the British government into abolishing the oral LD50 test in the 1990s. The BUAV was also closely involved in the lobbying which led to the adoption in the European Union of the 7th Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, which effectively banned both the testing of cosmetics products and their ingredients on animals and also the sale of products in the EU which have been animal-tested anywhere in the world.
In recent years, the organisation has focused on a number of new areas, including the promotion of non-animal tested products; the European Union's REACH proposal to test tens of thousands of chemicals on millions of animals; and the use of non-human primates in experimentation. It acts as the secretariat of the European Coalition to End Animal Experiments (ECEAE), established in 1990, and its chief executive, Michelle Thew, acts as chief executive of the coalition.
It helps consumers to identify and purchase products that have not been tested on animals through its Humane Cosmetics and Humane Household Products Standards (HCS and HHPS). These are audited accreditation schemes for retail companies which confirm that neither their products nor their ingredients are tested on animals. These standards are also run in a number of European countries and in the United States. A list of approved companies is available and regularly updated on their website. It also runs a primate sanctuary in Thailand for 50 rescued macaques.
Undercover investigations included the exposure of the breeding and supply of monkeys from Nafovanny in Vietnam for experimentation in Europe and the US. and Covance's contract testing laboratory in Germany. It pursued a judicial review against the Home Office as a result of its findings in the Cambridge investigation. The High Court ruled in support of the Government in three of the four issues, and in favour of the BUAV on one issue, though this was later overturned on appeal with the Home Office awarded costs. Other investigations in 2007 highlighted the primate trade from Malaysia and Spain.
Adolfo Sansolini (Rome, 15 November 1966) is an international policy advisor and campaigner on animal welfare. He has been active in animal welfare and human rights campaigns since he was a teenager, and has led campaigns at the national and international level, managed and chaired high-profile meetings and conferences and coordinated international coalitions. He has been invited to speak at conferences, workshops and events in over 25 countries Sansolini also has more than twenty years’ journalistic experience, contributing to a variety of publications around the world.From 1996 to 2003 he authored and presented the monthly programme “Un habitat per tutti i viventi” (“A habitat for all living beings”) on animal welfare, human rights and the environment on Vatican Radio and from 1998 to 2010 he contributed to various BBC radio programmes.Animal testing
Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study. This approach can be contrasted with field studies in which animals are observed in their natural environments or habitats. Experimental research with animals is usually conducted in universities, medical schools, pharmaceutical companies, defense establishments and commercial facilities that provide animal-testing services to industry. The focus of animal testing varies on a continuum from pure research, focusing on developing fundamental knowledge of an organism, to applied research, which may focus on answering some question of great practical importance, such as finding a cure for a disease. Examples of applied research include testing disease treatments, breeding, defense research and toxicology, including cosmetics testing. In education, animal testing is sometimes a component of biology or psychology courses. The practice is regulated to varying degrees in different countries.
It is estimated that the annual use of vertebrate animals—from zebrafish to non-human primates—ranges from tens to more than 100 million. In the European Union, vertebrate species represent 93% of animals used in research, and 11.5 million animals were used there in 2011. By one estimate the number of mice and rats used in the United States alone in 2001 was 80 million. Mice, rats, fish, amphibians and reptiles together account for over 85% of research animals.Most animals are euthanized after being used in an experiment. Sources of laboratory animals vary between countries and species; most animals are purpose-bred, while a minority are caught in the wild or supplied by dealers who obtain them from auctions and pounds. Supporters of the use of animals in experiments, such as the British Royal Society, argue that virtually every medical achievement in the 20th century relied on the use of animals in some way. The Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the United States National Academy of Sciences has argued that animal research cannot be replaced by even sophisticated computer models, which are unable to deal with the extremely complex interactions between molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organisms and the environment. Animal rights organizations—such as PETA and BUAV—question the need for and legitimacy of animal testing, arguing that it is cruel and poorly regulated, that medical progress is actually held back by misleading animal models that cannot reliably predict effects in humans, that some of the tests are outdated, that the costs outweigh the benefits, or that animals have the intrinsic right not to be used or harmed in experimentation.Animal testing on non-human primates
Experiments involving non-human primates (NHPs) include toxicity testing for medical and non-medical substances; studies of infectious disease, such as HIV and hepatitis; neurological studies; behavior and cognition; reproduction; genetics; and xenotransplantation. Around 65,000 NHPs are used every year in the United States, and around 7,000 across the European Union. Most are purpose-bred, while some are caught in the wild.Their use is controversial. According to the Nuffield Council on Bioethics, NHPs are used because their brains share structural and functional features with human brains, but "while this similarity has scientific advantages, it poses some difficult ethical problems, because of an increased likelihood that primates experience pain and suffering in ways that are similar to humans." Some of the most publicized attacks on animal research facilities by animal rights groups have occurred because of primate research. Some primate researchers have abandoned their studies because of threats or attacks.
In December 2006, an inquiry chaired by Sir David Weatherall, emeritus professor of medicine at Oxford University, concluded that there is a "strong scientific and moral case" for using primates in some research. The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection argues that the Weatherall report failed to address "the welfare needs and moral case for subjecting these sensitive, intelligent creatures to a lifetime of suffering in UK labs."Animal welfare and rights in Indonesia
Animal welfare and rights in Indonesia regards the treatment of and laws concerning non-human animals in Indonesia. Indonesia has limited animal welfare regulations by international standards.Animal welfare and rights in Japan
Animal welfare and rights in Japan is about the laws concerning the treatment of animals in Japan. Japan has had a national animal welfare law since 1973, but its protections for animals are weak by international standards. Animal activism in Japan is focused on the welfare of companion animals.British co-operative movement
The United Kingdom is home to a widespread and diverse co-operative movement, with over 7,000 registered co-operatives which are owned by 17 million individual members and which contribute £34bn a year to the British economy. Modern co-operation started with the Rochdale Pioneers' shop in the northern English town of Rochdale in 1844, though the history of co-operation in the UK can be traced back to before 1800. The British co-operative movement is most commonly associated with The Co-operative brand (best known for its supermarket and Funeralcare brands) which has been adopted by several large consumers' co-operative societies; however, there are many thousands of registered co-operative businesses operating in the UK. Alongside these consumers' co-operatives, there exist many prominent agricultural co-operatives (621), co-operative housing providers (619), health and social care cooperatives (111), cooperative schools (834), retail co-operatives, co-operatively run community energy projects, football supporters' trusts, credit unions and worker-owned businesses.Co-operatives UK is the central membership organisation for co-operative enterprise throughout the UK. This is a co-operative of co-operatives: a co-operative federation. Most kinds of co-operatives are eligible to join Co-operatives UK.CFI
CFI may refer to:
CAD Framework Initiative, a standardization organization for CAD systems in the EDA area
Campus Front of India, an Indian student organization
Canada Foundation for Innovation
Canonical Format Indicator, a field in the IEEE 802.1Q protocol
Center for Inquiry, a nonprofit organization that encourages inquiry into science and pseudoscience
Center for the Intrepid, a rehabilitation facility for injured U.S. military veterans
Central Fuel Injection; Ford term for Throttle body injection
Certified Flight Instructor (USA)
Classification of Financial Instruments, see ISO 10962
Color flow imaging, a form of medical imaging
Colorado Fuel and Iron
Common Flash Memory Interface
Community Forests International, a volunteering organization that works with sustainability in forests
Conservative Friends of Israel
Consolidated Film Industries, a film-processing company that developed film for many Hollywood motion pictures
Control-flow integrity, a family of computer security techniques
Corporate Finance Institute, organization for financial modeling and valuation education. The official provider of the FMVA (Financial Modeling & Valuation Analyst) designation.
Court of First Instance, a trial court, or any of multiple courts so named
Coaching foundation india ltd a Coaching Institute for Business Executives
Cruelty Free International, an animal protection and advocacy group
Call Frame InformationCruelty-free
In the animal rights movement, cruelty-free is a label for products or activities that do not harm or kill animals anywhere in the world. Products tested on animals are not considered cruelty-free, since these tests are often painful and cause the suffering and death of millions of animals every year.Ecover
Ecover is a Belgian company that manufactures ecologically sound cleaning products (made from plant-based and mineral ingredients) and is owned by S. C. Johnson & Son.Fixed Cut-Off Date Animal Testing Policy
In the European Union, the Fixed Cut-Off Date (FCOD) Animal Testing Policy relates to the testing of ingredients used in the manufacture of cosmetics, toiletries and household products. A company’s FCOD is a date after which none of the ingredients in its products has been tested on animals. The policy is recognised by animal welfare groups worldwide as the benchmark for cruelty free cosmetics / toiletries and household cleaning products because companies with a FCOD policy will not use any ingredient tested on animals after a specific date.The FCOD Animal Testing Policy is endorsed by the Naturewatch Foundation and Cruelty Free International’s Leaping Bunny certification. Companies holding the Leaping Bunny cosmetics and personal care certification are encouraged to use a fixed cut-off date of 11 March 2013, the date on which a full European Union ban on animal testing for cosmetics came into force. Some companies are not endorsed by the Naturewatch Foundation even if they have a FCOD, because their parent company does not.A Supplier Specific Boycott means a company has committed to only using suppliers that have no connection to animal testing at all and supply ingredients with a FCOD.Jim Moran
James Patrick Moran Jr. (born May 16, 1945) is a former U.S. Representative for Virginia's 8th congressional district in Northern Virginia, including the cities of Falls Church and Alexandria, all of Arlington County, and a portion of Fairfax County. Moran served from 1991 to 2015, and is a member of the Democratic Party.
Moran was the mayor of Alexandria, Virginia from 1985 to 1990, when he resigned to run for Congress. He defeated Republican incumbent Stanford Parris in the general election on November 6, 1990, and was sworn in the following January. He is of Irish descent, and is the son of professional football player James Moran Sr. and the brother of former Democratic Party of Virginia Chairman Brian Moran.
Moran announced on January 15, 2014, that he would retire from Congress at the end of his term. Moran is currently a professor of practice in the School of Public and International Affairs in the College of Architecture and Urban Studies at Virginia Tech.Molton Brown
Molton Brown was founded as a hair salon in 1973 by Caroline Burstein and has since become one of the UK's leading upmarket personal care firms. Molton Brown’s products are sold within its own network of retail stores and department stores worldwide.The name Molton Brown is a fusion of the street name South Molton Street (where the first store was based) and the boutique Browns, which was owned by the founder Caroline Burstein’s parents.New England Anti-Vivisection Society
The New England Anti-Vivisection Society (NEAVS) is a national, registered 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization “dedicated to ending the use of animals in research, testing, and science education” and replacing them with "modern alternatives that are ethically, humanely, and scientifically superior."Norman Reedus
Norman Mark Reedus (born January 6, 1969) is an American actor, television host, and model. He is known for starring in the popular AMC horror drama series The Walking Dead as Daryl Dixon and in the film The Boondock Saints (1999) and its sequel The Boondock Saints II: All Saints Day (2009) as Murphy MacManus. He has also acted in numerous films and television series, and modeled for various fashion designers (most recognizably Prada in the 1990s).Public information film
Public information films (PIFs) are a series of government-commissioned short films, shown during television advertising breaks in the United Kingdom. The US equivalent is the public service announcement (PSA).Testing cosmetics on animals
Cosmetic testing on animals is a type of animal testing used to test the safety and hypoallergenic properties of products for use by humans. Due to the harm done to the animal subjects, this testing is opposed by animal rights activists and others. Cosmetic animal testing is banned in the European Union, India, Israel, and Norway.The Body Shop
The Body Shop International Limited, trading as The Body Shop, is a British cosmetics, skin care and perfume company that was founded in 1976 by Dame Anita Roddick. It currently has a range of 1,000 products which it sells in over 3,049 owned and franchised stores internationally in 66 countries. The company is based in East Croydon and Littlehampton, West Sussex.
The company is owned by a Brazilian cosmetics company Natura. The company had been owned by the French cosmetics company L'Oréal between 2006 and 2017. In June 2017, L'Oréal agreed to sell the company to Natura for £880 million. The deal was approved in September 2017.Tropic Skincare
Tropic Skincare, often just referred to as Tropic, is a British skincare and cosmetics company. The company does research at its Surrey headquarters, where it designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes its products.