Crucifixion

Crucifixion is a method of capital punishment in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden beam and left to hang, perhaps for several days, until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation.[1][2][3]

The crucifixion of Jesus is a central narrative in Christianity, and the cross (sometimes depicting Jesus nailed to it) is the main religious symbol for many Christian churches.

Christ at the Cross - Cristo en la Cruz
Christ at the Cross by Carl Bloch, painting c. 1870

Terminology

Ancient Greek has two verbs for crucify: ana-stauro (ἀνασταυρόω), from stauros, "stake", and apo-tumpanizo (ἀποτυμπανίζω) "crucify on a plank",[4] together with anaskolopizo (ἀνασκολοπίζω "impale"). In earlier pre-Roman Greek texts anastauro usually means "impale".[5][6][7]

New Testament Greek uses four verbs, three of them based upon stauros (σταυρός), usually translated "cross". The most common term is stauroo (σταυρόω), "to crucify", occurring 43 times; sustauroo (συσταυρόω), "to crucify with" or "alongside" occurs five times, while anastauroo (ἀνασταυρόω), "to crucify again" occurs only once at the Epistle to the Hebrews 6:6. prospegnumi (προσπήγνυμι), "to fix or fasten to, impale, crucify" occurs only once at the Acts of the Apostles 2:23.

The English term cross derives from the Latin word crux.[8] The Latin term crux classically referred to a tree or any construction of wood used to hang criminals as a form of execution. The term later came to refer specifically to a cross.[9]

The English term crucifix derives from the Latin crucifixus or cruci fixus, past participle passive of crucifigere or cruci figere, meaning "to crucify" or "to fasten to a cross".[10][11][12][13]

Details

Santo Spirito, sagrestia, crocifisso di michelangelo 04
Crucifix attributed to Michelangelo, notable for showing naked crucifixion.

Crucifixion was most often performed to dissuade its witnesses from perpetrating similar (usually particularly heinous) crimes. Victims were sometimes left on display after death as a warning to any other potential criminals. Crucifixion was usually intended to provide a death that was particularly slow, painful (hence the term excruciating, literally "out of crucifying"), gruesome, humiliating, and public, using whatever means were most expedient for that goal. Crucifixion methods varied considerably with location and time period.

The Greek and Latin words corresponding to "crucifixion" applied to many different forms of painful execution, including being impaled on a stake, or affixed to a tree, upright pole (a crux simplex), or (most famous now) to a combination of an upright (in Latin, stipes) and a crossbeam (in Latin, patibulum). Seneca the Younger wrote: "I see crosses there, not just of one kind but made in many different ways: some have their victims with head down to the ground; some impale their private parts; others stretch out their arms on the gibbet".[14]

In some cases, the condemned was forced to carry the crossbeam to the place of execution.[15] A whole cross would weigh well over 135 kg (300 lb), but the crossbeam would not be as burdensome, weighing around 45 kg (100 lb).[16] The Roman historian Tacitus records that the city of Rome had a specific place for carrying out executions, situated outside the Esquiline Gate,[17] and had a specific area reserved for the execution of slaves by crucifixion.[18] Upright posts would presumably be fixed permanently in that place, and the crossbeam, with the condemned person perhaps already nailed to it, would then be attached to the post.

The person executed may have been attached to the cross by rope, though nails and other sharp materials are mentioned in a passage by the Judean historian Josephus, where he states that at the Siege of Jerusalem (70), "the soldiers out of rage and hatred, nailed those they caught, one after one way, and another after another, to the crosses, by way of jest".[19] Objects used in the crucifixion of criminals, such as nails, were sought as amulets with perceived medicinal qualities.[20]

While a crucifixion was an execution, it was also a humiliation, by making the condemned as vulnerable as possible. Although artists have traditionally depicted the figure on a cross with a loin cloth or a covering of the genitals, the person being crucified was usually stripped naked. Writings by Seneca the Younger state some victims suffered a stick forced upwards through their groin.[21][22] Despite its frequent use by the Romans, the horrors of crucifixion did not escape criticism by some eminent Roman orators. Cicero, for example, described crucifixion as "a most cruel and disgusting punishment",[23] and suggested that "the very mention of the cross should be far removed not only from a Roman citizen's body, but from his mind, his eyes, his ears".[24] Elsewhere he says, "It is a crime to bind a Roman citizen; to scourge him is a wickedness; to put him to death is almost parricide. What shall I say of crucifying him? So guilty an action cannot by any possibility be adequately expressed by any name bad enough for it."[25]

Frequently, the legs of the person executed were broken or shattered with an iron club, an act called crurifragium, which was also frequently applied without crucifixion to slaves.[26] This act hastened the death of the person but was also meant to deter those who observed the crucifixion from committing offenses.[26]

Cross shape

Justus Lipsius Crux Simplex 1629
Crux simplex, a simple wooden stake. Image by Justus Lipsius.
De Cruce Libri Tres 47
The crucifixion of Jesus. Image by Justus Lipsius[27]

The gibbet on which crucifixion was carried out could be of many shapes. Josephus says that the Roman soldiers who crucified the many prisoners taken during the Siege of Jerusalem under Titus, diverted themselves by nailing them to the crosses in different ways;[1] and Seneca the Younger recounts: "I see crosses there, not just of one kind but made in many different ways: some have their victims with head down to the ground; some impale their private parts; others stretch out their arms on the gibbet."[21]

At times the gibbet was only one vertical stake, called in Latin crux simplex.[28] This was the simplest available construction for torturing and killing the condemned. Frequently, however, there was a cross-piece attached either at the top to give the shape of a T (crux commissa) or just below the top, as in the form most familiar in Christian symbolism (crux immissa).[29] The most ancient image of a Roman crucifixion depicts an individual on a T-shaped cross. It is a graffito found in a taberna (hostel for wayfarers) in Puteoli, dating to the time of Trajan or Hadrian (late 1st century to early 2nd century AD).[30]

Second-century writers who speak of the execution cross describe the crucified person's arms as outstretched, not attached to a single stake: Lucian speaks of Prometheus as crucified "above the ravine with his hands outstretched". He also says that the shape of the letter T (the Greek letter tau) was that of the wooden instrument used for crucifying.[31] Artemidorus, another writer of the same period, says that a cross is made of posts (plural) and nails and that the arms of the crucified are outstretched.[32] Speaking of the generic execution cross, not specifically of that on which Jesus died, Irenaeus (c. 130–202), a Christian writer, describes it as composed of an upright and a transverse beam, sometimes with a small projection in the upright.[33]

The New Testament writings about the crucifixion of Jesus do not specify the shape of that cross, but the early writings that do speak of its shape liken it to the letter T. William Barclay notes that, because the letter T is shaped exactly like the crux commissa and because the Greek letter T represented the number 300, "wherever the fathers came across the number 300 in the Old Testament they took it to be a mystical prefiguring of the cross of Christ".[34] The earliest example, possibly of the late first century, is the Epistle of Barnabas.[35] Clement of Alexandria (c. 150 – c. 215) is another early writer who gives the same interpretation of the numeral used for 300.[36] Justin Martyr (c. 100–165) sees the cross of Christ represented in the crossed spits used in roasting the Passover Lamb: "That lamb which was commanded to be wholly roasted was a symbol of the suffering of the cross which Christ would undergo. For the lamb, which is roasted, is roasted and dressed up in the form of the cross. For one spit is transfixed right through from the lower parts up to the head, and one across the back, to which are attached the legs of the lamb."[37]

Nail placement

CrucifixionSt.Matts
Crucifixion window by Henry E. Sharp, 1872, in St. Matthew's German Evangelical Lutheran Church, Charleston, South Carolina

In popular depictions of the crucifixion of Jesus (possibly because in translations of John 20:25 the wounds are described as being "in his hands"), Jesus is shown with nails in his hands. But in Greek the word "χείρ", usually translated as "hand", could refer to the entire portion of the arm below the elbow,[38] and to denote the hand as distinct from the arm some other word could be added, as "ἄκρην οὔτασε χεῖρα" (he wounded the end of the χείρ, i.e., "he wounded her in the hand".[39]

A possibility that does not require tying is that the nails were inserted just above the wrist, between the two bones of the forearm (the radius and the ulna).[40]

An experiment that was the subject of a documentary on the National Geographic Channel's Quest For Truth: The Crucifixion,[41] showed that nailed feet provided enough support for the body, and that the hands could have been merely tied. Nailing the feet to the side of the cross relieves strain on the wrists by placing most of the weight on the lower body.

Another possibility, suggested by Frederick Zugibe, is that the nails may have been driven in at an angle, entering in the palm in the crease that delineates the bulky region at the base of the thumb, and exiting in the wrist, passing through the carpal tunnel.

A foot-rest (suppedaneum) attached to the cross, perhaps for the purpose of taking the person's weight off the wrists, is sometimes included in representations of the crucifixion of Jesus but is not discussed in ancient sources. Some scholars interpret the Alexamenos graffito, the earliest surviving depiction of the Crucifixion, as including such a foot-rest.[42] Ancient sources also mention the sedile, a small seat attached to the front of the cross, about halfway down,[43] which could have served a similar purpose.

In 1968, archaeologists discovered at Giv'at ha-Mivtar in northeast Jerusalem the remains of one Jehohanan, who had been crucified in the 1st century. The remains included a heel bone with a nail driven through it from the side. The tip of the nail was bent, perhaps because of striking a knot in the upright beam, which prevented it being extracted from the foot. A first inaccurate account of the length of the nail led some to believe that it had been driven through both heels, suggesting that the man had been placed in a sort of sidesaddle position, but the true length of the nail, 11.5 cm (4.53 inches), suggests instead that in this case of crucifixion the heels were nailed to opposite sides of the upright.[44][45][46] The skeleton from Giv'at ha-Mivtar is currently the only recovered example of ancient crucifixion in the archaeological record.[47]

Cause of death

The length of time required to reach death could range from hours to days depending on method, the victim's health, and the environment. A literature review by Maslen and Mitchell[48] identified scholarly support for several possible causes of death: cardiac rupture,[49] heart failure,[50] hypovolemic shock,[51] acidosis,[52] asphyxia,[53] arrhythmia,[54] and pulmonary embolism.[55] Death could result from any combination of those factors or from other causes, including sepsis following infection due to the wounds caused by the nails or by the scourging that often preceded crucifixion, eventual dehydration, or animal predation.[56][57]

A theory attributed to Pierre Barbet holds that, when the whole body weight was supported by the stretched arms, the typical cause of death was asphyxiation.[58] He wrote that the condemned would have severe difficulty inhaling, due to hyper-expansion of the chest muscles and lungs. The condemned would therefore have to draw himself up by the arms, leading to exhaustion, or have his feet supported by tying or by a wood block. When no longer able to lift himself, the condemned would die within a few minutes. Some scholars, including Frederick Zugibe, posit other causes of death. Zugibe suspended test subjects with their arms at 60° to 70° from the vertical. The test subjects had no difficulty breathing during experiments, but did suffer rapidly increasing pain,[59][60] which is consistent with the Roman use of crucifixion to achieve a prolonged, agonizing death. However, Zugibe's positioning of the test subjects' feet is not supported by any archaeological or historical evidence.[61]

Survival

Since death does not follow immediately on crucifixion, survival after a short period of crucifixion is possible, as in the case of those who choose each year as a devotional practice to be non-lethally crucified.

There is an ancient record of one person who survived a crucifixion that was intended to be lethal, but that was interrupted. Josephus recounts: "I saw many captives crucified, and remembered three of them as my former acquaintance. I was very sorry at this in my mind, and went with tears in my eyes to Titus, and told him of them; so he immediately commanded them to be taken down, and to have the greatest care taken of them, in order to their recovery; yet two of them died under the physician's hands, while the third recovered."[62] Josephus gives no details of the method or duration of the crucifixion of his three friends before their reprieve.

Archaeological evidence

Although the ancient Jewish historian Josephus and Appian refer to the crucifixion of thousands of people by the Romans, there is only a single archaeological discovery of a crucified body dating back to the Roman Empire around the time of Jesus. This was discovered at Givat HaMivtar, Jerusalem in 1968.[63] It is not necessarily surprising that there is only one such discovery, because a crucified body was usually left to decay on the cross and therefore would not be preserved. The only reason these archaeological remains were preserved was because family members gave this particular individual a customary burial.

The remains were found accidentally in an ossuary with the crucified man's name on it, 'Jehohanan, the son of Hagakol'.[64][65] Nicu Haas, an anthropologist at the Hebrew University Medical School in Jerusalem, examined the ossuary and discovered that it contained a heel bone with a nail driven through its side, indicating that the man had been crucified. The position of the nail relative to the bone indicates that the feet had been nailed to the cross from their side, not from their front; various opinions have been proposed as to whether they were both nailed together to the front of the cross or one on the left side, one on the right side. The point of the nail had olive wood fragments on it indicating that he was crucified on a cross made of olive wood or on an olive tree.

Additionally, a piece of acacia wood was located between the bones and the head of the nail, presumably to keep the condemned from freeing his foot by sliding it over the nail. His legs were found broken, possibly to hasten his death. It is thought that because in Roman times iron was rare, the nails were removed from the dead body to conserve costs. According to Haas, this could help to explain why only one nail has been found, as the tip of the nail in question was bent in such a way that it could not be removed.

Haas had also identified a scratch on the inner surface of the right radius bone of the forearm, close to the wrist. He deduced from the form of the scratch, as well as from the intact wrist bones, that a nail had been driven into the forearm at that position. However, many of Haas' findings have been challenged. For instance, it was subsequently determined that the scratches in the wrist area were non-traumatic – and, therefore, not evidence of crucifixion – while reexamination of the heel bone revealed that the two heels were not nailed together, but rather separately to either side of the upright post of the cross.[66]

History and religious texts

Pre-Roman states

Crucifixion (or impalement), in one form or another, was used by Persians, Carthaginians, and Macedonians.

The Greeks were generally opposed to performing crucifixions.[67] However, in his Histories, ix.120–122, the Greek writer Herodotus describes the execution of a Persian general at the hands of Athenians in about 479 BC: "They nailed him to a plank and hung him up ... this Artayctes who suffered death by crucifixion."[68] The Commentary on Herodotus by How and Wells remarks: "They crucified him with hands and feet stretched out and nailed to cross-pieces; cf. vii.33. This barbarity, unusual on the part of Greeks, may be explained by the enormity of the outrage or by Athenian deference to local feeling."[69]

Some Christian theologians, beginning with Paul of Tarsus writing in Galatians 3:13, have interpreted an allusion to crucifixion in Deuteronomy 21:22–23. This reference is to being hanged from a tree, and may be associated with lynching or traditional hanging. However, Rabbinic law limited capital punishment to just 4 methods of execution: stoning, burning, strangulation, and decapitation, while the passage in Deuteronomy was interpreted as an obligation to hang the corpse on a tree as a form of deterrence.[70] The fragmentary Aramaic Testament of Levi (DSS 4Q541) interprets in column 6: "God ... (partially legible)-will set ... right errors. ... (partially legible)-He will judge ... revealed sins. Investigate and seek and know how Jonah wept. Thus, you shall not destroy the weak by wasting away or by ... (partially legible)-crucifixion ... Let not the nail touch him."[71]

The Jewish king Alexander Jannaeus, king of Judea from 103 BC to 76 BC, crucified 800 rebels, said to be Pharisees, in the middle of Jerusalem.[72][73]

Alexander the Great is reputed to have crucified 2,000 survivors from his siege of the Phoenician city of Tyre,[74] as well as the doctor who unsuccessfully treated Alexander's friend Hephaestion. Some historians have also conjectured that Alexander crucified Callisthenes, his official historian and biographer, for objecting to Alexander's adoption of the Persian ceremony of royal adoration.

In Carthage, crucifixion was an established mode of execution, which could even be imposed on generals for suffering a major defeat.[75][76][77]

The oldest crucifixion may be a post-mortem one mentioned by Herodotus. Polycrates, the tyrant of Samos, was put to death in 522 B.C. by Persians, and his dead body was then crucified.[78]

Ancient Rome

History

The hypothesis that the Ancient Roman custom of crucifixion may have developed out of a primitive custom of arbori suspendere—hanging on an arbor infelix ("inauspicious tree") dedicated to the gods of the nether world—is rejected by William A. Oldfather, who shows that this form of execution (the supplicium more maiorum, punishment in accordance with the custom of our ancestors) consisted of suspending someone from a tree, not dedicated to any particular gods, and flogging him to death.[79] Tertullian mentions a 1st-century AD case in which trees were used for crucifixion,[80] but Seneca the Younger earlier used the phrase infelix lignum (unfortunate wood) for the transom ("patibulum") or the whole cross.[81] Plautus and Plutarch are the two main sources for accounts of criminals carrying their own patibula to the upright stipes.[82]

Notorious mass crucifixions followed the Third Servile War in 73–71 BC (the slave rebellion under Spartacus), other Roman civil wars in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. Crassus crucified 6,000 of Spartacus' followers hunted down and captured after his defeat in battle.[83] In the siege that led to the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70, Josephus says that the Roman soldiers crucified Jewish captives before the walls of Jerusalem and out of anger and hatred amused themselves by nailing them in different positions.[84]

Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, abolished crucifixion in the Roman Empire in 337 out of veneration for Jesus Christ, its most famous victim.[85][86][87]

Society and law

The Alexamenos graffito, a satirical representation of the Christian worship, depicting a man worshiping a crucified donkey (Rome, c AD 85 to 3rd century). It is inscribed ΑΛΕΞΑΜΕΝΟΣ (ΑΛΕΞΑΜΕΝΟϹ) ΣΕΒΕΤΕ (ϹΕΒΕΤΕ) ΘΕΟΝ, which translates as "Alexamenos respects god". Visible at the museum on the Palatine Hill, Rome, Italy (left). A modern-day tracing (right).

Alexorig
Alexamenos trazo

Crucifixion was intended to be a gruesome spectacle: the most painful and humiliating death imaginable.[88][89] It was used to punish slaves, pirates, and enemies of the state. It was originally reserved for slaves (hence still called "supplicium servile" by Seneca), and later extended to citizens of the lower classes (humiliores).[43] The victims of crucifixion were stripped naked[43][90] and put on public display[91][92] while they were slowly tortured to death so that they would serve as a spectacle and an example.[88][89]

According to Roman law, if a slave killed his or her master, all of the master's slaves would be crucified as punishment.[93] Both men and women were crucified.[94][95][92] Tacitus writes in his Annals that when Lucius Pedanius Secondus was murdered by a slave, some in the Senate tried to prevent the mass crucifixion of four hundred of his slaves[93] because there were so many women and children, but in the end tradition prevailed and they were all executed.[96] Although not conclusive evidence for female crucifixion by itself, the most ancient image of a Roman crucifixion may depict a crucified woman, whether real or imaginary.[a] Crucifixion was such a gruesome and humiliating way to die that the subject was somewhat of a taboo in Roman culture, and few crucifixions were specifically documented. One of the only specific female crucifixions we have documented is that of Ida, a freedwoman (former slave) who was crucified by order of Tiberius.[97][98]

Process

Crucifixion was typically carried out by specialized teams, consisting of a commanding centurion and his soldiers.[99] First, the condemned would be stripped naked[99] and scourged.[43] This would cause the person to lose a large amount of blood, and approach a state of shock. The convict then usually had to carry the horizontal beam (patibulum in Latin) to the place of execution, but not necessarily the whole cross.[43]

During the death march, the prisoner, probably[100] still nude after the scourging,[99] would be led through the most crowded streets[91] bearing a titulus – a sign board proclaiming the prisoner's name and crime.[43][92][99] Upon arrival at the place of execution, selected to be especially public,[92][91][101] the convict would be stripped of any remaining clothing, then nailed to the cross naked.[15][43][92][101] If the crucifixion took place in an established place of execution, the vertical beam (stipes) might be permanently embedded in the ground.[43][99] In this case, the condemned person's wrists would first be nailed to the patibulum, and then he or she would be hoisted off the ground with ropes to hang from the elevated patibulum while it was fastened to the stipes.[43][99] Next the feet or ankles would be nailed to the upright stake.[43][99] The 'nails' were tapered iron spikes approximately 5 to 7 inches (13 to 18 cm) long, with a square shaft 38 inch (10 mm) across.[44] The titulus would also be fastened to the cross to notify onlookers of the person's name and crime as they hung on the cross, further maximizing the public impact.[92][99]

There may have been considerable variation in the position in which prisoners were nailed to their crosses and how their bodies were supported while they died.[89] Seneca the Younger recounts: "I see crosses there, not just of one kind but made in many different ways: some have their victims with head down to the ground; some impale their private parts; others stretch out their arms on the gibbet."[21] One source claims that for Jews (apparently not for others), a man would be crucified with his back to the cross as is traditionally depicted, while a woman would be nailed facing her cross, probably with her back to onlookers, or at least with the stipes providing some semblance of modesty if viewed from the front.[46] Such concessions were "unique" and not made outside a Jewish context.[46] Several sources mention some sort of seat fastened to the stipes to help support the person's body,[102][103][104] thereby prolonging the person's suffering[91] and humiliation[89] by preventing the asphyxiation caused by hanging without support. Justin Martyr calls the seat a cornu, or "horn,"[102] leading some scholars to believe it may have had a pointed shape designed to torment the crucified person.[105] This would be consistent with Seneca's observation of victims with their private parts impaled.

In Roman-style crucifixion, the condemned could take up to a few days to die, but death was sometimes hastened by human action. "The attending Roman guards could leave the site only after the victim had died, and were known to precipitate death by means of deliberate fracturing of the tibia and/or fibula, spear stab wounds into the heart, sharp blows to the front of the chest, or a smoking fire built at the foot of the cross to asphyxiate the victim."[57] The Romans sometimes broke the prisoner's legs to hasten death and usually forbade burial.[92] On the other hand, the person was often deliberately kept alive as long as possible to prolong their suffering and humiliation, so as to provide the maximum deterrent effect.[89] Corpses of the crucified were typically left on the crosses to decompose and be eaten by animals.[89][106]

In Islam

Islam spread in a region where many societies, including the Persian and Roman empires, had used crucifixion to punish traitors, rebels, robbers and criminal slaves.[107] The Qur'an refers to crucifixion in six passages, of which the most significant for later legal developments is verse 5:33:[108][107]

The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Apostle, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land: that is their disgrace in this world, and a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter.[109]

The corpus of hadith provides contradictory statements about the first use of crucifixion under Islamic rule, attributing it variously to Muhammad himself (for murder and robbery of a shepherd) or to the second caliph Umar (applied to two slaves who murdered their mistress).[107] Classical Islamic jurisprudence applies the verse 5:33 chiefly to highway robbers, as a hadd (scripturally prescribed) punishment.[107] The preference for crucifixion over the other punishments mentioned in the verse or for their combination (which Sadakat Kadri has called "Islam's equivalent of the hanging, drawing and quartering that medieval Europeans inflicted on traitors"[110]) is subject to "complex and contested rules" in classical jurisprudence.[107] Most scholars required crucifixion for highway robbery combined with murder, while others allowed execution by other methods for this scenario.[107] The main methods of crucifixion are:[107]

Most classical jurists limit the period of crucifixion to three days.[107] Crucifixion involves affixing or impaling the body to a beam or a tree trunk.[107] Various minority opinions also prescribed crucifixion as punishment for a number of other crimes.[107] Cases of crucifixion under most of the legally prescribed categories have been recorded in the history of Islam, and prolonged exposure of crucified bodies was especially common for political and religious opponents.[107][114]

Japan

Japanese Crucifixion
Early Meiji period crucifixion (c. 1865–1868), Yokohama, Japan. A 25-year-old servant, Sokichi, was executed by crucifixion for murdering his employer's son during the course of a robbery. He was affixed by tying, rather than nailing, to a stake with two cross-pieces.[115][116]

Crucifixion was introduced into Japan during the Sengoku period (1467–1573), after a 350-year period with no capital punishment.[117] It is believed to have been suggested to the Japanese by the introduction of Christianity into the region,[117] although similar types of punishment had been used as early as the Kamakura period. Known in Japanese as haritsuke (), crucifixion was used in Japan before and during the Tokugawa Shogunate. Several related crucifixion techniques were used. Petra Schmidt, in "Capital Punishment in Japan", writes:[118]

Execution by crucifixion included, first of all, hikimawashi (i.e, being paraded about town on horseback); then the unfortunate was tied to a cross made from one vertical and two horizontal poles. The cross was raised, the convict speared several times from two sides, and eventually killed with a final thrust through the throat. The corpse was left on the cross for three days. If one condemned to crucifixion died in prison, his body was pickled and the punishment executed on the dead body. Under Toyotomi Hideyoshi, one of the great 16th-century unifiers, crucifixion upside down (i.e, sakasaharitsuke) was frequently used. Water crucifixion (mizuharitsuke) awaited mostly Christians: a cross was raised at low tide; when the high tide came, the convict was submerged under water up to the head, prolonging death for many days

ChristianMartyrsOfNagasaki
The Twenty Six Martyrs of Japan

In 1597 twenty-six Christian Martyrs were nailed to crosses at Nagasaki, Japan. Among those executed were Saints Paulo Miki, Philip of Jesus and Pedro Bautista, a Spanish Franciscan who had worked about ten years in the Philippines. The executions marked the beginning of a long history of persecution of Christianity in Japan, which continued until its decriminalization in 1871.

Crucifixion was used as a punishment for prisoners of war during World War II. Ringer Edwards, an Australian prisoner of war, was crucified for killing cattle, along with two others. He survived 63 hours before being let down.

Burma

In Burma, crucifixion was a central element in several execution rituals. Felix Carey, a missionary in Burma from 1806 to 1812,[119] wrote the following:[120]

Four or five persons, after being nailed through their hands and feet to a scaffold, had first their tongues cut out, then their mouths slit open from ear to ear, then their ears cut off, and finally their bellies ripped open.

Six people were crucified in the following manner: their hands and feet nailed to a scaffold; then their eyes were extracted with a blunt hook; and in this condition they were left to expire; two died in the course of four days; the rest were liberated, but died of mortification on the sixth or seventh day.

Four persons were crucified, viz. not nailed but tied with their hands and feet stretched out at full length, in an erect posture. In this posture they were to remain till death; every thing they wished to eat was ordered them with a view to prolong their lives and misery. In cases like this, the legs and feet of the criminals begin to swell and mortify at the expiration of three or four days; some are said to live in this state for a fortnight, and expire at last from fatigue and mortification. Those which I saw, were liberated at the end of three or four days.

Europe

Your Liberty Bond will help stop this Crisco restoration and colours
Poster showing a German soldier nailing a man to a tree, as American soldiers come to his rescue. Published in Manila by Bureau of Printing (1917).

During World War I, there were persistent rumors that German soldiers had crucified a Canadian soldier on a tree or barn door with bayonets or combat knives. The event was initially reported in 1915 by Private George Barrie of the 1st Canadian Division. Two investigations, one a post-war official investigation, and the other an independent investigation by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, concluded that there was no evidence to support the story.[121] However, British documentary maker Iain Overton in 2001 published an article claiming that the story was true, identifying the soldier as Harry Band.[121][122] Overton's article was the basis for a 2002 episode of the Channel 4 documentary show Secret History.[123]

It has been reported that crucifixion was used in several cases against the German civil population of East Prussia when it was occupied by Soviet forces at the end of the Second World War.[124]

Modern use

Punishment china 1900
Prisoner kneeling on chains, thumbs supporting arms, photographic print on stereo card, Mukden, China (c. 1906)

Crucifixion is still used as a rare method of execution in some countries. The punishment of crucifixion (șalb) imposed in Islamic law is variously interpreted as exposure of the body after execution, crucifixion followed by stabbing in the chest, or crucifixion for three days, survivors of which are allowed to live.[125]

Legal execution

Several people have been executed by crucifixion in Saudi Arabia in the 2000s, although on occasion they were first beheaded and then crucified. In March 2013, a robber was set to be executed by being crucified for three days.[126] However, the method was changed to death by firing squad.[127] The Saudi Press Agency reported that the body of another individual was crucified after his execution in April 2019 as part of a crackdown on charges of terrorism.[128][129]

Ali Mohammed Baqir al-Nimr was arrested in 2012 when he was 17 years old for taking part in an anti-government protests in Saudi Arabia during the Arab Spring.[130] In May 2014, Ali al-Nimr was sentenced to be publicly beheaded and crucified.[131]

Theoretically, crucifixion is still one of the Hadd punishments in Iran.[132][133] If a crucified person were to survive three days of crucifixion, that person would be allowed to live.[134] Execution by hanging is described as follows: "In execution by hanging, the prisoner will be hung on a hanging truss which should look like a cross, while his (her) back is toward the cross, and (s)he faces the direction of Mecca [in Saudi Arabia], and his (her) legs are vertical and distant from the ground."[135]

Sudan's penal code, based upon the government's interpretation of shari'a,[136][137][138] includes execution followed by crucifixion as a penalty. When, in 2002, 88 people were sentenced to death for crimes relating to murder, armed robbery, and participating in ethnic clashes, Amnesty International wrote that they could be executed by either hanging or crucifixion.[139]

Crucifixion is a legal punishment in the United Arab Emirates.[140][141][142]

Jihadism

On 5 February 2015 the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) reported that the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) had committed "several cases of mass executions of boys, as well as reports of beheadings, crucifixions of children and burying children alive".[143]

On 30 April 2014 Islamic extremists carried out a total of seven public executions in Raqqa, northern Syria.[144] The pictures, originally posted to Twitter by a student at Oxford University, were retweeted by a Twitter account owned by a known member of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) causing major media outlets to incorrectly attribute the crucifixions to the militant group.[145] In most of these cases of "crucifixion" the victims are shot first then their bodies are displayed[146] but there have also been reports of "crucifixion" preceding shootings or decapitations[147] as well as a case where a man was said to have been "crucified alive for eight hours" with no indication of whether he died.[146]

Other terrorist incidents

The human rights group Karen Women Organization documented a case of Tatmadaw forces crucifying several Karen villagers in 2000 in the Dooplaya District in Burma's Kayin State.[148][149]

On 22 January 2014, an anti-government activist and member of AutoMaidan was kidnapped by unknown parties and tortured for a week. His captors kept him in the dark, beat him, cut off a piece of his ear, and nailed him to a cross. His captors ultimately left him in a forest outside Kiev after forcing him to confess to being an American spy and accepting money from the US Embassy in Ukraine to organize protests against then-President Viktor Yanukovych.[150]

In culture and arts

Construction Crucifixion Homage to Mondrian crop

Sculpture construction: Crucifixion, homage to Mondrian, by Barbara Hepworth, United Kingdom (2007)

Sergey Solomko 025

Allegory of Poland (1914–1918), postcard by Sergey Solomko

Sveti Kriz (Novine, 1933. IX. 3.)

The Holy Cross, article of the Novine (September 3, 1933)

CarFloatLagosDoctores201103

Car-float at the feast of the Virgin of San Juan de los Lagos, Colonia Doctores, Mexico City (2011)

18960415 antisemitic political cartoon in Sound Money

Antisemitic American political cartoon, Sound Money magazine, April 15, 1896 issue

Protester tied to a cross in Washington D.C - NARA - 194675

Protester tied to a cross in Washington D.C. (1970)

As a devotional practice

Crucifixion in San Fernando, Pampanga, Philippines, easter 2006, p-ad20060414-12h54m52s-r
Devotional crucifixion in San Fernando, Pampanga, Philippines, Easter 2006

The Catholic Church frowns upon self-crucifixion as a form of devotion: "Penitential practices leading to self-crucifixion with nails are not to be encouraged."[151] Nevertheless, the practice is not unknown.

In the Philippines, some Catholics are voluntarily, non-lethally crucified for a limited time on Good Friday to imitate the sufferings of Christ. Pre-sterilised nails are driven through the palm of the hand between the bones, while there is a footrest to which the feet are nailed. Rolando del Campo, a carpenter in Pampanga, vowed to be crucified every Good Friday for 15 years if God would carry his wife through a difficult childbirth,[152] while in San Pedro Cutud, Ruben Enaje has been crucified 32 times.[153][154] The Church in the Philippines has repeatedly voiced disapproval of crucifixions and self-flagellation, while the government has noted that it cannot deter devotees. The Department of Health insists that participants in the rites should have tetanus shots and that the nails used should be sterilized.[155]

In other cases, a crucifixion is only simulated within a passion play, as in the ceremonial re-enactment that has been performed yearly in the town of Iztapalapa, on the outskirts of Mexico City, since 1833,[156] and in the more famous Oberammergau Passion Play. Also, since at least the mid-19th century, a group of flagellants in New Mexico, called Hermanos de Luz ("Brothers of Light"), have annually conducted reenactments of Christ's crucifixion during Holy Week, in which a penitent is tied—but not nailed—to a cross.[157]

Famous crucifixions

  • The rebel slaves of the Third Servile War: Between 73 BC and 71 BC a band of slaves, eventually numbering about 120,000, under the (at least partial) leadership of Spartacus were in open revolt against the Roman republic. The rebellion was eventually crushed and, while Spartacus himself most likely died in the final battle of the revolt, approximately 6,000 of his followers were crucified along the 200 km Appian Way between Capua and Rome as a warning to any other would-be rebels.
  • Jehohanan: Jewish man who was crucified around the same time as Jesus of Nazareth and it is widely accepted that his ankles were nailed to the side of the stipes of the cross
  • Jesus of Nazareth: his death by crucifixion under Pontius Pilate (c. AD 30 or 33), recounted in the four 1st-century canonical Gospels, is referred to repeatedly as something well known in the earlier letters of Saint Paul, for instance, five times in his First Letter to the Corinthians, written in 57 AD (1:13, 1:18, 1:23, 2:2, 2:8). Pilate was the Roman governor of Iudaea province at the time, and he is explicitly linked with the condemnation of Jesus not only by the Gospels but also by Tacitus,[158] (see Responsibility for the death of Jesus for details). The civil charge was a claim to be King of the Jews.
  • Saint Peter: Christian apostle, who according to tradition was crucified upside-down at his own request (hence the Cross of St. Peter), because he did not feel worthy enough to die the same way as Jesus.
  • Saint Andrew: Christian apostle and Saint Peter's brother, who is traditionally said to have been crucified on an X-shaped cross (hence the St. Andrew's Cross).
  • Simeon of Jerusalem: second Bishop of Jerusalem, crucified in either 106 or 107.
  • Mani: the founder of Manicheanism, he was depicted by followers as having died by crucifixion in 274 AD.
  • Eulalia of Barcelona was venerated as a saint. According to her hagiography, she was stripped naked, tortured, and ultimately crucified on an X-shaped cross.[159]
  • Wilgefortis was venerated as a saint and represented as a crucified woman, however her legend comes from a misinterpretation of a full-clothed crucifix known as the Volto Santo of Lucca.
  • The 26 Martyrs of Japan were executed that way and they were also speared to death.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ It is a graffito found in a taberna (hostel for wayfarers) in Puteoli, dating to the time of Trajan or Hadrian (late 1st century to early 2nd century AD). An inscription over the person's left shoulder reads "Ἀλκίμιλα" (Alkimila), a female name. It is not clear, however, whether the inscription was written by the same person who drew the picture, or added by another person later. It is also not known whether the grafitto is intended to depict an actual event, as distinguished from, perhaps, the writer's desire for someone to be crucified, or as a jest. As such, the grafitto does not itself provide conclusive evidence of female crucifixion.[30]

References

  1. ^ a b Josephus. The Jewish War. 5.11.1., Perseus Project BJ5.11.1, .
  2. ^ Edwards, William D. (March 21, 1986). "On the Physical Death of Jesus Christ". JAMA. 255 (11): 1455–63. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.621.365. doi:10.1001/jama.1986.03370110077025. PMID 3512867.
  3. ^ Byard, Roger W. (March 5, 2016). "Forensic and historical aspects of crucifixion". Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology. 12 (2): 206–208. doi:10.1007/s12024-016-9758-0.
  4. ^ LSJ apotumpanizo ἀποτυμπα^ν-ίζω (later ἀποτύμπα^ν-τυπ- UPZ119 (2nd century BC), POxy.1798.1.7), A. crucify on a plank, D.8.61,9.61: – Pass., Lys.13.56, D.19.137, Arist. Rh. 1383a5, Beros. ap. J.Ap.1.20. 2. generally, destroy, Plu.2.1049d.
  5. ^ LSJ anastauro ἀνασταυρ-όω, = foreg., Hdt.3.125, 6.30, al.; identical with ἀνασκολοπίζω, 9.78: – Pass., Th. 1.110, Pl.Grg.473c. II. in Rom. times, affix to a cross, crucify, Plb. 1.11.5, al., Plu.Fab.6, al. 2. crucify afresh, Ep.Hebr.6.6.
  6. ^ Plutarch Fabius Maximus 6.3 "Hannibal now perceived the mistake in his position, and its peril, and crucified the native guides who were responsible for it."
  7. ^ Polybius 1.11.5 [5] Historiae. Polybius. Theodorus Büttner-Wobst after L. Dindorf. Leipzig. Teubner. 1893.
  8. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary, "cross"". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
  9. ^ Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary: crux, ŭcis, f. (m., Enn. ap. Non. p. 195, 13; Gracch. ap. Fest. s. v. masculino, p. 150, 24, and 151, 12 Müll.) [perh. kindred with circus]. I. Lit. A. In gen., a tree, frame, or other wooden instruments of execution, on which criminals were impaled or hanged, Sen. Prov. 3, 10; Cic. Rab. Perd. 3, 10 sqq. – B. In partic., a cross, Ter. And. 3, 5, 15; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 3, § 7; 2, 1, 4, § 9; id. Pis. 18, 42; id. Fin. 5, 30, 92; Quint. 4, 2, 17; Tac. A. 15, 44; Hor. S. 1, 3, 82; 2, 7, 47; id. Ep. 1, 16, 48 et saep.: "dignus fuit qui malo cruce periret, Gracch. ap. Fest. l. l.: pendula", the pole of a carriage, Stat. S. 4, 3, 28.
  10. ^ "Collins English Dictionary, "crucify"". Collins. 31 December 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  11. ^ "Compact Oxford English Dictionary, "crucify"". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  12. ^ "Webster New World College Dictionary, "crucify"". yourdictionary.com/. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  13. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary, "crucify"". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
  14. ^ "Dialogue "To Marcia on Consolation", 6.20.3". googleusercontent.com (in Latin). The Latin Library.
  15. ^ a b Wikisource Fallow, Thomas Macall (1911). "Cross and Crucifixion" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 506.
  16. ^ Ball, DA (1989). "The crucifixion and death of a man called Jesus". Journal of the Mississippi State Medical Association. 30 (3): 77–83. PMID 2651675.
  17. ^ "Annales 2:32.2". Thelatinlibrary.com. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
  18. ^ "Annales 15:60.1". Thelatinlibrary.com. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
  19. ^ Flavius, Josephus. "Jewish War, Book V Chapter 11". ccel.org. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  20. ^ Mishna, Shabbath 6.10: see David W. Chapman, Ancient Jewish and Christian Perceptions of Crucifixion (Mohn Siebeck 2008 ISBN 978-3-16-149579-3), p. 182
  21. ^ a b c Seneca, Dialogue "To Marcia on Consolation", in Moral Essays, 6.20.3, trans. John W. Basore, The Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1946) 2:69
  22. ^ Wikisource:Of Consolation: To Marcia#XX.
  23. ^ Licona, Michael (2010). The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiographical Approach. InterVarsity Press. p. 304. ISBN 978-0-8308-2719-0. OCLC 620836940.
  24. ^ Conway, Colleen M. (2008). Behold the Man: Jesus and Greco-Roman Masculinity. Oxford University Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-19-532532-4. (citing Cicero, pro Rabirio Perduellionis Reo 5.16).
  25. ^ "M. Tullius Cicero, Against Verres, actio 2, The Fifth Book of the Second Pleading in the Prosecution against Verres., section 170". www.perseus.tufts.edu.
  26. ^ a b Koskenniemi, Erkki; Kirsi Nisula; Jorma Toppari (2005). "Wine Mixed with Myrrh (Mark 15.23) and Crurifragium (John 19.31–32): Two Details of the Passion Narratives". Journal for the Study of the New Testament. 27 (4): 379–391. doi:10.1177/0142064X05055745. Retrieved 2008-06-13.
  27. ^ Justus Lipsius: De cruce, p. 47
  28. ^ Barclay, William (1998). The Apostles' Creed. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-664-25826-9.
  29. ^ "The ... oldest depiction of a crucifixion ... was uncovered by archaeologists more than a century ago on the Palatine Hill in Rome. It is a second-century graffiti scratched into a wall that was part of the imperial palace complex. It includes a caption – not by a Christian, but by someone taunting and deriding Christians and the crucifixions they underwent. It shows crude stick-figures of a boy reverencing his 'God', who has the head of a jackass and is upon a cross with arms spread wide and with hands nailed to the crossbeam. Here we have a Roman sketch of a Roman crucifixion, and it is in the traditional cross shape." Clayton F. Bower, Jr. "Cross or Torture Stake?"
  30. ^ a b Cook, John Granger (2012). "Crucifixion as Spectacle in Roman Campania". Novum Testamentum. 54 (1): 60, 92–98. doi:10.1163/156853611X589651. JSTOR 23253630.
  31. ^ "It was his body that tyrants took for a model, his shape that they imitated, when they set up the erections on which men are crucified" (Lucian, Trial in the Court of Vowels, p. 30
  32. ^ John Granger Cook, Crucifixion in the Mediterranean World (Mohr Siebeck 2018), p. 289; cf. pp. 7−8
  33. ^ "The very form of the cross, too, has five extremities, two in length, two in breadth, and one in the middle, on which [last] the person rests who is fixed by the nails" (Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses II, xxiv, 4 ).
  34. ^ William Barclay, The Apostles' Creed (Westminster John Knox Press, 1998), p. 79
  35. ^ Epistle of Barnabas, chapter 9
  36. ^ Clement of Alexandria, The Stromata, book VI, chapter 11
  37. ^ Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho, XL, 3
  38. ^ In the Homeric Greek of the Iliad XX, 478–480, a spear-point is said to have pierced the χεῖρ "where the sinews of the elbow join" (ἵνα τε ξενέχουσι τένοντες / ἀγκῶνος, τῇ τόν γε φίλης διὰ χειρὸς ἔπειρεν / αἰχμῇ χακλκείῃ).
  39. ^ χείρ. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  40. ^ Wynne-Jones, Jonathan (16 March 2008). "Why the BBC thinks Christ did not die this way". London: Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2008-03-16.
  41. ^ "a brief news article". MSNBC. 2005-03-25. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
  42. ^ Viladesau, Richard (2006). The beauty of the cross: the passion of Christ in theology and the arts, from the catacombs to the eve of the Renaissance. Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-19-518811-0. OCLC 58791208.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kohler, Kaufmann; Hirsch, Emil G. "Crucifixion". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2018-03-06.
  44. ^ a b "Some Notes on Crucifixion" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
  45. ^ David W. Chapman, Ancient Jewish and Christian perceptions of crucifixion (Mohr Siebeck, 2008), pp. 86–89
  46. ^ a b c "Joe Zias, Crucifixion in Antiquity — The Anthropological Evidence". Joezias.com. Archived from the original on 2004-03-11. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
  47. ^ "The Bioarchaeology of Crucifixion". PoweredbyOsteons.org. Retrieved 2011-11-04.
  48. ^ Maslen, Matthew; Piers D Mitchell (April 2006). "Medical theories on the cause of death in crucifixion". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 99 (4): 185–188. doi:10.1258/jrsm.99.4.185. PMC 1420788. PMID 16574970.
  49. ^ William Stroud; Sir James Young Simpson (1871). Treatise on the Physical Cause of the Death of Christ and Its Relation to the Principles and Practice of Christianity. Hamilton, Adams & Company. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  50. ^ Davis, CT (1962). "The Crucifixion of Jesus. The Passion of Christ From a Medical Point of View". Arizona Medicine. 22: 182.
  51. ^ Frederick T. Zugibe (30 April 2005). The Crucifixion of Jesus: A Forensic Inquiry. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-59077-070-2. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  52. ^ Wijffels, F (2000). "Death on the cross: did the Turin Shroud once envelop a crucified body?". Br Soc Turin Shroud Newsl. 52 (3).
  53. ^ Pierre Barbet (1953). A Doctor at Calvary: The Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ as Described by a Surgeon. Kenedy. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  54. ^ Edwards, WD; Gabel WJ; Hosmer FE (1986). "On the physical cause of death of Jesus Christ" (PDF). Journal of the American Medical Association. 255 (11): 1455–1463. doi:10.1001/jama.255.11.1455.
  55. ^ Brenner, B (2005). "Did Jesus Christ die of pulmonary embolism?". J Thromb Haemost. 3 (9): 1–2. doi:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2005.01525.x. PMID 16102134.
  56. ^ Edwards WD, Gabel WJ, Hosmer FE (March 1986). "On the physical death of Jesus Christ". JAMA. 255 (11): 1455–63. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.621.365. doi:10.1001/jama.1986.03370110077025. PMID 3512867.
  57. ^ a b Retief FP, Cilliers L (December 2003). "The history and pathology of crucifixion". South African Medical Journal. 93 (12): 938–941. PMID 14750495.
  58. ^ "Columbia University page of Pierre Barbet on Crucifixion". columbia.edu.
  59. ^ Zugibe, Frederick T (1988). The cross and the shroud: a medical inquiry into the crucifixion. New York: Paragon House. ISBN 978-0-913729-75-5.
  60. ^ Zugibe, Frederick T. (2005). The Crucifixion Of Jesus: A Forensic Inquiry. New York: M. Evans and Company. ISBN 978-1-59077-070-2.
  61. ^ Maslen, MW; Mitchell, PD (2006). "Medical theories on the cause of death in crucifixion". J R Soc Med. 99 (4): 185–188. doi:10.1258/jrsm.99.4.185. PMC 1420788. PMID 16574970.
  62. ^ The Life Of Flavius Josephus, 75.
  63. ^ Tzaferis, V. 1970. "Jewish Tombs at and near Giv'at ha-Mivtar". Israel Exploration Journal Vol. 20 pp. 18–32.
  64. ^ Haas, Nicu. "Anthropological observations on the skeletal remains from Giv'at ha-Mivtar", Israel Exploration Journal 20 (1–2), 1970: 38–59; Tzaferis, Vassilios. "Crucifixion – The Archaeological Evidence", Biblical Archaeology Review 11 (February, 1985): 44–53; Zias, Joseph. "The Crucified Man from Giv'at Ha-Mivtar: A Reappraisal", Israel Exploration Journal 35 (1), 1985: 22–27; Hengel, Martin. Crucifixion in the ancient world and the folly of the message of the cross (Augsburg Fortress, 1977). ISBN 0-8006-1268-X. See also Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome, by Donald G. Kyle p. 181, note 93
  65. ^ by Paul L. Maier (1997). In the Fullness of Time. ISBN 978-0-8254-3329-0 – via Google Books.
  66. ^ Zias J.; Sekeles, E. (1985). "The Crucified Man from Giv'at ha-Mivtar: A Reappraisal". Israel Exploration Journal (35). pp. 22–27.
  67. ^ Stavros, Scolops (σταῦρός, σκόλοψ). The cross; encyclopedia Hellinica
  68. ^ Translation by Aubrey de Selincourt. The original, "σανίδα προσπασσαλεύσαντες, ἀνεκρέμασαν ... Τούτου δὲ τοῦ Ἀρταύκτεω τοῦ ἀνακρεμασθέντος ...", is translated by Henry Cary (Bohn's Classical Library: Herodotus Literally Translated. London, G. Bell and Sons 1917, pp. 591–592) as: "They nailed him to a plank and hoisted him aloft ... this Artayctes who was hoisted aloft".
  69. ^ W.W. How and J. Wells, A Commentary on Herodotus (Clarendon Press, Oxford 1912), vol. 2, p. 336
  70. ^ See Mishnah, Sanhedrin 7:1, translated in Jacob Neusner, The Mishnah: A New Translation 591 (1988), supra note 8, at 595–596 (indicating that court ordered execution by stoning, burning, decapitation, or strangulation only)
  71. ^ Levi,Aramaic Testament of Levi 4Q541 column 6
  72. ^ Shi, Wenhua (2008). Paul's Message of the Cross As Body Language. Mohr Siebeck. p. 46. ISBN 978-3-16-149706-3.
  73. ^ VanderKam, James C. (2012). The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Bible. Eerdmans. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-8028-6679-0.
  74. ^ Quintus Curtius Rufus, History of Alexander the Great of Macedonia 4.4.21
  75. ^ Gabriel, Richard A. (2011). Hannibal. Potomac Books. ISBN 978-1-59797-766-1.
  76. ^ Liddell, Henry George (1855). A History of Rome. Oxford University Press. p. 302.
  77. ^ Waterfield, Robin (2010). Polybius. The Histories. Oxford University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-19-953470-8.
  78. ^ Herodotus, Histories, 3.125 ("Having killed him in some way not fit to be told, Oroetes then crucified him")
  79. ^ "Livy I.26 and the Supplicium de More Maiorum". Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
  80. ^ "Apologia, IX, 1". Grtbooks.com. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
  81. ^ After quoting a poem by Maecenas that speaks of preferring life to death even when life is burdened with all the disadvantages of old age or even with acute torture ("vel acuta si sedeam cruce"), Seneca disagrees with the sentiment, saying death would be better for a crucified person hanging from the patibulum: "I should deem him most despicable had he wished to live to the point of crucifixion ... Is it worth so much to weigh down upon one's own wound, and hang stretched out from a patibulum? ... Is anyone found who, after being fastened to that accursed wood, already weakened, already deformed, swelling with ugly weals on shoulders and chest, with many reasons for dying even before getting to the cross, would wish to prolong a life-breath that is about to experience so many torments?" ("Contemptissimum putarem, si vivere vellet usque ad crucem ... Est tanti vulnus suum premere et patibulo pendere districtum ... Invenitur, qui velit adactus ad illud infelix lignum, iam debilis, iam pravus et in foedum scapularum ac pectoris tuber elisus, cui multae moriendi causae etiam citra crucem fuerant, trahere animam tot tormenta tracturam?" - Letter 101, 12–14)
  82. ^ Titus Maccius Plautus Miles gloriosus Mason Hammond, Arthur M. Mack - 1997 p. 109, "The patibulum (in the next line) was a crossbar which the convicted criminal carried on his shoulders, with his arms fastened to it, to the place for ... Hoisted up on an upright post, the patibulum became the crossbar of the cross"
  83. ^ "Appian • The Civil Wars – Book I". penelope.uchicago.edu.
  84. ^ Josephus, The War of the Jews, book 5, chapter 11
  85. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Encyclopædia Britannica Online: crucifixion". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
  86. ^ Dictionary of Images and Symbols in Counselling By William Stewart 1998 ISBN 1-85302-351-5, p. 120
  87. ^ "Archaeology of the Bible". Bible-archaeology.info. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
  88. ^ a b Robison, John C. (June 2002). "Crucifixion in the Roman World: The Use of Nails at the Time of Christ". Studia Antiqua. 2.
  89. ^ a b c d e f Zias, Joseph (1998). "Crucifixion in Antiquity: The Evidence". www.mercaba.org. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  90. ^ Matthew 27:35, Mark 15:24, Luke 23:34, John 19:23-25
  91. ^ a b c d Zias, Joseph (2016-01-10). "Crucifixion in Antiquity: The Anthropological Evidence". Archived from the original on 2018-03-10. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  92. ^ a b c d e f g Samuelsson, Gunnar (2013). Crucifixion in Antiquity: An Inquiry into the Background and Significance of the New Testament Terminology of Crucifixion. Mohr Siebeck. p. 7. ISBN 978-3-16-152508-7.
  93. ^ a b Barth, Markus; Blanke, Helmut (2000). The Letter to Philemon: A New Translation with Notes and Commentary. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-8028-3829-2.
  94. ^ Barry, Strauss (2009). The Spartacus War. Simon & Schuster. p. 193. ISBN 978-1-4391-5839-5.
  95. ^ Josephus. Antiquities of the Jews. 18.3.4..
  96. ^ Tacitus. Annals, Book 14, 42–45.
  97. ^ Barry, Strauss (2009). The Spartacus War. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-5839-5.
  98. ^ Josephus (1990). Josephus: Essential Writings. Kregel Academic. p. 265.
  99. ^ a b c d e f g h Barbet, P (1953). A Doctor at Calvary: The Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ as Described by a Surgeon. New York: Doubleday Image Books. pp. 46–51.
  100. ^ Wikisource Fallow, Thomas Macall (1911). "Cross and Crucifixion" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 506. Macall believes that the person would be given back his or her clothing following the scourging.
  101. ^ a b Zias, Joseph. "Postscript – The Mel Gibson Controversy". JoeZias.com. Archived from the original on 2004-03-06. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  102. ^ a b Justin Martyr Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew 91
  103. ^ Irenaeus Against Heresies II.24
  104. ^ Tertullian To the Nations I.12
  105. ^ Barbet, 45; Zugibe, 57; Vassilios Tzaferis, “Crucifixion – The Archaeological Evidence,” Biblical Archaeology Review 11.1 (Jan./Feb. 1985), 44–53 (p. 49)
  106. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (2014). How Jesus became God: The exaltation of a Jewish preacher from Galilee (First ed.). New York: HarperCollins. pp. 133–165. ISBN 978-0-06-177818-6.
  107. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Vogel, F.E. (2012). "Ṣalb". In P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_6530.
  108. ^ "Quran Surah Al-Maaida ( Verse 33 )". irebd.com.
  109. ^ "Surah Al-Ma'idah [5]". Surah Al-Ma'idah [5].
  110. ^ Kadri, Sadakat (2012). Heaven on Earth: A Journey Through Shari'a Law from the Deserts of Ancient Arabia ... macmillan. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-09-952327-7.
  111. ^ a b c Peters, Rudolph (2006). Crime and Punishment in Islamic Law: Theory and Practice from the Sixteenth to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. pp. 37–38.
  112. ^ a b "تصليب" [Hardening]. الموسوعة الفقهية (Encyclopedia of Fiqh) (in Arabic). 12. وزارة الأوقاف والشئون الإسلامية في دولة الكويت. 1988.
  113. ^ a b "حرابة" [Horror]. الموسوعة الفقهية (Encyclopedia of Fiqh) (in Arabic). 17. وزارة الأوقاف والشئون الإسلامية في دولة الكويت. 1988.
  114. ^ Anthony, Sean (2014). Crucifixion and Death as Spectacle: Umayyad Crucifixion in Its Late Antique Context. American Oriental Series 96. American Oriental Society. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  115. ^ Ewing, William A. (1994). The body: photographs of the human form. photograph by Felice Beato. Chronicle Books. p. 250. ISBN 978-0-8118-0762-3.
  116. ^ Clark Worswick (1979). Japan, photographs, 1854–1905. Knopf : distributed by Random House. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-394-50836-8.
  117. ^ a b Moore, Charles Alexander; Aldyth V. Morris (1968). The Japanese mind: essentials of Japanese philosophy and culture. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-8248-0077-2. OCLC 10329518.
  118. ^ Schmidt, Petra (2002). Capital Punishment in Japan. Leiden: Brill. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-90-04-12421-9.
  119. ^ "The Baptist Union: Latest News". baptist.org.uk.
  120. ^ The Baptist Magazine, Volume 7. Baptist Magazine. London: Button&son. 1815. p. 67.
  121. ^ a b Bourke, Roger (2006). Prisoners of the Japanese: literary imagination and the prisoner-of-war experience. University of Queensland Press. p. 184 n.8. ISBN 978-0-7022-3564-1. OCLC 70257905.
  122. ^ Overton, Iain (2001-04-17). "Revealed, the soldier who was crucified by Germans". International Express. p. 16.
  123. ^ "The Crucified Soldier". Secret History. Season 9. Episode 5. 2002-07-04. Channel 4.
  124. ^ Max Hastings, Armageddon: the Battle for Germany 1944–45, ISBN 978-0-330-49062-7
  125. ^ Peters, Rudolph (2005). Crime and Punishment in Islamic Law. Cambridge University Press. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-1-139-44534-4.
  126. ^ AP (5 March 2013). "Saudi seven face crucifixion and firing squad for armed robbery". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  127. ^ Mar 18, Ali AlAhmed Published on. "The execution of the Saudi Seven – iPolitics". Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  128. ^ Qiblawi, Tamara; Alhenawi, Ruba (April 23, 2019). "Saudi Arabia executes 37 people, crucifying one, for terror-related crimes". CNN. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  129. ^ "Saudi Arabia executes dozens on 'terrorism' charges". I24 News. April 23, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  130. ^ "Saudi Arabia must immediately halt execution of children – UN rights experts urge". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 22 September 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  131. ^ "When Beheading Won’t Do the Job, the Saudis Resort to Crucifixion ". The Atlantic. 24 September 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  132. ^ "Iran's Islamic Criminal Law, Article 195" (PDF). nyccriminallawyer.com.
  133. ^ The Sanctions of the Islamic Criminal Law Archived 2011-08-26 at the Wayback Machine
  134. ^ "Case Study in Iranian Criminal System" (PDF). uni-muenchen.de.
  135. ^ "Judicial Law on Retaliation, Stoning, Execution, Crucifixion, Hanging and Whipping, section 5, article 24" (PDF). mehr.org.
  136. ^ Tribune, Tom Masland, Chicago. "MOSLEM CODE LOOMS IN SUDAN". chicagotribune.com.
  137. ^ "Amnesty International, Document AFR 54/21/91". amnesty.org.
  138. ^ Death Penalty Worldwide: Sudan
  139. ^ "Sudan: Imminent Execution/Torture/Unfair trial | Amnesty International". Web.amnesty.org. 2002-07-17. Archived from the original on December 3, 2007. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
  140. ^ "Crucifixion for UAE murderers". The Independent. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  141. ^ "UAE: Further information on fear of imminent crucifixion and execution". Amnesty International. September 1997. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  142. ^ "UAE: Fear of imminent crucifixion and execution". Amnesty International. September 1997. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  143. ^ CBS News. "ISIS is killing, torturing and raping children in Iraq, U.N. says". Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  144. ^ "Death and desecration in Syria: Jihadist group 'crucifies' bodies to send message". CNN/Associated Press. May 2, 2014. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
  145. ^ Siegel, Jacob (30 April 2014). "Islamic Extremists Now Crucifying People in Syria—and Tweeting Out the Pictures". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 14 July 2014. CORRECTION: This story misidentified the origin of a tweet and attributed it to an ISIS member when it actually came from Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi, a student at Oxford University who has no affiliation with ISIS. We regret the error.
  146. ^ a b Almasy, Steve (29 June 2014). "Group: ISIS 'crucifies' men in public in Syrian towns". CNN. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  147. ^ "ISIS terror in and around Rojava, March-April 2014". Kurdistan Times. 13 April 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  148. ^ "Walking amongst sharp knives" (PDF). Karen Women Organization. February 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  149. ^ "Regime's human rights abuses go unpunished". Bangkok Post. 28 March 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  150. ^ "Ukrainian protestor shows scars where he was nailed to a cross when he was crucified by government supporters 'and forced to declare he was a US spy'". The Daily Mail. 6 February 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  151. ^ Directory on Popular Piety 144 Archived June 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  152. ^ "Man Crucifies Himself Every Good Friday". Religious Freaks. 2006-04-12. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
  153. ^ "Filipino devotees reenact Christ's crucifixion on Good Friday". New York Daily News. Associated Press. March 29, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
  154. ^ Orejas, Tonette (March 25, 2016). "15 crucified on Good Friday in Pampanga". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  155. ^ "Boy, 15, nailed to a cross as Filipinos whip and crucify themselves in gory Good Friday ritual". Daily Mail. London. 2008-03-22. Retrieved November 6, 2010.
  156. ^ "Religion-Mexico: The Passion According to Iztapalapa". IPS News. Archived from the original on 2009-12-26. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
  157. ^ Aragon, Ray John De (2006). The Penitentes of New Mexico: Hermanos de la Luz. Sunstone Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-86534-504-1.
  158. ^ Annals, 15.44.
  159. ^ Friesen, Ilse E. (2006). The Female Crucifix: Images of St. Wilgefortis Since the Middle Ages. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-88920-939-8. Eulalia... was stripped, beaten, tormented with iron hooks, had her bosom mutilated, was burnt with torches, and was portrayed as hanging on a rack or X-shaped cross

External links

Arrest of Jesus

The arrest of Jesus was a pivotal event in Christianity recorded in the canonical gospels. Jesus, a preacher whom Christians believe to be the Son of God, was arrested by the Temple guards of the Sanhedrin in the Garden of Gethsemane. It occurred shortly after the Last Supper (during which Jesus gave his final sermon), and immediately after the kiss of Judas, which is traditionally said to have been an act of betrayal since Judas made a deal with the chief priests to arrest Jesus. The event ultimately led, in the Gospel accounts, to Jesus' crucifixion.The arrest led immediately to his trial before the Sanhedrin, during which they condemned him to death and handed him to Pilate the following morning. In Christian theology, the events from the Last Supper until the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus are referred to as the Passion.

In the New Testament, all four Gospels conclude with an extended narrative of Jesus' arrest, trial, crucifixion, burial, and resurrection. In each Gospel, these five events in the life of Jesus are treated with more intense detail than any other portion of that Gospel's narrative. Scholars note that the reader receives an almost hour-by-hour account of what is happening.

Chronology of Jesus

A chronology of Jesus aims to establish a timeline for the events of the life of Jesus. Scholars have correlated Jewish and Greco-Roman documents and astronomical calendars with the New Testament accounts to estimate dates for the major events in Jesus's life.

Two main approaches have been used to estimate the year of the birth of Jesus: one based on the accounts in the Gospels of his birth with reference to King Herod's reign, and the other by subtracting his stated age of "about 30 years" when he began preaching. Most scholars, on this basis, assume a date of birth between 6 and 4 BC.Three details have been used to estimate the year when Jesus began preaching: a mention of his age of "about 30 years" during "the fifteenth year" of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, another relating to the date of the building of the Temple in Jerusalem, and yet another concerning the death of John the Baptist. Hence, scholars estimate that Jesus began preaching and gathering followers around AD 28–29. According to the three synoptic gospels Jesus continued preaching for at least one year, and according to John the Evangelist for three years.Five methods have been used to estimate the date of the crucifixion of Jesus. One uses non-Christian sources such as Josephus and Tacitus. Another works backwards from the historically well-established trial of the Apostle Paul by the Roman proconsul Gallio in Corinth in AD 51/52 to estimate the date of Paul's conversion. Both methods result in AD 36 as an upper bound to the crucifixion. Thus, scholars generally agree that Jesus was crucified between AD 30 and AD 36. Isaac Newton's astronomical method calculates those ancient Passovers (always defined by a full moon) which are preceded by a Friday, as specified by all four Gospels; this leaves two potential crucifixion dates, 7 April AD 30 and 3 April AD 33. In the lunar eclipse method, the Apostle Peter's statement that the moon turned to blood at the crucifixion (Acts of the Apostles 2:14–21) is taken to refer to the lunar eclipse of 3 April AD 33; although astronomers are discussing whether the eclipse was visible as far west as Jerusalem. Recent astronomical research uses the contrast between the synoptic date of Jesus' last Passover on the one hand with John's date of the subsequent "Jewish Passover" on the other hand, to propose Jesus' Last Supper to have been on Wednesday, 1 April AD 33 and the crucifixion on Friday 3 April AD 33 and the Resurrection two days later.

Crucifix

A crucifix (from Latin cruci fixus meaning "(one) fixed to a cross") is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross. The representation of Jesus himself on the cross is referred to in English as the corpus (Latin for "body").The crucifix is a principal symbol for many groups of Christians, and one of the most common forms of the Crucifixion in the arts. It is especially important in the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, but is also used in the Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian, and Eastern Catholic Churches, as well as by the Lutheran and Anglican Churches. The symbol is less common in churches of other Protestant denominations, which prefer to use a cross without the figure of Jesus (the corpus). The crucifix emphasizes Jesus' sacrifice — his death by crucifixion, which Christians believe brought about the redemption of mankind. Most crucifixes portray Jesus on a Latin cross, rather than any other shape, such as a Tau cross or a Coptic cross.

Western crucifixes usually have a three-dimensional corpus, but in Eastern Orthodoxy Jesus' body is normally painted on the cross, or in low relief. Strictly speaking, to be a crucifix, the cross must be three-dimensional, but this distinction is not always observed. An entire painting of the Crucifixion of Jesus including a landscape background and other figures is not a crucifix either.

Large crucifixes high across the central axis of a church are known by the Old English term rood. By the late Middle Ages these were a near-universal feature of Western churches, but are now very rare. Modern Roman Catholic churches often have a crucifix above the altar on the wall; for the celebration of Mass, the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church requires that, "on or close to the altar there is to be a cross with a figure of Christ crucified".

Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus)

Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus) is a 1954 oil-on-canvas painting by Salvador Dalí. A nontraditional, surrealist portrayal of the Crucifixion of Jesus, it depicts Christ on the polyhedron net of a tesseract (hypercube). It is one of his best known paintings from the later period of his career.

Crucifixion (Mantegna)

The Crucifixion is a panel in the central part of the predella (see image below) of a large altarpiece painted by Andrea Mantegna between 1457 and 1459 for the high altar of San Zeno, Verona (Italy). It was commissioned by Gregorio Correr, the abbot of that monastery.

Crucifixion and Last Judgement diptych

The Crucifixion and Last Judgement diptych (or Diptych with Calvary and Last Judgement) consists of two small painted panels attributed to the Early Netherlandish artist Jan van Eyck, with areas finished by unidentified followers or members of his workshop. This diptych is one of the early Northern Renaissance oil on panel masterpieces, renowned for its unusually complex and highly detailed iconography, and for the technical skill evident in its completion. It was executed in a miniature format; the panels are just 56.5 cm (22.2 in) high by 19.7 cm (7.8 in) wide. The diptych was probably commissioned for private devotion.

The left-hand wing depicts the Crucifixion. It shows Christ's followers grieving in the foreground, soldiers and spectators milling about in the mid-ground and a portrayal of three crucified bodies in the upper-ground. The scene is framed against an expansive and foreboding sky with a view of Jerusalem in the distance. The right-hand wing portrays scenes associated with the Last Judgement: a hellscape at its base, the resurrected awaiting judgement in the centre-ground, and a representation of Christ in Majesty flanked by a Great Deësis of saints, apostles, clergy, virgins and nobility in the upper section. Portions of the work contain Greek, Latin and Hebrew inscriptions. The original gilt frames contain Biblical passages in Latin drawn from the books of Isaiah, Deuteronomy and Revelation. According to a date written in Russian on their reverse, the panels were transferred to canvas supports in 1867.

The earliest surviving mention of the work appears in 1841, when scholars believed the two panels were wings of a lost triptych. The Metropolitan Museum of Art acquired the diptych in 1933. At that time, the work was attributed to Jan's brother Hubert because key areas formally resembled pages of the Turin-Milan Hours, which were then believed to be of Hubert's hand. On the evidence of technique and the style of dress of the figures, the majority of scholars believe the panels are late works by Jan van Eyck, executed in the early 1430s and finished after his death. Other art historians hold that van Eyck painted the panels around the early 1420s and attribute the weaker passages to a younger van Eyck's relative inexperience.

Crucifixion darkness

The Crucifixion darkness is an episode in three of the canonical gospels in which the sky becomes dark in daytime during the crucifixion of Jesus.

Christian apologist Tertullian in AD 197 considered this not an eclipse but a portent, which he claimed was recorded in Roman archives. The third-century Christian commentator Origen offered two natural explanations for the darkness: that it might have been the eclipse (presumably of AD 29) described by Phlegon of Tralles, or that it might have been clouds.

Modern scholars have found no contemporary references to the darkness outside the New Testament, but have found mention of it in ancient writings that reference sources lost to us today, such as those of the Greek historian Thallus. Some scholars favour natural explanations such as a khamsin (sand storm). Others note that similar accounts were associated in ancient times and in the Old Testament with the deaths of notable figures, and see the phenomenon as a literary invention that attempts to convey a sense of the power of Jesus in the face of death, or a sign of God's displeasure with the Jewish people.

Crucifixion of Jesus

The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely between AD 30 and 33. Jesus' crucifixion is described in the four canonical gospels, referred to in the New Testament epistles, attested to by other ancient sources, and is established as a historical event confirmed by non-Christian sources, although there is no consensus among historians on the exact details.According to the canonical gospels, Jesus was arrested and tried by the Sanhedrin, and then sentenced by Pontius Pilate to be scourged, and finally crucified by the Romans. Jesus was stripped of his clothing and offered wine mixed with myrrh or gall to drink after saying I am thirsty. He was then hung between two convicted thieves and, according to the Gospel of Mark, died some six hours later. During this time, the soldiers affixed a sign to the top of the cross stating "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews" which, according to the Gospel of John, was written in three languages. They then divided his garments among themselves and cast lots for his seamless robe, according to the Gospel of John. According to the Gospel of John after Jesus' death, one soldier pierced his side with a spear to be certain that he had died, then blood and water gushed from the wound. The Bible describes seven statements that Jesus made while he was on the cross, as well as several supernatural events that occurred.

Collectively referred to as the Passion, Jesus' suffering and redemptive death by crucifixion are the central aspects of Christian theology concerning the doctrines of salvation and atonement.

Crucifixion with the Virgin Mary, St John and St Mary Magdalene

Crucifixion with the Virgin Mary, St John and St Mary Magdalene is a painting by Anthony van Dyck. He produced it in 1617-19 as the high altarpiece for the Jesuit church in Bergues near Dunkirk, during his time as an assistant to Peter Paul Rubens - for a long time the painting was even attributed to Rubens. It was paid to Rubens in 1621 and seems to have been sold around 1746. It was bought by Louis XV of France in Antwerp in 1749 to be the high altarpiece of Saint-Louis de Versailles at the Palace of Versailles. It is now in the Louvre.

Descent from the Cross

The Descent from the Cross (Greek: Ἀποκαθήλωσις, Apokathelosis), or Deposition of Christ, is the scene, as depicted in art, from the Gospels' accounts of Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus taking Christ down from the cross after his crucifixion (John 19:38-42). In Byzantine art the topic became popular in the 9th century, and in the West from the 10th century. The Descent from the Cross is the 13th Station of the Cross.

Other figures not mentioned in the Gospels who are often included in depictions of this subject include John the Evangelist, who is sometimes depicted supporting a fainting Mary (as in the work below by Rogier van der Weyden), and Mary Magdalene. The Gospels mention an undefined number of women as watching the crucifixion, including The Three Marys, (Mary Salome being mentioned in Mark 15:40), and also that the Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalene saw the burial (Mark 15:47). These and further women and unnamed male helpers are often shown.

Good Friday

Good Friday is a Christian holiday commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus and his death at Calvary. It is observed during Holy Week as part of the Paschal Triduum on the Friday preceding Easter Sunday, and may coincide with the Jewish observance of Passover. It is also known as Holy Friday, Great Friday, and Black Friday.Members of many Christian denominations, including the Anglican, Catholic, Protestant, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran, Methodist, Oriental Orthodox, and Reformed traditions, observe Good Friday with fasting and church services.The date of Good Friday varies from one year to the next on both the Gregorian and Julian calendars. Eastern and Western Christianity disagree over the computation of the date of Easter and therefore of Good Friday. Good Friday is a widely instituted legal holiday around the world, including in most Western countries and 12 U.S. states. Some countries, such as Germany, have laws prohibiting certain acts, such as dancing and horse racing, that are seen as profaning the solemn nature of the day.

Instrument of Jesus' crucifixion

The instrument of Jesus' crucifixion (known in Latin as crux, in Greek as stauros) is generally taken to have been composed of an upright wooden beam to which was added a transom, thus forming a "cruciform" or T-shaped structure.

Most Christian denominations present the Christian cross in this form, and the tradition of the T-shape can be traced to early Christianity and the Church fathers. Nonetheless, some late-19th century scholars maintained that it was a simple stake (crux simplex).

Jesus

Jesus (c. 4 BC – c. AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity, and is widely described as the most influential person in history. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah (Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament.Virtually all modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed historically, although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how closely the Jesus portrayed in the Bible reflects the historical Jesus. Jesus was a Galilean Jew who was baptized by John the Baptist and began his own ministry. He preached orally and was often referred to as "rabbi". Jesus debated with fellow Jews on how to best follow God, engaged in healings, taught in parables and gathered followers. He was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities, turned over to the Roman government, and crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect. After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, and the community they formed eventually became the early Church.Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Christian Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement for sin, rose from the dead, and ascended into Heaven, from where he will return. Most Christians believe Jesus enables people to be reconciled to God. The Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the living and the dead either before or after their bodily resurrection, an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology. The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of the Trinity. A minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or partly, as non-scriptural. The birth of Jesus is celebrated annually on December 25 (or various dates in January by some eastern churches) as Christmas. His crucifixion is honored on Good Friday and his resurrection on Easter. The widely used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini ("in the year of the Lord"), and the equivalent alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birthdate of Jesus.Jesus also figures in non-Christian religions. In Islam, Jesus (commonly transliterated as Isa) is considered one of God's important prophets and the Messiah. Muslims believe Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin, but was not the son of God. The Quran states that Jesus never claimed divinity. Most Muslims do not believe that he was crucified, but that he was physically raised into Heaven by God. In contrast, Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies, and was neither divine nor resurrected.

Jesus in Christianity

In Christianity, Jesus is believed to be the Son of God and the second Person of the Holy Trinity. Christians believe that through his crucifixion and subsequent resurrection, God offered humans salvation and eternal life.These teachings emphasize that as the Lamb of God, Jesus chose to suffer on the cross at Calvary as a sign of his obedience to the will of God, as an "agent and servant of God". Jesus died to atone for sin to make us right with God. Jesus' choice positions him as a man of obedience, in contrast to Adam's disobedience.Christians believe that Jesus was both human and divine—the Son of God. While there has been theological debate over the nature of Jesus, Trinitarian Christians believe that Jesus is the Logos, God incarnate, God the Son, and "true God and true man"—both fully divine and fully human. Jesus, having become fully human in all respects, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, yet he did not sin.

According to the Bible, God raised him from the dead. He ascended to heaven to sit at the right hand of God, and he will return to earth again for the Last Judgment and the establishment of the Kingdom of God.

Last Supper

The Last Supper is the final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. The Last Supper is commemorated by Christians especially on Maundy Thursday. The Last Supper provides the scriptural basis for the Eucharist, also known as "Holy Communion" or "The Lord's Supper".The First Epistle to the Corinthians contains the earliest known mention of the Last Supper. The four canonical Gospels all state that the Last Supper took place towards the end of the week, after Jesus's triumphal entry into Jerusalem and that Jesus and his Apostles shared a meal shortly before Jesus was crucified at the end of that week. During the meal Jesus predicts his betrayal by one of the Apostles present, and foretells that before the next morning, Peter will deny knowing him.The three Synoptic Gospels and the First Epistle to the Corinthians include the account of the institution of the Eucharist in which Jesus takes bread, breaks it and gives it to the Apostles, saying "This is my body given to you" (though the apostles are not explicitly mentioned in the account in First Corinthians). The Gospel of John does not include this episode, but tells of Jesus washing the feet of the Apostles, giving the new commandment "to love one another as I have loved you", and has a detailed farewell discourse by Jesus, calling the Apostles who follow his teachings "friends and not servants", as he prepares them for his departure.Scholars have looked to the Last Supper as the source of early Christian Eucharist traditions. Others see the account of the Last Supper as derived from 1st-century eucharistic practice as described by Paul in the mid-50s.

Matthew 27

Matthew 27 is the 27th chapter in the Gospel of Matthew, part of the New Testament in Christian Bible. This chapter contains the record of the trial, crucifixion and burial of Jesus.

Stigmata

Stigmata (singular stigma) is a term used in Christian mysticism to describe the manifestations of bodily wounds, scars and pain in locations corresponding to the crucifixion wounds of Jesus Christ, such as the hands, wrists, and feet. An individual bearing the wounds of stigmata is referred to as a stigmatist or a stigmatic.

The term originates from the line at the end of Saint Paul's Letter to the Galatians where he says, "I bear on my body the marks of Jesus." Stigmata is the plural of the Greek word στίγμα stigma, meaning a mark, tattoo, or brand such as might have been used for identification of an animal or slave.

Stigmata are primarily associated with the Roman Catholic faith. Many reported stigmatics are members of Catholic religious orders.

St. Francis of Assisi was the first recorded stigmatic in Christian history. For over fifty years, St. Padre Pio of Pietrelcina of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin reported stigmata which were studied by several 20th-century physicians. Stigmata is notably foreign to the Eastern Orthodox Church, given that the first and only stigmatics have been Catholics who lived after the Great Schism of 1054, and professes no official view on the matter.A high percentage (perhaps over 80%) of all stigmatics are women. In his Stigmata: A Medieval Phenomenon in a Modern Age, Ted Harrison suggests that there is no single mechanism whereby the marks of stigmata were produced. What is important is that the marks are recognised by others as of religious significance. Most cases of stigmata have been debunked as trickery. Some cases have also included reportings of a mysterious chalice in visions being given to stigmatics to drink from or the feeling of a sharp sword being driven into one's chest.

Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion

Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion is a 1944 triptych painted by the Irish-born British artist Francis Bacon. The canvasses are based on the Eumenides—or Furies—of Aeschylus's Oresteia, and depict three writhing anthropomorphic creatures set against a flat burnt orange background. It was executed in oil paint and pastel on Sundeala fibre board and completed within two weeks. The triptych summarises themes explored in Bacon's previous work, including his examination of Picasso's biomorphs and his interpretations of the Crucifixion and the Greek Furies. Bacon did not realise his original intention to paint a large crucifixion scene and place the figures at the foot of the cross.The Three Studies are generally considered Bacon's first mature piece; he regarded his works before the triptych as irrelevant, and throughout his life tried to suppress their appearance on the art market. When the painting was first exhibited in 1945 it caused a sensation and established him as one of the foremost post-war painters. Remarking on the cultural significance of Three Studies, the critic John Russell observed in 1971 that "there was painting in England before the Three Studies, and painting after them, and no one ... can confuse the two".

Unknown years of Jesus

The unknown years of Jesus (also called his silent years, lost years, or missing years) generally refers to the period of Jesus's life between his childhood and the beginning of his ministry, a period not described in the New Testament.The "lost years of Jesus" concept is usually encountered in esoteric literature (where it at times also refers to his possible post-crucifixion activities) but is not commonly used in scholarly literature since it is assumed that Jesus was probably working as a carpenter in Galilee, at least some of the time with Joseph, from the age of 12 to 29, so the years were not "lost years", and that he died on Calvary.In the late medieval period, there appeared Arthurian legends that the young Jesus had been in Britain. In the 19th and 20th centuries theories began to emerge that between the ages of 12 and 29 Jesus had visited Kashmir, or had studied with the Essenes in the Judea desert. Modern mainstream Christian scholarship has generally rejected these theories and holds that nothing is known about this time period in the life of Jesus.The use of the "lost years" in the "swoon hypothesis", suggests that Jesus survived his crucifixion and continued his life, instead of what was stated in the New Testament that he ascended into Heaven with two angels. This, and the related view that he avoided crucifixion altogether, has given rise to several speculations about what happened to him in the supposed remaining years of his life, but these are not accepted by mainstream scholars either.

Retentionist countries
Abolitionist in practice
countries
Abolitionist for
ordinary crimes only
Abolitionist countries
Current methods
Ancient methods
Related topics

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.