Crown land

Crown land (sometimes spelled crownland), also known as royal domain or demesne, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies the Crown. It is the equivalent of an entailed estate and passes with the monarchy, being inseparable from it. Today, in Commonwealth realms such as Canada and Australia, crown land is considered public land and is apart from the monarch's private estate.

In Britain, the hereditary revenues of Crown lands provided income for the monarch until the start of the reign of George III, when the profits from the Crown Estate were surrendered to the Parliament of Great Britain in return for a fixed civil list payment. The monarch retains the income from the Duchy of Lancaster.


In Australia, public lands are referred to as Crown land, which is described as being held in the 'right of the Crown' of either an individual State or the Commonwealth of Australia; there is not a single 'Crown' (as a legal governmental entity) in Australia (see The Crown). Most Crown lands in Australia are held by the Crown in the right of a State. The only Crown land held by the Commonwealth consists of land in the Northern Territory (surrendered by South Australia), the Australian Capital Territory, Jervis Bay Territory, and small areas acquired for airports, defence and other government purposes.

Each jurisdiction has its own policies towards the sale and use of Crown lands within the State. For example, New South Wales, where over half of all land is Crown land,[1] passed a controversial reform in 2005 requiring Crown lands to be rated at market value.[2] Crown lands include land set aside for nature conservation and various government or public purposes, as well as vacant land. Crown lands comprise around 23% of Australian land, of which the largest single category is vacant land, comprising 12.5% of the land. [3]

Crown land is used for such things as airports, military grounds (Commonwealth) and public utilities (usually State).

In Tasmania, Crown land is managed under the Crown Lands Act 1976. In South Australia, the relevant Act is the Crown Land Management Act 2009. In Victoria,[4] it is the Crown Land (Reserves) Act 1978 and the Land Act 1958.


From the late 18th century onwards, the territories acquired by the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy were called crown lands (German: Kronländer). Initially ruled in personal union by the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, they played a vital role as constituent lands of the Habsburg nation-building and were ultimately reorganised as administrative divisions of the centralised Austrian Empire established in 1804. During the restoration period after the Revolutions of 1848, the Austrian crown lands were ruled by Statthalter governors directly subordinate to the Emperor according to the 1849 March Constitution.

By the 1861 February Patent, proclaimed by Emperor Franz Joseph I, the Austrian crown lands received a certain autonomy. The traditional Landstände (estates) assemblies were elevated to Landtage legislatures, partly elected according to the principle of census suffrage.

After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Kingdom of Hungary (with the Principality of Transylvania), the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and Fiume became constituent parts of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (Transleithania); ruled in real union with the remaining Austrian crown lands (officially: "The Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council") of Cisleithania until the disintegration of the dual monarchy in 1918.


The medieval European state of the Crown of Bohemia, which was an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, consisted of crown lands: Kingdom of Bohemia, Margraviate of Moravia, Duchies of Silesia, Upper and Lower Lusatia.


In Barbados, the term crown land, extends to all land that is under the control or ownership of The Crown (a.k.a. the Government).[5] This can pertain to land seized by the government, (either through eminent domain or due to criminal activity), or toward lands with backed taxes. The term Crown lands has been used in relation to government owned farms, beaches, and other land areas also maintained by the National Housing Corporation.[6] The Government does not allow private ownership of Barbados' 97 km of coastal beaches in the country, and all areas below the high-tide watermark in the country are considered specifically as "Crown land".


Within Canada, Crown Land is a designated territorial area belonging to the Canadian Crown.[7][8] Though the monarch owns all Crown Land in the country, it is divided in parallel with the "division" of the Crown among the federal and provincial jurisdictions, so that some lands within the provinces are administered by the relevant provincial Crown, whereas others are under the federal Crown. About 89% of Canada's land area (8,886,356 km²) is Crown Land: 41% is federal crown land and 48% is provincial crown land. The remaining 11% is privately owned.[9] Most federal Crown Land is in the territories (Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon) and is administered by Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. Only 4% of land in the provinces is federally controlled, largely in the form of National Parks, Indian reserves, or Canadian Forces bases. In contrast, provinces hold much of their territory as provincial Crown Land, which may be held as Provincial Parks or wilderness.

Crown Land is the equivalent of an entailed estate that passes with the monarchy and cannot be alienated from it; thus, per constitutional convention, these lands cannot be unilaterally sold by the monarch, instead passing on to the next king or queen unless the sovereign is advised otherwise by the relevant ministers of the Crown. Crown Land provides the country and the provinces with the majority of their profits from natural resources, largely but not exclusively provincial, rented for logging and mineral exploration rights; revenues flow to the relevant government and may constitute a major income stream, such as in Alberta. Crown Land may also be rented by individuals wishing to build homes or cottages.


In the province of Alberta, Crown Land, also called public land,[8] is territory registered in the name of "Her Majesty the Queen in right of Alberta as Represented by [specific Minister of the Crown]" and remains under the administration of the mentioned minister until the land is sold or transferred via legislation,[10] such as an Order in Council.[11] Crown Land is governed by the Public Lands Act, originally passed as the Provincial Lands Act in 1931 and renamed in 1949.[8]

British Columbia

94% of the land in British Columbia is provincial Crown Land, 2% of which is covered by fresh water. Federal Crown Land make up a further 1% of the province, including Indian reserves, defence lands and federal harbours, while 5% is privately owned. The Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations issues Crown Land tenures and sells Crown Land on behalf of the Crown in Right of British Columbia.[12]

Newfoundland and Labrador

95% of Newfoundland and Labrador is provincial Crown Land.[9]

New Brunswick

Currently, 48% of New Brunswick's territory is Crown Land,[13] used for such things as for conservation projects, resource exploitation, and recreation activities. However, through treaties between First Nations and the Crown in Right of Canada, the provincial Crown grants or denies long term use of Crown Lands by aboriginals, as per the treaties.

Nova Scotia

As of October 2013, of the 5.3 million hectares of land in Nova Scotia, approximately 1.53 million hectares (3.8 million acres or about 29% of the province) is designated as Crown land.[14] Crown land is owned by the Province and managed by the Department of Natural Resources on behalf of the citizens of Nova Scotia. It is a collective asset which belongs to all Nova Scotians.[14] Many acres of Crown land are licensed for a variety of economic purposes to help build and maintain the prosperity of the Province. These purposes range from licenses and leases for cranberry bogs, forestry operations, peat bogs, power lines, wind energy, to broadband towers, and tidal energy. In addition, most of the submerged lands (the sea bed) along the Province's 9,000 km of coastline are also considered Crown land. Exceptions would include federally and privately owned waterlots. The Province owns other land across Nova Scotia, including wilderness areas, protected areas, highways, roads, and provincial buildings. These parcels and structures are managed and administered by other departments and are not considered Crown land.[14]


By the Crown Lands Act,[15] the Lieutenant Governor-in-Council alone has the ability to augment or disperse Crown Land and to determine the price of any Crown Land being bought or leased. Crown Land is used for varying purposes, including agriculture, wind farming,[16][17] and cottages, while other areas are set aside for research, environmental protection, public recreation, and resource management.[17] Approximately 95% of the province's forests sit within provincial Crown Land.[18]


More than 92% of Québec's territory is Crown land. This heritage and the natural resources that it contains are developed to contribute to the socioeconomic development of all regions of Québec. Public land is used for a variety of purposes: forestry, mineral, energy, and wildlife resources; developing natural spaces, including parks for recreation and conservation, ecological preserves, and wildlife refuges and habitats; developing infrastructure for industrial and public utilities purposes as well as for leisure and vacation purposes.[19]


The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or (in French) domaine royal of France refers to the lands and fiefs directly possessed by the kings of France. Before the reign of Henry IV, the domaine royal did not encompass the entirety of the territory of the kingdom of France and for much of the Middle Ages significant portions of the kingdom were direct possessions of other feudal lords.

In the 10th and 11th centuries, the first Capetians—while being rulers of France—were among the least powerful of the great feudal lords of France in terms of territory possessed. Patiently, through the use of feudal law (and, in particular, the confiscation of fiefs from rebellious vassals), skillful marriages with female inheritors of large fiefs, and even by purchase, the kings of France were able to increase the royal domain, which, by the 16th century, began to coincide with the entire kingdom. However the medieval system of appanage (a concession of a fief by the sovereign to his younger sons and their sons after them, although they could be reincorporated if the last lord had no male heirs) alienated large territories from the royal domain and created dangerous rival territories (especially the Duchy of Burgundy in the 14th and 15th centuries).

Poland and Lithuania

Similar use: this section is about the "public, state properties" of Polish and "Polish-Lithuanian" Kings, for unit of administrative division inter alia in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth see: Crown (not to be mistaken with "Crown lands").

Legal condition

The Crown lands were known there as królewszczyzny (sing. królewszczyzna) which translates to regality or royal land.

In the Kingdom of Poland under the rules of Piast then Jagiellonian dynasties the institution of crown lands was similar to those in Great Britain or Austria-Hungary, the lands were the property of the monarch or dynasty.

Since 15th century the properties have often been leased, gifted or hocked to the members of nobility. Those nobles who had received the privilege of administering the Crown lands (and thus keeping most of its profits) had the title of Starosta. Once given a Crown land, one had the right to keep it 'for life'.

Families of Starostas often wanted to unlawfully keep the royal properties, and that led to common abuses of law (see following sections).

After the end of Kingdom in Poland the era of new political system called "Republic of szlachta (nobility)" started in late 16th century already in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

In the late 16th century, because of reform and the introduction of the royal election of Polish kings, the royal lands became public property or state property.

Formally (compare with the following sections) "royal lands" could form about 15–20% of Poland (later, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), and were divided into two parts:

  • the table lands (dobra stołowe or ekonomie), which were providing money for the king's personal treasure and expenses, among them the support of the army (wojsko kwarciane)
  • the rest, which the king was obliged to lease to the outstanding members of the nobility.

Among the largest Crown lands in the 16th and 17th centuries were the territories of Malbork and Wielkorządy with Niepołomice, Sambor in the Crown of the Polish Kingdom.

Monarch's economies in, as it was called, "Republic" of Lithuania (Grand Duchy of Lithuania) were: biggest Šiauliai economy, Alytus economy, also economies in Grodno and Mohylew.

The legal conditions of peasants were better in the Crown lands than on the hereditary estates of the nobility, as there were fewer serfdom obligations.

Factual condition in the Crown (here: administrative unit)

Mostly due to lack of constant dynasty in Poland (see: Royal elections in Poland), royal lands were under notorious, often illegal, control of powerful local magnates, sometimes even semi-independent from the state.

Ruch egzekucyjny (execution movement) of the late 16th century, led by Lord Grand Chancellor of the Crown Jan Zamoyski (against the interests of his own family), put as one of its goals the 'execution of lands', i.e. return of all Crown lands, which were often illegally held by next generations of Starostine families. In 1562–1563 they forced most of the Crown land in the Crown of the Polish Kingdom to be returned to the monarch, however later the whole cycle repeated. In the following centuries Ruch egzekucyjny (lit. execution movement) and subsequently elected Kings were gradually weakened because szlachta achieved more and more privileges – the "Golden" Liberty.

Eventually the nobility controlled most of the Crown lands. People without a formal title of nobility inherited or granted were not allowed to be infeudated with regalities.

After the First Partition of Poland, which was a tremendous experience for most Polish nobility, crown lands were reformed in 1775, lessening the abuses of the nobility, and the Great Sejm of 1788–1792 decided to put them on sale, to raise funds for reforms and modernising the army.

After the following partitions of Poland in 1795 the "royal lands" were directly annexed by the partitioning powers.

Factual condition in Lithuania

In the Great Duchy of Lithuania political nation did not follow experience of neighbouring Poland. Lithuanian magnates retained such lands in their hands.


Historically, the kings of Spain have possessed vast lands, palaces, castles and other buildings, however, at present all those properties are owned by the State. The Crownlands are administered by an independent institution called Patrimonio Nacional, which is responsible for the maintenance of these properties that are always available to the King or Queen of Spain.


Prior to the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, the Hawaiian monarchs had access to 1.8 million acres (7,300 km²), the private lands of Kamehameha III which he set aside for the dignity of the royal office for the ruler of the Hawaiian Monarchy on 8 March 1848 during the Great Mahele. Kamehameha III and his successors made these lands their private property, selling, leasing or mortgaging at their enjoyment. At the death of Kamehameha IV, it was decided by the Kingdom's Supreme Court that under the above-mentioned instrument executed by Kamehameha III, reserving the Crown Lands, and under the confirmatory Act of 7 June 1848, "the inheritance is limited to the successors to the throne", "the wearers of the crown which the conqueror had won," and that at the same time "each successive possessor may regulate and dispose of the same according to his will and pleasure as private property, in like manner as was done by Kamehameha III." Afterwards an Act was passed 3 January 1865, "relieve the Royal Domain from encumbrances and to render the same inalienable." This Act provided for the redemption of the mortgages on the estate, and enacted that the remaining lands are to be "henceforth inalienable and shall descend to the heirs and successors of the Hawaiian Crown forever," and that "it shall not be lawful hereafter to lease said lands for any terms of years to exceed thirty." The Board of Commissioners of Crown Lands shall consist of three persons to be appointed by His Majesty the King, two of whom shall be appointed from among the members of His Cabinet Council, and serve without remuneration, and the other shall act as Land Agent, and shall be paid out of the revenues of the said lands, such sum as may be agreed to by the King."[20]

The lands were held by Queen Lili'uokalani before 17 January 1893. On this date, the monarchy was overthrown. The crown lands were taken in charge by the provisional and republican governments. When the Republic of Hawaii joined the United States in 1898, the territorial government took ownership. In 1910, Liliuokalani, the former Queen, unsuccessfully attempted to sue the United States for the loss of the Hawaiian Crown Lands.

In March 2009, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a unanimous opinion in Hawaii v. Office of Hawaiian Affairs, reversing the Hawaii Supreme Court's holding that the federally enacted Apology Resolution bars the State of Hawaii from selling to third parties any land held in public trust until the claims of native Hawaiians to the lands have been resolved. The Court first held that it had jurisdiction to review the Hawaii Supreme Court's opinion because it rested on the Apology Resolution. It then found the Hawaii Supreme Court's interpretation of the Apology Resolution to be erroneous, and held that federal law does not bar the State from selling land held in public trust. Accordingly, it remanded the case to the Hawaii Supreme Court to determine if Hawaiian law alone supports the same outcome.

Hong Kong

All "crown leases" in the former British crown colony became "government leases" on 1 July 1997 upon the change of status of the territory.[21][22]

United Kingdom and its predecessor states

Historically, the properties now known as the Crown Estate were administered as possessions of the reigning monarch to help fund the business of governing the country. By the Civil List Act 1760, George III surrendered control over the Estate's revenues to the treasury, in order to relieve him from paying for the costs of the civil service, defence costs, the national debt, and his own personal debts, and, in return, to receive an annual grant known as the Civil list.[23]

See also


  1. ^ "NSW Land and Property Information". Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  2. ^ Crown land rent changes spark concerns for clubs, ABC News, 10 November 2005
  3. ^ Land Tenure at Geoscience Australia
  4. ^ Crown Land; Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning
  5. ^ Barbados Government: Crown Lands (Vesting and Disposal) – CAP.225,
  6. ^ "More homes on the way". The Barbados Advocate. 9 November 2008. Archived from the original on 15 February 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
  7. ^ Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. "Federal Crown Land". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
  8. ^ a b c Government of Alberta (September 1997), About Public Lands (PDF), Queen's Printer for Alberta, archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2013, retrieved 18 October 2012
  9. ^ a b V.P. NEIMANIS. "Crown Land". The Canadian Encyclopedia: Geography. Historica Foundation of Canada. Retrieved 12 February 2007.
  10. ^ Elizabeth II (2004). "Alberta Land Titles Procedures Manual" (PDF). Background (CRG-3 ed.). Edmonton: Alberta Queen's Printer (published 12 November 2004): 1. Retrieved 1 February 2009.
  11. ^ Elizabeth II 2004, Registration Procedure A.1
  12. ^ Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations. "Crown Land, Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations". Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  13. ^ Mitchell, Simon, J. (June 2003), Who Owns Crown Lands?, Falls Brook Centre, retrieved 15 May 2011
  14. ^ a b c Crown Land in Nova Scotia, Province of Nova Scotia, October 2013, retrieved 8 December 2014
  15. ^ Elizabeth II, Crown Lands Act, Queen's Printer for Manitoba, retrieved 22 June 2012
  16. ^ "Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives: Agricultural Crown Lands Leasing Program". Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
  17. ^ a b "Government of Manitoba: Some Questions and Answers Regarding Manitoba's Crown Land Policies for Wind Farms" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
  18. ^ "Forests". Manitoba Wildlands. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
  19. ^ "MERN- Quebec's Borders". Retrieved 2017-05-18.
  20. ^ "Hawaiian Kingdom – History of Land titles". Retrieved 5 December 2012.
  21. ^ Interpretation and General Clauses Ordinance
  22. ^ Conveyancing and Property Ordinance
  23. ^ The House of Commons Treasury Committee (2010). The management of the Crown Estate (PDF). London: House of Commons. pp. 5–8.[1]

External links


Cisleithania (German: Cisleithanien, also Zisleithanien, Hungarian: Ciszlajtánia, Czech: Předlitavsko, Slovak: Predlitavsko, Polish: Przedlitawia, Croatian: Cislajtanija, Serbian: Цислајтанија, Slovene: Cislajtanija, Romanian: Cisleithania, Ukrainian: Цислейтанія, transliterated: Tsysleitàniia, Italian: Cisleitania) was a common yet unofficial denotation of the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania, i.e. the Hungarian Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen east of ("beyond") the Leitha River.

The Cisleithanian capital was Vienna, the residence of the Austrian emperor. The territory had a population of 28,571,900 in 1910. It reached from Vorarlberg in the west to the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and the Duchy of Bukovina (today part of Ukraine and Romania) in the east, as well as from the Kingdom of Bohemia in the north to the Kingdom of Dalmatia (today part of Croatia) in the south. It comprised the current States of Austria (except for Burgenland), as well as most of the territories of the Czech Republic and Slovenia (except for Prekmurje), southern Ukraine and parts of Italy (Trieste, Gorizia and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol), Croatia (Istria, Dalmatia) and Montenegro (Kotor Bay).

Cocata Conservation Park

Cocata Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located on the Eyre Peninsula in the gazetted localities of Cocata and Warramboo about 26 kilometres (16 mi) south-west of the town centre in Kyancutta.The conservation park was proclaimed on 20 August 2009 under the state's National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 in respect to crown land formerly dedicated as conservation reserve under the state's Crown Land Act 1929 on 11 November 1993. The dedicated land is located in the cadastral unit of the hundreds of Cocata, Kappakoola and Pordia. The proclamation in 2009 permits access under the state's Mining Act 1971.Its name was derived from Cocata Hill, a feature near the conservation park, although the name is ultimately derived from “'Cokata', the name of the Aboriginal people who occupied the land 'between Mount Wedge and the Gawler Ranges'”. As of June 2016, the conservation park covered an area of 167.62 square kilometres (64.72 sq mi).The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category VI protected area.

Conservation reserves of South Australia

Conservation reserves of South Australia is a class of protected area used in the Australian state of South Australia where crown land under the control of the responsible minister has been dedicated for conservation purposes. This class of protected area has been in use as early as 1985 and as of 2016, there are fifteen conservation reserves that cover an area of 194.7 square kilometres (75.1 sq mi) or less than 1% of South Australia's land area.

County of Tyrol

The (Princely) County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140. Originally a jurisdiction under the sovereignty of the Counts of Tyrol, it was inherited by the Counts of Gorizia in 1253 and finally fell to the Austrian House of Habsburg in 1363. In 1804 the Princely County of Tyrol, unified with the secularised Prince-Bishoprics of Trent and Brixen, became a crown land of the Austrian Empire in 1804 and from 1867 a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary.

Today the territory of the historic crown land is divided between the Italian autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and the Austrian state of Tyrol. Both parts are today associated again in the Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino Euroregion.

Crown Estate

The Crown Estate is a collection of lands and holdings in the United Kingdom belonging to the British monarch as a corporation sole, making it the "Sovereign's public estate", which is neither government property nor part of the monarch's private estate. As a result of this arrangement, the sovereign is not involved with the management or administration of the estate, and exercises only very limited control of its affairs. Instead, the estate's extensive portfolio is overseen by a semi-independent, incorporated public body headed by the Crown Estate Commissioners, who exercise "the powers of ownership" of the estate, although they are not "owners in their own right". The revenues from these hereditary possessions have been placed by the monarch at the disposition of Her Majesty's Government in exchange for relief from the responsibility to fund the Civil Government. These revenues thus proceed directly to Her Majesty's Treasury, for the benefit of the British nation. The Crown Estate is formally accountable to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, where it is legally mandated to make an annual report to the sovereign, a copy of which is forwarded to the House of Commons.The Crown Estate is one of the largest property managers in the United Kingdom, overseeing property worth £12 billion, with urban properties valued at £9.1 billion representing the majority of the estate by value. These include a large number of properties in central London, but the estate also controls 792,000 ha (1,960,000 acres) of agricultural land and forest and more than half of the UK's foreshore, and retains various other traditional holdings and rights, including Ascot Racecourse and Windsor Great Park. Naturally occurring gold and silver in the UK, collectively known as "Mines Royal", are managed by the Crown Estate and leased to mining operators.Historically, Crown Estate properties were administered by the reigning monarch to help fund the business of governing the country. However, in 1760, George III surrendered control over the Estate's revenues to the Treasury, thus relieving him of the responsibility of paying for the costs of the civil service, defence costs, the national debt, and his own personal debts. In return, he received an annual grant known as the Civil List. By tradition, each subsequent monarch agreed to this arrangement upon his or her accession. However, from 1 April 2012, under the terms of the Sovereign Grant Act 2011 (SSG), the Civil List was abolished and the monarch was thenceforth provided with a stable source of revenue indexed to a percentage of the Crown Estate's annual net revenue (currently set at 25%). This was intended to provide a long-term solution and remove the politically sensitive issue of Parliament having to debate the Civil List allowance every ten years. Subsequently, the Sovereign Grant Act allows for all future monarchs to simply extend these provisions for their reigns by Order in Council. The act does not imply any legal change in the nature of the estate's ownership, but is simply a benchmark by which the sovereign grant is set as a grant by Parliament.

Custon Conservation Park

Custon Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located in the state's Limestone Coast in the gazetted locality of Custon about 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the town centre in Wolseley and about 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of the municipal seat of Bordertown.The conservation park occupies land in the Section 903 and Allotment 2 in Deposited Plan 36724 of the cadastral unit of the Hundred of Tatiara. It is bounded by Bangham Road on its western side and by Pier Point Road on its northern side.The land originally gained protected area status in 2007, when crown land in section 903 was gazetted as the Custon Conservation Park and was enlarged in 2016 by the addition of crown land in the Allotment 2 in Deposited Plan 36724.The conservation park contains an “ecological community” consisting of “a grassy woodland” of grey box which is listed as ‘Endangered’ under the state's National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 with buloke being a "co-dominant tree species.” As of 2014, the Government of South Australia has been using fire as “part of an integrated management strategy to maintain the Grey-box Grassy Woodland association.”The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category III protected area.

Cygnet Estuary Conservation Park

Cygnet Estuary Conservation Park is a protected area located on the west coast of Nepean Bay on Kangaroo Island in South Australia about 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) west southwest of Kingscote. It was proclaimed under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 in 2014 on the basis that some existing crown land 'should be protected and preserved for the purpose of conserving any wildlife and the natural features of the land'. The Cygnet Estuary which is considered to be a significant wetland is located within the boundaries of the conservation park.

Duchy of Carinthia

The Duchy of Carinthia (German: Herzogtum Kärnten; Slovene: Vojvodina Koroška) was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. It was separated from the Duchy of Bavaria in 976, and was the first newly created Imperial State after the original German stem duchies.

Carinthia remained a State of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, though from 1335 it was ruled within the Austrian dominions of the Habsburg dynasty. A constituent part of the Habsburg Monarchy and of the Austrian Empire, it remained a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary until 1918. By the Carinthian Plebiscite in October 1920, the main area of the duchy formed the Austrian state of Carinthia.

Kulliparu Conservation Park

Kulliparu Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located on the Eyre Peninsula in the gazetted localities of Colley, Karcultaby, Mount Cooper and Mount Damper about 59 kilometres (37 mi) west of the town centre in Kyancutta.The conservation park was proclaimed on 20 August 2009 under the state's National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 in respect to crown land formerly dedicated as conservation reserve under the state's Crown Land Act 1929 on 11 November 1993 and added to on 21 April 1994 and 15 February 1996. The dedicated land is located in the cadastral units of the hundreds of Addison, Moorkitabie, Wallis, Witera and Wright and on land within the County of Robinson which has been not declared as a hundred. The proclamation in 2009 permits access under the state's Mining Act 1971. As of June 2016, the conservation park covered an area of 450.03 square kilometres (173.76 sq mi).The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category VI protected area.

Land Information New Zealand

Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) (Māori: Toitū Te Whenua) is the public service department of New Zealand charged with geographical information and surveying functions as well as handling land titles, and managing Crown land and property.

The Minister for Land Information (formerly the Minister of Survey and Land Information) is Eugenie Sage.Andrew Crisp has been the Chief Executive of Land Information New Zealand since 2016.The New Zealand Geographic Board secretariat is part of LINZ and provides the Board with administrative and research assistance and advice.

Pastoral lease

A pastoral lease is an arrangement used in both Australia and New Zealand where Crown land is leased by government generally for the purpose of grazing on rangelands.

Polar Bear Pass

Polar Bear Pass is a 262,400 hectare wetland and mountain pass on Bathurst Island within the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada. The pass is on federal Crown land.

Principality of Zeta

The Principality of Zeta (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Књажевина Зета) (in modern-day Montenegro) is the historiographical name for a medieval state centered around Lake Skadar, ruled by the families of Balšić, Lazarević, Branković and Crnojević in succession from the second half of the 14th century until Ottoman conquest in 1498. The Serbian crown land of Zeta had become virtually self-governed during the fall of the Serbian Empire, when the Balšić family wrestled the region by eliminating opponents in the area after 1360.

Right of way

Right of way is a term used to describe "the legal right, established by usage or grant, to pass along a specific route through grounds or property belonging to another", or "a path or thoroughfare subject to such a right". This article is mainly about access by foot, by bicycle, horseback, or along a waterway, and Right-of-way (transportation) focusses on highways, railways, pipelines, etc. A footpath is a right of way that can only be used by pedestrians.

A similar right of access also exists on some public land in the United States. In Canada, Australia and New Zealand, such land may alternatively be called Crown land.

In some countries, especially in Northern Europe, where the freedom to roam has historically taken the form of general public rights, a right of way may not be restricted to specific paths or trails.

When one person owns a piece of land which is bordered on all sides by lands owned by others, a court will be obliged to grant that person a right of way through the bordering land.

Squatting (Australia)

In Australian history, a squatter was typically a man, either a free settler or ex-convict, who occupied a large tract of Crown land in order to graze livestock. Initially often having no legal rights to the land, they gained its usage by being the first (and often the only) settlers in the area. Eventually, the term squattocracy, a play on "aristocracy", developed to refer to some of these squatters.


The title of starost or starosta (Cyrillic: старост/а, Latin: capitaneus, German: Starost, Hauptmann) is a Slavic term that originally referred to the administrator of the assets of a "clan, kindred, extended family". Since the Middle Ages, it has been used for both official and unofficial leadership positions, used in various contexts through most of Slavic history. In this respect, it resembles the word "elder" or "senior". In terms of a city or a municipality, a "starosta" was historically not a mayor as a supreme representative of an elected self-government, but a senior royal administrative official, most likely translated with the outdated title Seneschal, and analogous to a gubernator. In Poland, a starosta would administer a crown land territory or district called a starostwo.

In the early Middle Ages, the starosta could be the head of a Slavic community or of other communities, so one finds designations such as church starosta, artel starosta, etc. The starosta also functioned as the master of ceremonies in traditional Carpatho-Rusyn, Ukrainian, and Polish weddings, similar to stari svat (стари сват) in Serbian weddings.

Station (Australian agriculture)

In Australia, a station is a large landholding used for producing livestock, predominantly cattle or sheep, that need an extensive range of grazing land. It corresponds to American ranches that operate under the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 on public lands. The owner of a station is called a pastoralist or a grazier (which correspond to the North American term rancher).

Originally station referred to the homestead – the owner's house and associated outbuildings of a pastoral property, but it now generally refers to the whole holding. Stations in Australia are on Crown land pastoral leases, and are known colloquially as sheep stations or cattle stations as most are stock specific, dependent upon the country and rainfall. The operators or owners are thus known as pastoralists.


Vojvodina (Serbian and Croatian: Vojvodina [ʋǒjʋodina] (listen); Serbian Cyrillic: Војводина; Pannonian Rusyn: Войводина; Hungarian: Vajdaság [ˈvɒjdɒʃaːɡ]; Slovak and Czech: Vojvodina; Romanian: Voivodina), officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Serbian: Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina; see Names in other languages), is an autonomous province of Serbia, located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonian Plain.

Novi Sad is the largest city and administrative center of Vojvodina and the second-largest city in Serbia. Vojvodina has a population of almost 2 million (nearly 27% of Serbia's population excluding Kosovo). There are some 26 ethnic groups in the province, and six languages are in official use by the provincial administration.

Zeta (crown land)

Zeta as a crown land (Serbian: Зета) was a medieval region and province of the Serbian state (Principality, Kingdom, and Empire) of the Nemanjić dynasty, from the end of the 12th century, up to the middle of the 14th century. During that period, regional administration in Zeta was often bestowed to various members of the ruling dynasty, who administered the region as a crown land.

By owner
By nature
(key work)

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