Crown Estate

The Crown Estate is a collection of lands and holdings in the United Kingdom belonging to the British monarch as a corporation sole, making it the "Sovereign's public estate", which is neither government property nor part of the monarch's private estate.[1][2][3][4] As a result of this arrangement, the sovereign is not involved with the management or administration of the estate, and exercises only very limited control of its affairs.[5] Instead, the estate's extensive portfolio is overseen by a semi-independent, incorporated public body headed by the Crown Estate Commissioners, who exercise "the powers of ownership" of the estate, although they are not "owners in their own right".[1] The revenues from these hereditary possessions have been placed by the monarch at the disposition of Her Majesty's Government in exchange for relief from the responsibility to fund the Civil Government.[6] These revenues thus proceed directly to Her Majesty's Treasury, for the benefit of the British nation.[1][7][8] The Crown Estate is formally accountable to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, where it is legally mandated to make an annual report to the sovereign, a copy of which is forwarded to the House of Commons.[5][9]

The Crown Estate is one of the largest property managers in the United Kingdom, administering property worth £14.1 billion,[10] with urban properties valued at £9.1 billion[11] representing the majority of the estate by value. These include a large number of properties in central London, but the estate also controls 792,000 ha (1,960,000 acres) of agricultural land and forest and more than half of the UK's foreshore, and retains various other traditional holdings and rights, including Ascot Racecourse and Windsor Great Park.[12] Naturally occurring gold and silver in the UK, collectively known as "Mines Royal", are managed by the Crown Estate and leased to mining operators.[13][14]

Historically, Crown Estate properties were administered by the reigning monarch to help fund the business of governing the country. However, in 1760, George III surrendered control over the Estate's revenues to the Treasury,[4] thus relieving him of the responsibility of paying for the costs of the civil service, defence costs, the national debt, and his own personal debts. In return, he received an annual grant known as the Civil List. By tradition, each subsequent monarch agreed to this arrangement upon his or her accession. However, from 1 April 2012, under the terms of the Sovereign Grant Act 2011 (SSG), the Civil List was abolished and the monarch was thenceforth provided with a stable source of revenue indexed to a percentage of the Crown Estate's annual net revenue (currently set at 25%).[15] This was intended to provide a long-term solution and remove the politically sensitive issue of Parliament having to debate the Civil List allowance every ten years. Subsequently, the Sovereign Grant Act allows for all future monarchs to simply extend these provisions for their reigns by Order in Council.[2] The act does not imply any legal change in the nature of the estate's ownership, but is simply a benchmark by which the sovereign grant is set as a grant by Parliament.

The Crown Estate
The Crown Estate
Statutory corporation overview
Formed1961
JurisdictionEngland and Wales, Northern Ireland (Crown Estate Scotland applies to Scotland)
HeadquartersSt James's Market
London, SW1
Employees397
Statutory corporation executive
  • Robin Budenberg, Chairman
Websitethecrownestate.co.uk

History

Crown land in England and Wales

The history of the Crown lands in England and Wales begins with the Norman conquest.[9] When William I died, the land he had acquired by right of conquest was still largely intact.[16] His successors, however, granted large estates to the nobles and barons who supplied them with men and arms.[17] The monarch's remaining land was divided into royal manors, each managed separately by a seneschal. The period between the reigns of William I and Queen Anne was one of continuous alienation of lands.[18] The Crown lands were augmented as well as depleted over the centuries: Edward I extended his possessions into Wales, and James VI & I had his own Crown lands in Scotland which were ultimately combined with the Crown lands of England and Wales.[19] However, the disposals outweighed the acquisitions: at the time of the Restoration in 1660, the total revenue arising from Crown lands was estimated to be £263,598 (equal to £38,872,680 today).[20] By the end of the reign of William III (1689–1702), however, it was reduced to some £6,000 (equal to £965,050 today).[21]

Before the reign of William III all the revenues of the kingdom were bestowed on the monarch for the general expenses of government. These revenues were of two kinds:[22]

  • the hereditary revenues, derived principally from the Crown lands, feudal rights (commuted for the hereditary excise duties in 1660), profits of the post office, with licences, etc.
  • the temporary revenues derived from taxes granted to the king for a term of years or for life.

After the Glorious Revolution, Parliament retained under its own control the greater part of the temporary revenues, and relieved the sovereign of the cost of the naval and military services and the burden of the national debt. During the reigns of William III, Anne, George I and George II the sovereign remained responsible for the maintenance of the civil government and for the support of the royal household and dignity, being allowed for these purposes the hereditary revenues and certain taxes.[22]

As the state machinery expanded, the cost of the civil government exceeded the income from the Crown lands and feudal rights; this created a personal debt for the monarch.

On George III's accession he surrendered the income from the Crown lands to Parliament, and abrogated responsibility for the cost of the civil government and the clearance of associated debts. As a result, and to avoid pecuniary embarrassment, he was granted a fixed civil list payment and the income retained from the Duchy of Lancaster.[23] The King surrendered to parliamentary control the hereditary excise duties, post office revenues, and "the small branches" of hereditary revenue including rents of the Crown lands in England (which amounted to about £11,000, or £1,633,643 today), and was granted a civil list annuity of £800,000 (equal to £118,810,377 today) for the support of his household, subject to the payment of certain annuities to members of the royal family.[23]

Although the King had retained large hereditary revenues, his income proved insufficient for his charged expenses because he used the privilege to reward supporters with bribes and gifts.[24] Debts amounting to over £3 million (equal to £235,546,758 today) over the course of George's reign were paid by Parliament, and the civil list annuity was then increased from time to time.[25]

Every succeeding sovereign down to and including Elizabeth II renewed the arrangement made between George III and Parliament; and the practice was, by the 19th century, recognised as "an integral part of the Constitution [which] would be difficult to abandon".[22][26] Nevertheless, a review of funding arrangements for the monarchy led to the passage of the Sovereign Grant Act 2011, which according to HM Treasury, is:[27]

A new consolidated grant rounding together the Civil List, Royal Palaces and Royal Travel grants-in-aid. It is intended that future funding will be set as a fraction of The Crown Estate revenue and paid through the annual Treasury Estimates process, and subject to full National Audit Office audit....

The Grant is to enable The Queen to discharge her duties as Head of State. i.e. it meets the central staff costs and running expenses of Her Majesty's official Household – such things as official receptions, investitures, garden parties and so on. It will also cover the maintenance of the Royal Palaces in England and the cost of travel to carry out royal engagements such as opening buildings and other royal visits....

While the amount of the Grant will be linked to the profits of the Crown Estate, those profits will continue to be paid in to the Exchequer; they are not to be hypothecated. Setting the Grant at a percentage of profits of the Crown Estate will help to put in place a durable and transparent framework.

In April 2014 it was reported that the Crown Estate was proposing to sell about 200 of its 750 rural homes in the UK, and was evicting tenants in preparation.[28][29]

Crown land in Ireland

In 1793 George III surrendered the hereditary revenues of Ireland, and was granted a civil list annuity for certain expenses of Irish civil government.[23][30][31] Most of the crown land by then was from forfeitures after the 1641 rebellion or the 1688–91 revolution, with some smaller older parcels remaining from earlier rebellions, the Dissolution of the Monasteries and the Norman period.[32][33] Most confiscated land had been granted away again, as under the Adventurers' Act 1642, Act of Settlement 1662, and Act of Resumption 1700.[32][33] The balance which remained in Crown hands included the "undisposed lands" of the 1662 settlement (worth less than the small quit rent that a grantee would have had to pay) and the balance unsold by the trustees under the 1700 act at its 1703 time limit.[32] The scattered crown lands were farmed out on long leases with little regard to the collection of rent.[32] Responsibility lay with the Quit Rent Office, which was absorbed in 1827 by the Commissioners of Woods, Forests and Land Revenues.[30] The largest Crown estate in the 1820s was Pobble O'Keefe in Sliabh Luachra at 5,000 acres (2,000 ha).[32][33] In 1828 the lease expired, and Richard Griffith was appointed to supervise its improvement, including the foundation of the model village of Kingwilliamstown.[34] In the early 1830s the Crown Estate resumed possession of land in Ballykilcline following the insanity of the head lessee. The occupational sub-lessees were seven years in arrears with their rent and the result was the Ballykilcline "removals" – free emigration to the new world in 1846. There was further state-assisted emigration from overpopulated Crown estates during the Great Famine.[35] There is evidence of Crown Estate public work schemes to employ the more distressed in improving drainage etc.[36] In 1854 a select committee of the House of Lords concluded that the small estates in Ireland should be sold.[37] 7,000 acres (2,800 ha) were subsequently sold for circa. £25,000 (equal to £2,304,887 today) at auction and £10,000 (equal to £921,955 today) by private treaty: a major disinvestment, with reinvestment in Great Britain.[21]

Article 11 of the 1922 Constitution of the Irish Free State provided that Crown Estate land within the Irish Free State would belong to the state,[38] which took over administrative responsibilities on 1 April 1923. At the time of handover, quit rents totalled £23,418 (equal to £1,311,939 today) and rent from property £1,191 (equal to £66,723 today).[21] The estates handed over mostly comprised foreshore.[39] The Crown estate in Northern Ireland in 1960 comprised "a few quit rents ... yielding yearly only £38."[39] By 2016 it had an income of £1.4m, from cables, pipelines and windfarms on the foreshore, and goldmining in Tyrone.[40][41] Development of the seabed below low tide is hampered by a sovereignty dispute with the Republic of Ireland.[42]

Crown land in Scotland

It was not until 1830 that King William IV revoked the income from the Crown estates in Scotland.[43] The hereditary land revenues of the Crown in Scotland, formerly under the management of the Barons of the Exchequer, were transferred to the Commissioners of Woods, Forests, Land Revenues, Works and Buildings and their successors under the Crown Lands (Scotland) Acts of 1832, 1833 and 1835.[44] These holdings mainly comprised former ecclesiastical land (following the abolition of the episcopacy in 1689) in Caithness and Orkney, and ancient royal possession in Stirling and Edinburgh, and feudal dues.[39] There was virtually no urban property. Most of the present Scottish estate excepting foreshore and salmon fishing is due to inward investment, including Glenlivet Estate, the largest area of land managed by the Crown Estate in Scotland, purchased in 1937,[45] Applegirth, Fochabers and Whitehill estates, purchased in 1963, 1937 and 1969 respectively.[46]

After winning the 2011 Scottish election, the Scottish National Party (SNP) called for the devolution of the Crown Estate income to Scotland.[47] In response to this demand, the Scotland Office decided against dividing up the Crown Estates. However, plans have been developed to allocate some of the Crown Estate income to the Big Lottery Fund, which would then distribute funds to coastal communities.[47] These plans have also been criticised by the SNP.[47]

Crown Estate Scotland

The Scottish government has taken control of a portfolio of assets totalling £272 million ($339.6 million) after a devolved Scottish Crown Estate was established, including the rights to develop marine energy projects in the country.

A new public body, called Crown Estate Scotland (CES), will oversee seabed areas hosting offshore wind, wave and tidal projects, and some continental shelf activities.[48]

Prior to the handover, the Crown Estate owned a multi-million stake in Fort Kinnaird retail park Edinburgh representing about 60% of the value of all crown assets in Scotland. This was not passed to Crown Estates Scotland with other Scottish properties in 2016. Two years later, the Crown Estate sold its stake and used the funds to assume full ownership of the Gallagher Retail Park in Cheltenham.[49]

Present day

Crown Estate Act 1961

The Crown Estate is now a statutory corporation run on commercial lines by the Crown Estate Commissioners under the provisions of the Crown Estate Act 1961. Under that Act, the Crown Estate Commissioners have a duty "while maintaining the Crown Estate as an estate in land [...] to maintain and enhance its value and the return obtained from it, but with due regard to the requirements of good management".[50] The Act provides among other things that (Section 1(5)) "The validity of transactions entered into by the Commissioners shall not be called in question on any suggestion of their not having acted in accordance with the provisions of this Act regulating the exercise of their powers, or of their having otherwise acted in excess of their authority, nor shall any person dealing with the Commissioners be concerned to inquire as to the extent of their authority or the observance of any restrictions on the exercise of their powers".

Summary of the Act

The Act includes the following:[51]

  • The Crown Estate is an estate in land only, apart from cash and gilts holdings necessary for the conduct of business.
  • The Crown Estate Commissioners, who comprise the main board, are approved by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister. They are limited to eight persons.
  • The board of Commissioners have a duty to:
    • maintain and enhance the capital value of the estate and its revenue income; but at the same time
    • take into account the need to observe a high standard of estate management practice.
  • When selling or letting its property the Crown Estate should always seek to achieve the best consideration (i.e. price) which can reasonably be obtained in all the circumstances, but discounting any monopoly value (mainly from ownership of the foreshore and seabed).
  • The Crown Estate cannot grant leases for a term of longer than 150 years.
  • The Crown Estate cannot grant land options for more than ten years unless the property is re-valued when the option is exercised.
  • The Crown Estate cannot borrow money.
  • Donations can be made for religious or educational purposes connected with the estate or for tenants' welfare. Otherwise, charitable donations are forbidden.
  • The character of the Windsor Estate (Park and Forest) must be preserved; no part of the estate may be sold.
  • A report should be submitted to the Queen and to Parliament annually, showing the performance of the estate over the previous year.
  • The Crown Estate should observe professional accounting practices and distinguish in its accounts between capital and revenue.
  • Money received as a premium from a tenant on the granting of a new lease should be allocated between capital and revenue as follows:
    • where the lease is for a term of thirty years or less it must be treated as revenue;
    • for leases of more than thirty years it must be treated as capital.

In 2010 a UK Parliament Treasury Committee report on the Crown Estate, the first for twenty years, reported that

  • it is "alarmed" that the Crown Estate in 2007 started investing in joint ventures such as the Gibraltar Limited Partnership, which it says is in "grave" financial difficulties. The Crown Estate owns 50% of the partnership, which owns the Fort Kinnaird retail park near Edinburgh;
  • the Crown Estate has a monopoly over the marine environment, and has focused too strongly on collecting revenues rather than acting in the long-term public interest around ports and harbours;
  • the quality of residential property management in the urban estate falls short. Consultation processes have lacked transparency, and the Committee was "particularly concerned" that the Crown Estate had failed to consult local bodies which had rights to nominate key workers;
  • some non-commercial historic properties should be reviewed with a view to transferring management to conservation bodies such as English Heritage;
  • Ministers should take a greater interest in the Crown Estate, because its overall management struggles to balance revenue generation with acting in the wider public interest.

Crown Estate chief executive Roger Bright said: "We welcome the Committee’s recognition that we run a successful business operation."[52]

Holdings

Urban portfolio

This includes the entirety of Regent Street and around half of St James's in London's West End as well as retail property across the UK in locations including Oxford, Exeter, Nottingham, Newcastle, Harlow, and Swansea.[53]

In 2002 The Crown Estate began implementing a £1 billion investment programme to improve Regent Street's commercial, retail, and visitor facilities and public realm. In addition, they are investing £500 million in St James's, including a number of major redevelopments.

Rural portfolio

Holdings consist of around 116,000 hectares (287,000 acres) of agricultural land and forests, together with minerals and residential and commercial property.[54]

Agricultural interests Agricultural interests include both livestock and arable farming. Consisting of around 106,000 hectares (263,000 acres) across the UK, they also include 26,900 hectares (66,500 acres) of common land, principally in Wales.[55]
Forestry Around 10,000 hectares (24,700 acres) of forestry [56]
Minerals Rights to extract minerals covers some 115,500 hectares (285,500 acres). Actual operations include 34 lettings, extracting sand, gravel, limestone, granite, brick clay, coal, slate and dimension stone.[57]

Windsor Estate

The Windsor Estate covers approximately 6,300 hectares and includes Windsor Great Park, the Home Park of Windsor Castle, extensive forests, residential and commercial properties, golf courses, a racecourse and let farms.

Commercial and residential Offices, retail and hotel 250 hectares
Leisure Golf clubs/Ascot Racecourse 250 hectares
Agriculture Farms 1,200 hectares
Parkland Home Park/Great Park 1,600 hectares
Forestry Woodland areas 3,100 hectares

Marine holdings

The Crown Estate's marine holdings consist of:

Foreshore Approximately 55% of the UK's foreshore is owned by the Crown Estate; other owners of UK foreshore include the Duchy of Cornwall and the Duchy of Lancaster. In Orkney and Shetland, the Crown does not claim ownership of foreshore.[58]
Territorial seabed The Crown Estate owns virtually all of the UK's seabed from mean low water to the 12-nautical-mile (22 km) limit.[58]
Continental shelf and extraterritorial rights Sovereign rights of the UK in the seabed and its resources vested by the Continental Shelf Act 1964 (sub-soil and substrata below the surface of the seabed, but excluding oil, gas and coal), the Energy Acts 2004 (renewable energy) and 2008 (gas and carbon storage).[58]

The Crown Estate plays a major role in the development of the offshore wind energy industry in the UK. Other commercial activity managed by the Crown Estate on the seabed includes wave and tidal energy, carbon capture and storage, aggregates, submarine cables and pipelines and the mining of potash. In terms of the foreshore, the Crown Estate issue licences or leases for around 850 aquaculture sites and owns marina space for approximately 18,000 moorings.

Other rights and interests

Other rights and interests include:

Shopping centres CrownGate Shopping Centre, Worcester.

Westgate Shopping Centre in Oxford and Princesshay Shopping Centre in Exeter are a 50:50 joint venture partnership with Land Securities. The Crown Estate also has a 4.97% share of Lend Lease Retail Partnership which provides an equity interest in the Bluewater Shopping Centre in Kent and the Touchwood Shopping Centre in Solihull.

Retail parks Crown Point Shopping Park in Leeds, MK1 Shopping Park in Milton Keynes, Aintree Shopping Park in Merseyside, Altrincham Retail Park in Trafford, Bath Road Shopping Park in Slough, Morfa Shopping Park in Swansea, Ocean Retail Park in Portsmouth, Queensgate Centre in Harlow, South Aylesford Retail Park in Maidstone, Apsley Mills Retail Park in Hemel Hempstead, Victoria Retail Park in Nottingham, Morfa Shopping Park in Swansea.[59] Coliseum Retail Park in Cheshire Oaks, Ellesmere Port has been bought for £81m.

Edinburgh's Fort Kinnaird, Cheltenham's Gallagher Retail Park and Warwick's Leamington Shopping Park are owned 50/50 through "The Gibraltar Limited Partnership" with The Hercules Unit Trust, a Jersey-based property unit trust. The estate recently purchased the new Rushden Lakes site in Northamptonshire from its developers.

Retail/office buildings Princes Street, London W1B (near Oxford Circus) with a 66.67% interest.[58]
Savoy Estate apportionment Right to receive 23% of the income from the Duchy of Lancaster's Savoy Estate in London.[58]
Native mussels and oysters in Scotland Wild crustaceans (does not include cultivated crustaceans)
Reversionary and contingent interests Some properties are sold by the Crown Estate for public benefit (such as educational or religious use) with a reverter clause, which means ownership may revert to the Crown Estate in the event of a change of use.

Hereditary properties of the monarch currently in government use will revert to the Crown Estate in the event of the government use ceasing.[58]

Escheated land Land that has no owner other than the Crown as lord paramount of the whole soil of the country. Escheat can result from bankruptcy or the dissolution of companies. Freehold land owned by dissolved companies which were registered in England or Wales are dealt with by the Treasury Solicitor as bona vacantia.
Licences and right granted at nil rent Includes: water mains, cables, substations and war memorials.

Finances

In the 2015/2016 fiscal year, the Crown Estate's property evaluation was £12 billion with a £304.1 million net revenue profit (up 6.7%).[60]

Governance

Historical

Previous officials responsible for managing what is now the Crown Estate were:[61]

Chairmen and chief executives of the Crown Estate Commissioners

Chairmen (First Commissioner)

Chief executives (Second Commissioner)

  • 1955–60 – Sir Ronald Montague Joseph Harris (1913–1995)
  • 1960–68 – Sir Jack Alexander Sutherland-Harris (1908–1986)
  • 1968–78 – Sir William Alan Wood (1916–2010)
  • 1978–83 – Sir John Michael Moore (born 1921)
  • 1983–89 – Dr Keith Dexter (1928–1989)
  • 1989-2001– Sir Christopher Howes (born 1942)
  • 2001–2011 Roger Martin Francis Bright (born 1951)
  • 2012– Alison Nimmo (born 1964)

The chairman (formally titled "first commissioner") is part-time. The chief executive (the "second commissioner") is the only full-time executive member of the Crown Estate's board.[62]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c The House of Commons Treasury Committee (2010). The management of the Crown Estate (PDF). London: House of Commons. pp. 5–8.
  2. ^ a b "Sovereign Grant Bill – Further background information provided to Members of Parliament in advance of the Bill's Second Reading Debate on 14 July 2011" (PDF). Her Majesty's Treasury. July 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 January 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
  3. ^ "Who owns The Crown Estate?". The Crown Estate. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
  4. ^ a b "Sovereign Grant Act,2011: Guidance". Her Majesty's Treasury (gov.uk). 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
  5. ^ a b "Crown Estate Act, 1961" (PDF). Her Majesty's Stationery Office and Queen's Printer of Acts of Parliament. 1961. pp. 5–7. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  6. ^ "The management of the Crown Estate". parliament.uk. British Parliament. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  7. ^ "The Crown Estate – Who We Are". The Crown Estate. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
  8. ^ "Gracious Message from the Queen to the House of Commons re: Sovereign Grant" (PDF). Buckingham Palace. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 January 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
  9. ^ a b "FAQs". The Crown Estate. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2008.
  10. ^ "2018 Annual Report".
  11. ^ "Integrated Annual Report 2015/16" (PDF). The Crown Estate. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  12. ^ "Schedule of The Crown Estate's properties rights and interests June 2015" (PDF). The Crown Estate. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  13. ^ "Our Portfolio". The Crown Estate. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  14. ^ "Commercial Development of Mines Royal". The Crown Estate. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  15. ^ "Report of the Royal Trustees on the sovereign grany" (PDF). HM government. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  16. ^ Pugh, p 3
  17. ^ Pugh. pp. 3–4
  18. ^ Commissioners of Enquiry, s. 38
  19. ^ Pugh, p. 5
  20. ^ Commissioners of Enquiry, s. 26
  21. ^ a b c H M Treasury "Blue Note", Class X, 2, 1912
  22. ^ a b c Best, p. 1
  23. ^ a b c Best, p. 2
  24. ^ Kelso, Paul (6 March 2000). "The royal family and the public purse". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  25. ^ Medley, Dudley Julius (30 January 2018). "A Student's Manual of English Constitutional History". B. Blackwell. Retrieved 30 January 2018 – via Google Books.
  26. ^ Ilbert, C. P., The Times, 14 August 1871, p. 4
  27. ^ United Kingdom. Her Majesty's Treasury. "Sovereign Grant Act: frequently asked questions relating to the Act and on general issues." Archived 29 January 2013 at the UK Government Web Archive Accessed 2 May 2013.
  28. ^ "Girl asks Queen to stop her eviction". BBC. 26 April 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  29. ^ "News". The Crown Estate. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  30. ^ a b "Records of the Quit Rent Office (IE-NAI - QRO)". National Archives of Ireland. Archives Portal Europe. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  31. ^ "33 Geo. 3 c. 34". The statutes at large, passed in the Parliaments held in Ireland. 16. Dublin: Boulter Grierson. 1796. p. 863.
  32. ^ a b c d e Commissioners Appointed to Enquire into the Fees, Gratuities, Perquisites, and Emoluments, which are or have been lately received in certain Public Offices in Ireland; and also, to examine into any Abuses which may exist in the same; and into the present Mode of Receiving, Collecting, Issuing, and Accounting for Public Money in Ireland. (20 December 1806). "Crown Lands". Fourth Report. pp. 58–65.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  33. ^ a b c Reports of Commissioners of Inquiry into Quit Rents and Crown Lands in Ireland; Abstract of Quit, Crown and other Rents in Ireland. HC 1824 (458) 21 71. 22 June 1824. pp. 5–13.
  34. ^ "Pobble O'Keefe". Dublin Penny Journal. Library Ireland. 1 (21). 17 November 1832. Retrieved 30 January 2018.; Tepper, Michael (1979). New World Immigrants: A Consolidation of Ship Passenger Lists and Associated Data from Periodical Literature. Genealogical Publishing Com. pp. 487–488. ISBN 9780806308548. Retrieved 30 January 2018.; Reports on Experimental Improvements on Crown Estate of King William's Town, in County Cork: further report of Mr. Griffiths to the Commissioners of Her Majesty's Woods. HC 1851 (637) 50 437.0. 4 August 1851.
  35. ^ Ellis, Eilish (1960). "State-Aided Emigration Schemes from Crown Estates in Ireland c. 1850". Analecta Hibernica. Irish Manuscripts Commission (22): 328–394. JSTOR 5511883.; reprinted in Tepper, Michael, ed. (1979). New World Immigrants: A Consolidation of Ship Passenger Lists and Associated Data from Periodical Literature. Genealogical Publishing Com. pp. 448–. ISBN 9780806308548. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  36. ^ Commissioners' Report for 1853, p. 601, and 1855, pp. 42–43
  37. ^ Commissioners' Report for 1855, p.47
  38. ^ "Constitution of the Irish Free State (Saorstát Eireann) Act, 1922, Schedule 1". Irish Statute Book. Article 11. Retrieved 31 January 2018.; Flinn, Hugo (5 May 1936). "Committee on Finance. - Vote 30—Quit Rent Office". Dáil Éireann Debates. Vol.61 No.15 p.40 c.2189. Retrieved 31 January 2018. The Quit Rent Office deals generally with the management of all forms of Crown property, including quit rents, which was transferred to Saorstát Eireann by virtue of Article 11 of the Constitution.
  39. ^ a b c Pugh, p. 17
  40. ^ "Northern Ireland Highlights 2015/16" (PDF). Crown Estate. June 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  41. ^ McDonnell, Francess (18 December 2017). "Australian firm the latest to join Northern Irish 'gold rush'". The Irish Times. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  42. ^ Grimson, Dermott. "The Crown Estate and renewables". Energy Ireland. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  43. ^ Jim and Margaret Cuthbert (18 August 2011). "The Sovereign Grant Bill: Bad for Scotland and Bad for the UK". Bella Caledonia. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  44. ^ Pugh, p. 18
  45. ^ Paterson, Wilma "Out of the shadows", The Herald, 13 November 1999, p. 12
  46. ^ thecrownestate.co.uk Archived 3 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  47. ^ a b c Settle, Michael (22 July 2011). "SNP anger at plan for Crown Estate handout". The Herald. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  48. ^ "Scottish Crown Estate assets transfer to Holyrood". Ijglobal.com. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  49. ^ https://www.pressandjournal.co.uk/fp/news/moray/1504741/uk-crown-estate-accused-of-167-million-cash-grab-from-scottish-purse/. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  50. ^ "Crown Estate Act 1961, S. 1(3)" (PDF). Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  51. ^ "The Crown Estate Act, Brief Summary" Archived 15 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, The Crown Estate website, accessed 12 July 2010
  52. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 August 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  53. ^ Crown estate news Archived 19 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  54. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  55. ^ "Agriculture". The Crown Estate. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  56. ^ "Forestry". The Crown Estate. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  57. ^ "Minerals". The Crown Estate. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  58. ^ a b c d e f "List of Assets - a Freedom of Information request to The Crown Estate" (PDF). Whatdotheyknow.com. 6 August 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  59. ^ "The Crown Estate Portfolio - Scheme Index - Completely Retail". Completelyretail.co.uk. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  60. ^ "Crown Estate Financial Information". Crown Estate. 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
  61. ^ [1]
  62. ^ [2]

References

External links

Anderson Strathern

Anderson Strathern LLP is a Scottish law firm with offices in Edinburgh, Glasgow and East Lothian. Anderson Strathern is a leading Scottish full-service legal firm working in the private client, commercial and public sectors with 53 partners and over 230 employees across Edinburgh, Glasgow and East Lothian. Clients include Buccleuch Estates, the Scottish Government, The Crown Estate, Clyde Gateway, Scotmid, Apex Hotels, INEOS, Transport Scotland, the Scottish Prison Service and the Royal College of Nursing.

Asgill House

Richmond Place, now known as Asgill House, is a Grade I listed 18th-century Palladian villa on Old Palace Lane in Richmond, London (historically in Surrey), overlooking the River Thames. The house is on the former site of the river frontage and later the brewhouse for the medieval and Tudor Richmond Palace. It is 8 miles (13 km) from Charing Cross and was built in 1757–58 by Sir Robert Taylor as a summer and weekend parkland villa beside the River Thames for Sir Charles Asgill, who was Lord Mayor of London in 1761–62. It has been described as a "among the last villas of importance to be erected on the banks of the Thames".It was returned to its original appearance in a restoration of 1969–70 by Donald Insall Associates. This included removing the Victorian extensions.Asgill House is now leased from the Crown Estate as a private residence.The rear garden contains a 200-year-old Copper beech tree, one of the Great Trees of London.

Bagshot Park

Bagshot Park is a royal residence located near Bagshot, a village 11 miles (18 km) south of Windsor and approximately 11 miles (18 km) north west of Guildford. It is on Bagshot Heath, a fifty square-mile tract of formerly open land in Surrey and Berkshire. Bagshot Park occupies 21 hectares (51 acres) within the designated area of Windsor Great Park.The Mansion house was listed, Grade II, as a building of special architectural or historic interest in 1976. Built with red brick and stone dressings in Tudor gothic style, with side and rear extensions in late 19th and early 20th century. The landscaped grounds are also Grade II listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens.

Crown land

Crown land (sometimes spelled crownland), also known as royal domain or demesne, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies the Crown. It is the equivalent of an entailed estate and passes with the monarchy, being inseparable from it. Today, in Commonwealth realms such as Canada and Australia, crown land is considered public land and is apart from the monarch's private estate.

In Britain, the hereditary revenues of Crown lands provided income for the monarch until the start of the reign of George III, when the profits from the Crown Estate were surrendered to the Parliament of Great Britain in return for a fixed civil list payment. The monarch retains the income from the Duchy of Lancaster.

Crown lands of France

The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or (in French) domaine royal (from demesne) of France refers to the lands, fiefs and rights directly possessed by the kings of France. While the term eventually came to refer to a territorial unit, the royal domain originally referred to the network of "castles, villages and estates, forests, towns, religious houses and bishoprics, and the rights of justice, tolls and taxes" effectively held by the king or under his domination. In terms of territory, before the reign of Henry IV, the domaine royal did not encompass the entirety of the territory of the kingdom of France and for much of the Middle Ages significant portions of the kingdom were the direct possessions of other feudal lords.

In the tenth and eleventh centuries, the first Capetians—while being the kings of France—were among the least powerful of the great feudal lords of France in terms of territory possessed. Patiently, through the use of feudal law (and, in particular, the confiscation of fiefs from rebellious vassals), conquest, annexation, skillful marriages with heiresses of large fiefs, and even by purchase, the kings of France were able to increase the royal domain. By the time of Philip IV, the meaning of "royal domain" began to shift from a mere collection of lands and rights to a fixed territorial unit, and by the sixteenth century the "royal domain" began to coincide with the entire kingdom. However, the medieval system of appanage (a concession of a fief with its land rights by the sovereign to his younger sons, which reverts to the crown upon the extinction of the male line of the original holder) alienated large territories from the royal domain and sometimes created dangerous rivals (especially the Duchy of Burgundy from the 14th to the 15th centuries).

During the Wars of Religion, the alienation of lands and fiefs from the royal domain was frequently criticized. The Edict of Moulins (1566) declared that the royal domain (defined in the second article as all the land controlled by the crown for more than ten years) could not be alienated, except in two cases: by interlocking, in the case of financial emergency, with a perpetual option to repurchase the land; and to form an appanage, which must return to the crown in its original state on the extinction of the male line.

Traditionally, the king was expected to survive from the revenues generated from the royal domain, but fiscal necessity, especially in times of war, led the kings to enact "exceptional" taxes, like the taille, upon the whole of the kingdom (the taille became permanent in 1439).

Fort Belvedere, Surrey

Fort Belvedere (originally Shrubs Hill Tower) is a Grade II* listed country house on Shrubs Hill in Windsor Great Park, in Surrey, England. The fort was predominantly constructed by Jeffry Wyatville in a Gothic Revival style in the 1820s.

The fort was occupied by numerous members of the British royal family and associated personages from 1750 to 1976. From 1929 Fort Belvedere was the home of Edward, Prince of Wales, who greatly renovated the house and grounds, and was the site of Edward's abdication as King in 1936. The property remains part of the Crown Estate, and is home to private tenants. It is not open to the public.

Home Park, Windsor

The Home Park, previously known as the Little Park (and originally Lydecroft Park), is a private 655-acre (265 ha) Royal park, administered by the Crown Estate. It lies on the eastern side of Windsor Castle in the town and former civil parish of Windsor in the English county of Berkshire. To its south is Windsor Great Park.

Kew Green

Kew Green is a large open space in Kew in west London. Owned by the Crown Estate, it is leased to the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. It is roughly triangular in shape, and its open grassland, framed with broadleaf trees, extends to about thirty acres. Kew Green is overlooked by a mixture of period townhouses, historic buildings and commercial establishments. In the 1730s, Kew Green was a venue for cricket matches.

Primrose Hill

Primrose Hill is a hill of 213 feet (65 m) located on the northern side of Regent's Park in London. The name was given also to the surrounding district. The hill summit has a clear view of central London, as well as Hampstead and Belsize Park to the north and is adorned by an engraved quotation from William Blake. Nowadays it is one of the most exclusive and expensive residential areas in London and is home to many prominent residents.The Primrose Hill district is surrounded by the affluent areas of St John's Wood to the west, Swiss Cottage to the northwest, Belsize Park to the north, Chalk Farm to the northeast, Camden Town to the east and Regent's Park itself lies adjacent to the south of the hill itself. The nearest stations to Primrose Hill are Chalk Farm tube station to the northeast and Swiss Cottage tube station to the northwest. The defunct Primrose Hill railway station sits on the railway lines that separate the Primrose Hill area from Camden Town.

Amenities of the hill include an outdoor gym known as the Hill Trim Trail, a children's playground, and toilets, all located on the south side near Primrose Hill bridge which connects to London Zoo and Regent's Park.

The park is Grade II listed.

Purse

A purse is a small bag that may refer to:

Coin purse, small pouch made for carrying coins

In British English, currency notes, credit cards, and other ID cards

Handbag, in American English

Money bag

WalletPurse may also refer to:

Purse (horse racing), the total amount of money paid out to the owners of horses racing at a particular track over a given period

Prize money, "purse", or "purse money", a monetary reward paid out to the crew of a ship for capturing an enemy vessel

Purse bid, in boxing the aggregate prize money

Purse (surname), a surname

Purse State Park, a state park in Charles County, Maryland

Privy Purse, money in the past British monarchy raised from the income of the Crown Estate lands and holdings

La Bourse ("purse" in French), a short story by French novelist Honoré de Balzac

Regent Street

Regent Street is a major shopping street in the West End of London. It is named after George, the Prince Regent (later George IV) and was laid out under the direction of the architect John Nash and James Burton. It runs from Waterloo Place in St James's at the southern end, through Piccadilly Circus and Oxford Circus, to All Souls Church. From there Langham Place and Portland Place continue the route to Regent's Park.

The street's layout was completed in 1825 and was an early example of town planning in England, replacing earlier roads including Swallow Street. Nash and Burton's street layout has survived, although all the original buildings except All Souls Church have been replaced following reconstruction in the late 19th century. The street is known for its flagship retail stores, including Liberty, Hamleys, Jaeger and the Apple Store. The Royal Polytechnic Institution, now the University of Westminster, has been based on Regent Street since 1838.

Richmond Green

Richmond Green is a recreation area located near the centre of Richmond, a town of about 20,000 inhabitants situated in south west London. Owned by the Crown Estate, it is leased to the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. The Green, which has been described as "one of the most beautiful urban greens surviving anywhere in England", is essentially square in shape and its open grassland, framed with broadleaf trees, extends to roughly twelve acres. On the north-east side there is also a smaller open space called Little Green. Richmond Green and Little Green are overlooked by a mixture of period townhouses, historic buildings and municipal and commercial establishments including the Richmond Lending Library and Richmond Theatre. On summer weekends and public holidays the Green attracts many residents and visitors. It has a long history of hosting sporting events; from the 16th century onwards tournaments and archery contests have taken place on the Green, while cricket matches have occurred since the mid 18th century, continuing to the present day.

Roma Abbey

Roma Abbey (Swedish: Roma kloster) is a ruined Cistercian abbey and a crown estate in Roma on the Swedish island of Gotland. The abbey was built in the 12th century. After the Reformation, its lands were confiscated by the Crown and subsequently turned into a crown estate. Apart from the ruined church, the estate includes a manor house built in 1733 for the crown estate, known in Swedish as Roma kungsgård. The manorial cultural landscape with avenues and large fields surrounding the ruined church and the manor is unique on Gotland.

Royal Lodge

The Royal Lodge is a Grade II listed house in Windsor Great Park in Berkshire, England, half a mile north of Cumberland Lodge and 3 miles (4.8 km) south of Windsor Castle. It was the Windsor residence of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother from 1952 until her death there in 2002. Since 2004, it has been the official country residence of Prince Andrew, Duke of York.

Swinley Forest

Swinley Forest is a large expanse of Crown Estate woodland mainly within the civil parishes of Windlesham in Surrey and Winkfield and Crowthorne in Berkshire, England.

Thatched House Lodge

Thatched House Lodge is a Grade II-listed building, dating from the 17th century, in Richmond Park in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in London, England. It was the home of British prime minister Sir Robert Walpole and, since 1963, has been a royal residence, being leased from the Crown Estate by Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy (born Princess Alexandra of Kent), and, until his death in 2004, her husband, Sir Angus Ogilvy.

The main house has six reception rooms and six bedrooms, and it stands in four acres (1.6 hectares) of grounds. The property includes gardens, an 18th-century two-room thatched summer house which gave the main house its name, a gardener's cottage, stabling and other buildings.

The Pavilion, Hampton Court

The Pavilion is a house on Barge Walk in Hampton Court Park near Hampton Court Palace. It is Grade II* listed on the National Heritage List for England. It is the sole survivor of four pavilions for the Bowling Green at Hampton Court.It was designed by William Talman under the direction of Christopher Wren as part of William III's improvements to the palace. The house is set in 2.3 acres of gardens that include a parterre and water features.The remaining 143-year lease of the Pavilion from the Crown Estate was for sale for £6.5 million in 2007. The Pavilion was again for sale in 2012; priced at £10 million.The pavilion was occupied by Cecil Harmsworth King and his second wife Ruth Railton in the 1960s and 1970s.

William Alan Wood

Sir William Alan Wood, KCVO, CB (1916–2010) was a British civil servant.

Wood was born on 8 December 1916 in Manchester; his father was then fighting in the First World War and his mother returned after the war to their family home in London, where Wood was educated. He attended Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, where he read classics and played rugby and judo. He joined the Northern Ireland Ministry of Home Affairs in 1939 and was initially exempted from war service; his duties at the Ministry related to organising emergency hospital planning. He then served with the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve from 1942 to 1946, when he was demobilised and moved to the Ministry of Town and Country Planning. There, he was "one of the main architects of the Town and Country Planning Act (1947) ... one of the chief drafters of perhaps the most important piece of planning legislation in 20th-century Britain". In preparation for this work, he travelled around Britain to lecture planning officials on the Act; he wrote Planning and the Law as a guidebook.In 1951, Wood was appointed Private Secretary to the Minister and, after the Ministry was merged into the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, he was appointed Principal Regional Officer for the West Midlands in 1954. Two years later, he was promoted to the grade of Assistant Secretary and given responsibility for the Water Division. In 1964, he was appointed Under-Secretary in charge of the Planning Division, serving for four years until (in 1968) he was made Second Crown Estate Commissioner. He managed projects to renovate large parts of the Crown Estate including Windsor Castle and Carlton House Terrace. In 1970, he was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath and, on retirement in 1978, he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order.He subsequently chaired charitable housing organisations and trusts, and was ombudsman of the Mirror Group of newspapers from 1985 to 1989. Wood died on 28 June 2010, aged 93.

Windsor Great Park

Windsor Great Park is a Royal Park of 2,020 hectares (5,000 acres), including a deer park, to the south of the town of Windsor on the border of Berkshire and Surrey in England. The park was, for many centuries, the private hunting ground of Windsor Castle and dates primarily from the mid-13th century. Historically the park covered an area many times the current size known as Windsor Forest, Windsor Royal Park or its current name. The park is managed and funded by the Crown Estate. Most parts of the park are open to the public, free of charge, from dawn to dusk, although there is a charge to enter Savill Garden.The park is Grade I listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. Windsor Forest and Great Park is a Site of Special Scientific Interest.

Companies
Conservation
Government
and regulation
History
Nations and regions
Non-governmental
organisations
Sectors
Other
Companies
Industry
Bodies
Law and
Regulation
Other
Public real estate management
Europe

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.