Crown Colony of North Borneo

The Crown Colony of North Borneo was a British Crown colony on the island of Borneo established in 1946 shortly after the dissolution of the British Military Administration.[4] The Crown Colony of Labuan joined the new Crown Colony during its formation. It was succeeded as the state of Sabah through the formation of the Federation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963.

Crown Colony of North Borneo

Coat of arms of North Borneo
Coat of arms
Anthem: God Save the King (1946–1952)
God Save the Queen (1952–1963)
Location of North Borneo
StatusBritish colony
Common languagesEnglish, Kadazan Dusun, Bajau, Murut, Sabah Malay, Chinese etc.
GovernmentCrown colony
• 1946–1949
Edward Twining
• 1959–1963
William Goode
Historical eraNew Imperialism
• North Borneo ceded to the Crown Colony
15 July 1946[1]
• Seven Turtle Islands (including Cagayan de Sulu and Mangsee Islands) ceded to the Philippine government
16 October 1947
31 August 1963[2][3]
16 September 1963
CurrencyNorth Borneo dollar, later Malaya and British Borneo dollar
Preceded by
Succeeded by
British Military Administration (Borneo)
North Borneo
Crown Colony of Labuan
Today part of Malaysia

Cession of remaining islands

On 16 October 1947, seven of the British-controlled islands in north-eastern Borneo named Turtle Islands together with Cagayan de Sulu and Mangsee Islands were ceded to the Philippine government under a past treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United States.[5][6] The islands now formed a part of the MIMAROPA and Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).


Children of North Borneo
Children of North Borneo filmed by Australian government representative a year after the war in 1946.

The Governor of the Crown Colony of North Borneo (Malay: Tuan Yang Terutama Gabenor Koloni Mahkota British Borneo Utara) is the position created by the British Government upon the cession of North Borneo from the North Borneo Chartered Company. The appointment was made by King George VI, and later Queen Elizabeth II until the self-government of North Borneo on 31 August 1963 and the forming of the Federation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963.[7] After the formation of Malaysia, the title was changed to 'Tuan Yang Terutama Yang di-Pertua Negeri Sabah', which also means 'His Excellency The Governor of Sabah', or 'His Excellency The Head of State of Sabah' and the appointment was later made by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or King of Malaysia.

List of Governors of the Crown Colony of North Borneo

Governor of British Crown Colony of North Borneo
Flag of the Governor of North Borneo (1948–1963)
StyleHis Excellency
AppointerKing George VI
succeeded in 1952 by Queen Elizabeth II
Inaugural holderEdward Francis Twining
Final holderWilliam Goode
Abolished16 September 1963 (Formed the Federation of Malaysia)[7]
Name From To
Edward Francis Twining 1946 1949
Herbert Ralph Hone 1950 1954
Roland Evelyn Turnbull 1954 1959
William Allmond Codrington Goode 1959 1963


  1. ^ Anthony Kirk-Greene (12 June 1999). On Crown Service: A History of HM Colonial and Overseas Civil Services, 1837-1997. I.B.Tauris. pp. 183–. ISBN 978-1-86064-260-9.
  2. ^ "The National Archives DO 169/254 (Constitutional issues in respect of North Borneo and Sarawak on joining the federation)". The National Archives. 1961–1963. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
  3. ^ Philip Mathews (28 February 2014). Chronicle of Malaysia: Fifty Years of Headline News, 1963-2013. Editions Didier Millet. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-967-10617-4-9.
  4. ^ "British North Borneo Becomes Crown Colony". Trove. 18 July 1946. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  5. ^ Charles P. Williamson (30 July 1929). "Treaty over Turtle Islands". The Telegraph. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  6. ^ Peter C. Richards (6 December 1947). "New Flag Over Pacific Paradise". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  7. ^ a b Frans Welman. Borneo Trilogy Volume 1: Sabah. Booksmango. pp. 159–. ISBN 978-616-245-078-5.

Further reading

External links

British Borneo

British Borneo comprised the four northern parts of the island of Borneo, which are now the country of Brunei, two Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, and the Malaysian territory of Labuan. During the British colonial rule before World War II, Sarawak was known as the Kingdom of Sarawak (1841–1946), Sabah was known as North Borneo (1881–1946), and Labuan was known as the Crown Colony of Labuan (1848–1946). Between World War II and their independence from Britain, Sarawak became the Crown Colony of Sarawak (1946–1963) whereas Sabah and Labuan combined to form the Crown Colony of North Borneo (1946–1963). The Kingdom of Brunei (1888/1906-1984) was a protectorate of the United Kingdom since the 1888/1906 Protectorate Agreement, and was known as British Protectorate State of Brunei.

British Military Administration (Borneo)

The British Military Administration (BMA) was the interim administrator of British Borneo between the end of the Second World War and the establishment of the Crown Colonies of Sarawak and North Borneo in 1946. Specifically, the entity lasted from 12 September 1945 to 1 July 1946. Labuan became the headquarters of BMA. The headquarters was mostly managed by the Australian Imperial Force (AIF).

Chin Tet Yung

Chin Tet Yung (simplified Chinese: 陈德镛; traditional Chinese: 陳德鏞; pinyin: Chén Dé Yōng; born 2 August 1951, in Crown Colony of North Borneo) is a former Singaporean Member of Parliament for Sembawang GRC, and also served previously as the chairman of the Government Parliamentary Committee for Home Affairs and Law from 2002 to 2005. He had been a Member of Parliament from 1997 to 2006.

He announced his retirement from politics on 10 April 2006.

Coat of arms of Sabah

The coat of arms of Sabah is the official coat of arms of the Malaysian state of Sabah.

Crown Colony of Labuan

The Crown Colony of Labuan was a British Crown colony on the northwestern shore of the island of Borneo established in 1848 after the acquisition of the island of Labuan from the Sultanate of Brunei in 1846. Apart from the main island, Labuan consists of six smaller islands; Burung, Daat, Kuraman, Papan, Rusukan Kecil, and Rusukan Besar.

Labuan was expected by the British to be a second Singapore, but it did not fulfill its promise especially after the failure of its coal production that did not become fruitful, causing investors to withdraw their money, leaving all machinery equipment and Chinese workers that had entered the colony previously. The Chinese workers then began involving themselves in other businesses with many becoming chief traders of the island's produce of edible bird's nest, pearl, sago and camphor, with the main successful production later being the coconut, rubber and sago.

World War II brought the invasion of Japanese forces which abruptly ended British administration. Subsequently, Labuan became the place where the Japanese commander in Borneo surrendered to the Allied forces, with the territory placed under a military administration before merging into a new crown colony.

David Wong Dak Wah

Datuk Seri Panglima David Wong Dak Wah is the fifth and current Chief Judge of The High Court of Sabah and Sarawak.

Flag of Sabah

The current flag of the state of Sabah, in Malaysia, was adopted on 21 December 1998. It is red, white and three different shades of blue. The mountain is in the canton as in the 1963 flag, but now in dark blue on a light blue background. The field is medium blue over white over red. The mountain shown on the flag (and the state's coat of arms) is Mount Kinabalu.

The five different colours represent the five divisions in Sabah.

A silhouette of Mount Kinabalu represents the state of Sabah.

Zircon blue represents peace and calmness.

Icicle blue represents unity and prosperity.

Royal blue represents strength and harmony.

White represents purity and justice.

Chilli red represents courage and determination.

Governor of North Borneo

The Governor of North Borneo was the appointed head of the government of North Borneo.

Originally the Governor was appointed by the North Borneo Chartered Company, which was responsible for the administration of the protectorate. Upon North Borneo becoming a Crown colony in 1946, in the aftermath of the Second World War, the Governor of British North Borneo became an appointee of the Crown (i.e. of the Government of the United Kingdom).

Jesselton Freemason Hall

Jesselton Freemason Hall in present-day Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Malaysia is the meeting place for the Masonic lodges in the former Jesselton area. It was opened since 1951 during British Crown rule.

Keningau Oath Stone

The Keningau Oath Stone (Malay: Batu Sumpah Keningau) is a monument in Keningau, Sabah erected to commemorate the terms in which the former British Crown Colony of North Borneo joined the former colony of Sarawak and the other states of the Federation of Malaya to form Malaysia.

Laos–Malaysia relations

Laos–Malaysia relations (Lao: ການພົວພັນລາວ - ມາເລເຊຍ kanphuaphanlav malesia; French: Relations entre le Laos et la Malaisie; Malay: Hubungan Laos–Malaysia; Jawi: هوبوڠن لاوس–مليسيا) are foreign relations between Laos and Malaysia. Both countries are the members of ASEAN.


Malaysians are the people who are identified with the country of Malaysia, its citizens and their descendants worldwide. This connection may be residential, legal, historical, or cultural. For most Malaysians, several (frequently all) of those types of connections exist and are the source(s) of their being considered Malaysians. Although citizens make up the majority of Malaysians, non-citizen residents and overseas Malaysians may also claim a Malaysian identity.The country is home to people of various national, ethnic and religious origins. As a result, many Malaysians do not equate their nationality with ethnicity, but with citizenship and allegiance to Malaysia. Majority of the population, however, belong to several clearly defined ethnolinguistic groups within the country with their own distinct cultures and traditions: Malays, Orang Asli (aboriginal population), Malaysian Chinese (primarily Han Chinese), Malaysian Indians (primarily Tamils). Malays themselves are the source of the name Malaysia ("land of Malays") as they traditionally formed the majority during the British rule. The majority of the non-Malay and non-aboriginal population in modern Malaysia is made up of immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of Portuguese, Dutch and then significantly longer British colonization, different waves (or peaks) of immigration and settlement of non-aboriginal peoples took place over the course of nearly five centuries and continue today.

Malayan independence from United Kingdom in 1957 grew gradually over the course of latter part of the 20th century since the formation of the Federation of Malaya in 1948 (excluding Crown Colony of Singapore, Crown Colony of North Borneo and Crown Colony of Sarawak). World War II in particular gave rise to a desire amongst Malayans to have their country recognised as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship.

Malaysia–Maldives relations

Malaysia–Maldives relations (Malay: Hubungan Malaysia–Maldives; Jawi: هوبوڠن مليسيا–مالديۏس) refers to bilateral foreign relations between the two countries, Malaysia and the Maldives. Malaysia's high commission in Colombo, Sri Lanka is also accredited to the Maldives, and Maldives has a high commission in Kuala Lumpur.

Malaysia–Mongolia relations

Malaysia–Mongolia relations (Malay: Hubungan Malaysia–Mongolia; Jawi: هوبوڠن مليسيا–منغوليا; Mongolian: Малайз-Монголын харилцаа Malaiz-Mongolyn khariltsaa) refers to bilateral foreign relations between Malaysia and Mongolia. Malaysia has an honorary consulate in Ulaanbaatar, and Mongolia honorary consulate in Bangkok was accredited to Malaysia.

Malaysia–Nepal relations

Malaysia–Nepal relations (Malay: Hubungan Malaysia–Nepal; Jawi: هوبوڠن مليسيا–نيڤال; Nepali: मलेसिया-नेपाल सम्बन्ध Malēsiyā-nēpāla sambandha) refers to bilateral foreign relations between the two countries, Malaysia and Nepal. Malaysia has an embassy in Kathmandu, and Nepal has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.

Mary Yap

Mary Yap Kain Ching (Chinese: 叶娟呈; pinyin: Yè Juān Chéng) is a Malaysian politician and the former Deputy Minister of Higher Education in the Cabinet of Malaysia. She is a member of United Sabah Party (PBS).

Osu Sukam

Datuk Seri Panglima Osu bin Sukam (Jawi: اوسو بن سوكم; born 19 February 1949) is a former Chief Minister of the Malaysian state of Sabah. He became the 12th Chief Minister of the state in 1999 and took over the post from Bernard Dompok. Following the rotation system in place at that time, Osu, an ethnic Bajau, held the post for two years representing the Muslim bumiputras of Sabah. In 2001, he was replaced by Chong Kah Kiat. Until 14 July 2005, he was a member of a ruling United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) party.

Peter Pragas

Peter Pragas (1926 – 30 June 2014) was a Malaysian composer and musician. He was considered one of the most prominent composers to hail from the Malaysian state of Sabah. He has been called the "Father of Sabah Modern Music" and the "Father of Sabah Music."Pragas was born in Penang, British Malaya, in 1926. He moved from Peninsular Malaysia to the Crown Colony of North Borneo (present-day Sabah) in 1957, where he became the first director of Radio Sabah (now part of Radio Televisyen Malaysia). Pragas has been credited as a strong champion of music in Sabah. He was referred to as the "Father of Sabah Music" in Sabah Quarter Century of Songs, Composers Biographical Data (Volume 1), which was published in 1978.He released his first instrumental album, "Land Below The Wind," through EMI in 1978. In 1981, Pragas released a dual album, "Sabah Centennial Celebration," to commemorate Sabah's 100 year Centennial Celebration. He also retired from his public career in state radio in 1981 as well.In 1987, Pragas founded the Sabah Association of Senior Citizens.In 1999, Peter Pragas was honoured as the "Father of Sabah Modern Music" at a National Day exhibition called "Patriotism 2020," which was held at the Sabah Museum in Kota Kinabalu.Pragas died on 30 June 2014, at the age of 87. He was predeceased by his wife and survived by his two children, Adrian and Sandra. His funeral was held at the Stella Maris Roman Catholic Church in Tanjung Aru. Pragas was buried in the Roman Catholic Cemetery, Penampang Road.

Postage stamps and postal history of North Borneo

North Borneo, located in the northern part of the island of Borneo, was a British protectorate from 1888 and a British Crown colony after 1946.

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